Abstract

We demonstrate ultrabroadband electro-optic detection of multi-THz transients using mechanically exfoliated flakes of gallium selenide of a thickness of less than 10 µm, contacted to a diamond substrate by van-der-Waals bonding. While the low crystal thickness allows for extremely broadband phase matching, the excellent optical contact with the index-matched substrate suppresses multiple optical reflections. The high quality of our structure makes our scheme suitable for the undistorted and artifact-free observation of electromagnetic waveforms covering the entire THz spectral range up to the near-infrared regime without the need for correction for the electro-optic response function. With the current revolution of chemically inert quasi-two-dimensional layered materials, we anticipate that exfoliated van-der-Waals materials on index-matched substrates will open new flexible ways of ultrabroadband electro-optic detection at unprecedented frequencies.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (5)

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. L. Cocker, D. Peller, P. Yu, J. Repp, and R. Huber, “Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging,” Nature 539(7628), 263–267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523(7562), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. Porer, J.-M. Ménard, and R. Huber, “Shot noise reduced terahertz detection via spectrally postfiltered electro-optic sampling,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2435–2438 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kato, F. Tanno, and N. Umemura, “Sellmeier and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for GaSe (Revisited),” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2325–2328 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband terahertz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors. Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3360–3362 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 863–865 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe. Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1060–1062 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling. Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(10), 1285–1286 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro‐optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, F.

Bakker, H. J.

Baum, P.

Beaurepaire, E.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belle, B. D.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benea-Chelmus, I.-C.

I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beutter, M.

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bonzon, C.

I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, L.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Britnell, L.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burkard, G.

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvalho, A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casiraghi, C.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, G. C.

Cocker, T. L.

T. L. Cocker, D. Peller, P. Yu, J. Repp, and R. Huber, “Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging,” Nature 539(7628), 263–267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dubey, M.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eckart, S.

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckmann, A.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggert, S.

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eickemeyer, F.

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Lange, C.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Münzenberg, M.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K. A.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nötzold, J.

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband terahertz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling. Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oppeneer, P. M.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peller, D.

Pervak, V.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Porer, M.

Raab, J.

Radu, I.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ramasubramaniam, A.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Repp, J.

T. L. Cocker, D. Peller, P. Yu, J. Repp, and R. Huber, “Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging,” Nature 539(7628), 263–267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, R. M.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riedle, E.

Riek, C.

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schedin, F.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J. F.

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, O.

M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523(7562), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, A.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sederberg, S.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seeger, M.

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seifert, T.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seletskiy, D. V.

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling. Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Strano, M. S.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sulzer, P.

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanno, F.

Tauer, M.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trubetskov, M.

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tübel, S.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors. Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3360–3362 (2004).
[Crossref]

Turchinovich, D.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Umemura, N.

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittmann, E.

Woerner, M.

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe. Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1060–1062 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband terahertz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(6), 1795–1801 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(10), 1285–1286 (1997).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro‐optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 863–865 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

T. L. Cocker, D. Peller, P. Yu, J. Repp, and R. Huber, “Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging,” Nature 539(7628), 263–267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 863–865 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(6), 1795–1801 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(10), 1285–1286 (1997).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro‐optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro‐optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(10), 1285–1286 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling. Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors. Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3360–3362 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 863–865 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, J. Nötzold, and M. Wolf, “Sampling of broadband terahertz pulses with thick electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231113 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe. Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1060–1062 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (5)

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Keiber, S. Sederberg, A. Schwarz, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and N. Karpowicz, “Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms,” Nat. Photonics 10(3), 159–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, M. Kläui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nat. Photonics 10(7), 483–488 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (5)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. L. Cocker, D. Peller, P. Yu, J. Repp, and R. Huber, “Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging,” Nature 539(7628), 263–267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, O. Schubert, M. Knorr, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation,” Nature 523(7562), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Subcycle quantum electrodynamics,” Nature 541(7637), 376–379 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations,” Science 350(6259), 420–423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. F. Edwards and H. R. Philipp, “Cubic Carbon (Diamond),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Typical limitations in electro-optic detection of few-cycle THz transients. (a) Setup for electro-optic detection. BS, beam splitter; EOC, electro-optic crystal; λ∕4, quarter-wave plate; WP, Wollaston prism; BPD, balanced photodiodes. (b) Amplitude response function | R EOS | of a 5-µm-thick (blue) and a 60-µm-thick (green) GaSe electro-optic sensor with optimal phase matching for a gate pulse centered at 800 nm with a bandwidth-limited duration of 12 fs. (c) Electro-optic trace as measured with a 60-µm-thick GaSe crystal at an external phase matching angle of θ = 50°. (d) Corresponding amplitude spectrum of the transient shown in (c). The bandwidth (FWHM, black arrows) is limited by the detector response. (e) Same THz transient as detected in a 5-µm-thick crystal at the same phase matching angle. The first reflection occurs at a delay time of 82 fs and leads to spectral interference effects (black arrows) in the frequency domain (f).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Refractive index of the diamond substrate [31] and principal values of the refractive index of the GaSe detector for ordinary (o) and extraordinary (e) polarization [32]. (b) Optical microscope image and photograph (bottom right) of the GaSe flake contacted to the diamond substrate via van-der-Waals interaction. Dark spots in the microscope image correspond to areas with imperfect adhesion, while lighter-colored areas indicate excellent optical contact. (c) Schematic side view of the new detector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Multi-THz transient electro-optically detected by our optically contacted, 5-µm-thick GaSe crystal (red curve). The transient obtained by a free-standing GaSe flake is shown for reference (grey curve). (b) Corresponding etalon-free (red curve) and modulated amplitude spectrum (grey curve).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Absolute value and (b) phase of the EOS response function REOS for ZnTe and GaSe crystals of different crystal thicknesses and for different gate pulse durations. The red curves indicate the response function of the detector used in the experiment of Fig. 3. Phase spectra are vertically offset for clarity. (c) Incident electric field retrieved from the transient of Fig. 3(a) through correction for the experimental detector response (red). Black dashed line: Expected electro-optic waveform as it would be detected with a diamond-contacted GaSe sensor of a thickness of 5 µm and a 5 fs gate pulse. (d) Corresponding amplitude spectra retrieved through Fourier transform of the data shown in (c).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R EOS ( Ω )~ ω>Ω dω  E g * ( ω ) E g ( ωΩ ) χ ( 2 ) ( ω,Ω )  ω 2 k( ω )  T( ω,Ω )P( ω,Ω,L ), 
P( ω,Ω,L )= exp( i Δk L )1 Δk , 

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