Abstract

In this paper, we present experimental demonstration of an indoor uplink near-infrared LED camera communication (ICC) that employs near-infrared (IR) light as a communication medium and a camera as the receiver. The proposed ICC exploits advantages of the camera receiver to provide wider coverage and accurate indoor positioning in IR communications. Since near-IR light is the communication medium, ICC can safely increase the light intensity compared with other visible light based wireless communication schemes. Unlike previous studies focused on positioning only, the ICC provides practical uplink indoor wireless communication as well as positioning. As in optical camera communications, the blooming effect from slow speed cameras needs to be mitigated in the ICC. An adaptive intensity compensation algorithm is also proposed for reducing this blooming effect. The blooming reduction algorithm is based on the absence of visible light interference in IR communications. Experiments demonstrate that employing an even low-specification webcam and low-power LEDs can provide centimeter-scale accuracy for the user positioning and a data rate of 6.72 kbit/s at a distance of 100 cm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

A. Gomez, K. Shi, C. Quintana, G. Faulkner, B. C. Thomsen, and D. C. O’Brien, “A 50 Gb/s transparent indoor optical wireless communications link with an integrated localization and tracking system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(10), 2510–2517 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. A. Cahyadi, Y. H. Kim, Y. H. Chung, and C.-J. Ahn, “Mobile phone camera-based indoor visible light communications with rotation compensation,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible light communication, networking, and sensing: a survey, potential and challenges,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

Adiono, T.

T. Adiono, W. Cahyadi, and A. Salman, “DVB-T synchronizer architecture design and implementation,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 594–599 (2009).

Ahn, C.-J.

W. A. Cahyadi, Y. H. Kim, Y. H. Chung, and C.-J. Ahn, “Mobile phone camera-based indoor visible light communications with rotation compensation,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cahyadi, W.

T. Adiono, W. Cahyadi, and A. Salman, “DVB-T synchronizer architecture design and implementation,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 594–599 (2009).

Cahyadi, W. A.

W. A. Cahyadi, Y. H. Kim, Y. H. Chung, and C.-J. Ahn, “Mobile phone camera-based indoor visible light communications with rotation compensation,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, S. H.

Chen, Z.

Chow, C. W.

Chung, Y. H.

W. A. Cahyadi, Y. H. Kim, Y. H. Chung, and C.-J. Ahn, “Mobile phone camera-based indoor visible light communications with rotation compensation,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

Feng, X.

P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible light communication, networking, and sensing: a survey, potential and challenges,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gomez, A.

Hu, P.

P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible light communication, networking, and sensing: a survey, potential and challenges,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

W. A. Cahyadi, Y. H. Kim, Y. H. Chung, and C.-J. Ahn, “Mobile phone camera-based indoor visible light communications with rotation compensation,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koonen, T.

Liang, R.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. L.

Mohapatra, P.

P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible light communication, networking, and sensing: a survey, potential and challenges,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

Pacheco, S.

Pathak, P. H.

P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible light communication, networking, and sensing: a survey, potential and challenges,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

Quintana, C.

Salman, A.

T. Adiono, W. Cahyadi, and A. Salman, “DVB-T synchronizer architecture design and implementation,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 594–599 (2009).

Shi, K.

Thomsen, B. C.

Wang, W. C.

Wang, X.

Wei, L. Y.

Yeh, C. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. (1)

P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, P. Hu, and P. Mohapatra, “Visible light communication, networking, and sensing: a survey, potential and challenges,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(4), 2047–2077 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. A. Cahyadi, Y. H. Kim, Y. H. Chung, and C.-J. Ahn, “Mobile phone camera-based indoor visible light communications with rotation compensation,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (3)

Other (2)

T. Adiono, W. Cahyadi, and A. Salman, “DVB-T synchronizer architecture design and implementation,” in International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 594–599 (2009).

D. C. O’Brien, “Optical wireless communications: current status and future prospects,” in Proc. IEEE Summ. Top., Newport Beach (2016).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Proposed ICC (a) experimental setup (b) block diagram and (c) schematic of the transmitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmitter unit (a) assembly of the transmitter unit and (b) the installed transmitter unit.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Receiver unit (a) assembly of the camera and (b) assembled camera unit and holder.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Data transmission: (a) data packet and (b) measured output of the LED driver.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Flowchart of ICC synchronization and demodulation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Thresholding (a) captured image from the camera (b) mean intensity of each pixel row (c) mean intensity of each pixel column and (d) binary thresholding performed after the AIC.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experiment for coverage and positioning (a) ICC diagram (b) SNR measurements.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Transmission quality experiments (a) BERs with the fixed data rate of 6.72 kbit/s and (b) data rates with the target BER of 10−3.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Positioning Accuracy with a Resolution of 640 × 480 pixels

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Table 2 Positioning Accuracy with a Resolution of 1280 × 720 pixels

Equations (1)

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γ ( x ) = k = x x + H 1 r ( k ) × r ( k + N )

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