Abstract

In this study, we report a homo-tandem structure of small molecular organic solar cells (SMOSCs) using identical single-junction devices as sub-cells. The trade-off between the absorption and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of single-junction devices tends to limit the external quantum efficiency (EQE). However, multiple-stacked thin cells with maximized IQE in homo-tandem structures amplify the absorption to achieve the ideal EQE. As a result, a high power conversion efficiency of 7.81% is achieved in tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP):C70-based homo-tandem SMOSCs, which is 21.8% higher than that in a single-junction device.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. M. Proctor, J. A. Love, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Mobility Guidelines for High Fill Factor Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(34), 5957–5961 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Sahin, S. Alem, R. de Bettignies, and J. M. Nunzi, “Development of air stable polymer solar cells using an inverted gold on top anode structure,” Thin Solid Films 476(2), 340–343 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Norrman, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, and F. C. Krebs, “Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(47), 16883–16892 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. H. Lee, J. W. Seo, and J. Y. Lee, “Stable inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a p-doped optical spacer,” Nanoscale 7(1), 157–165 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Timmreck, S. Olthof, K. Leo, and M. K. Riede, “Highly doped layers as efficient electron-hole recombination contacts for tandem organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033108 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Timmreck, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells comprising subcells of identical absorber material,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(10), 1353–1356 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Measuring the External Quantum Efficiency of Two-Terminal Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(22), 3904–3911 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Timmreck, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells comprising subcells of identical absorber material,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(10), 1353–1356 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. W. Seo, and J. Y. Lee, “Stable inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a p-doped optical spacer,” Nanoscale 7(1), 157–165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Proctor, J. A. Love, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Mobility Guidelines for High Fill Factor Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(34), 5957–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Measuring the External Quantum Efficiency of Two-Terminal Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(22), 3904–3911 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Timmreck, S. Olthof, K. Leo, and M. K. Riede, “Highly doped layers as efficient electron-hole recombination contacts for tandem organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033108 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Norrman, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, and F. C. Krebs, “Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(47), 16883–16892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Sahin, S. Alem, R. de Bettignies, and J. M. Nunzi, “Development of air stable polymer solar cells using an inverted gold on top anode structure,” Thin Solid Films 476(2), 340–343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alem, S.

Y. Sahin, S. Alem, R. de Bettignies, and J. M. Nunzi, “Development of air stable polymer solar cells using an inverted gold on top anode structure,” Thin Solid Films 476(2), 340–343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Allinger, N.

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baek, N. S.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baek, S.-W.

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bahro, D.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z. A.

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartelt, J. A.

J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergemann, K. J.

X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brédas, J. L.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, T. M.

J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Che, X. Z.

X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. J.

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheun, H.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheyns, D.

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, C.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cnops, K.

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colsmann, A.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dang, X. D.

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

de Bettignies, R.

Y. Sahin, S. Alem, R. de Bettignies, and J. M. Nunzi, “Development of air stable polymer solar cells using an inverted gold on top anode structure,” Thin Solid Films 476(2), 340–343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dindar, A.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dirnberger, D.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dubosc, M.

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emery, K.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Empl, M. A.

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erk, P.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, D. J.

X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fenoll, M.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuentes-Hernandez, C.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furno, M.

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gevorgyan, S. A.

K. Norrman, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, and F. C. Krebs, “Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(47), 16883–16892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilot, J.

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Measuring the External Quantum Efficiency of Two-Terminal Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(22), 3904–3911 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giordano, A. J.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glaser, K.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gnehr, W. M.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Graham, S.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y. J.

Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
[Crossref]

Harada, K.

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Haske, W.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hau, S. K.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, N.

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

He, M.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hein, M.

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heremans, P.

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hildebrandt, D.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hishikawa, Y.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. H.

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. S.

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hun Kim, J.

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Janssen, R. A. J.

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Measuring the External Quantum Efficiency of Two-Terminal Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(22), 3904–3911 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K. Y.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kahn, A.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khan, T. M.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiefer, K.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. H.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kippelen, B.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleemann, H.

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koppitz, M.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kraeling, U.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krebs, F. C.

K. Norrman, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, and F. C. Krebs, “Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(47), 16883–16892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, D.

J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lassiter, B. E.

X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, J. W. Seo, and J. Y. Lee, “Stable inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a p-doped optical spacer,” Nanoscale 7(1), 157–165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-Y.

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, J. W. Seo, and J. Y. Lee, “Stable inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a p-doped optical spacer,” Nanoscale 7(1), 157–165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

R. Timmreck, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells comprising subcells of identical absorber material,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(10), 1353–1356 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Timmreck, S. Olthof, K. Leo, and M. K. Riede, “Highly doped layers as efficient electron-hole recombination contacts for tandem organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033108 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, F. H.

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P. J.

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, R. M.

C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. J.

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Love, J. A.

C. M. Proctor, J. A. Love, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Mobility Guidelines for High Fill Factor Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(34), 5957–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, W.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, Q.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Madsen, M. V.

K. Norrman, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, and F. C. Krebs, “Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(47), 16883–16892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meiss, J.

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Menke, T.

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Merten, A.

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mertens, A.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mescher, J.

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muellejans, H.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mueller, T.

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naab, B. D.

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Najafabadi, E.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. Q.

C. M. Proctor, J. A. Love, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Mobility Guidelines for High Fill Factor Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(34), 5957–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norrman, K.

K. Norrman, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, and F. C. Krebs, “Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(47), 16883–16892 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nunzi, J. M.

Y. Sahin, S. Alem, R. de Bettignies, and J. M. Nunzi, “Development of air stable polymer solar cells using an inverted gold on top anode structure,” Thin Solid Films 476(2), 340–343 (2005).
[Crossref]

O’Malley, K.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Olthof, S.

R. Timmreck, S. Olthof, K. Leo, and M. K. Riede, “Highly doped layers as efficient electron-hole recombination contacts for tandem organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Papadopoulos, T.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, M.

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proctor, C. M.

C. M. Proctor, J. A. Love, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Mobility Guidelines for High Fill Factor Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(34), 5957–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, Y.

Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rand, B. P.

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, D.

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Riede, M.

R. Timmreck, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells comprising subcells of identical absorber material,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(10), 1353–1356 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Riede, M. K.

R. Timmreck, S. Olthof, K. Leo, and M. K. Riede, “Highly doped layers as efficient electron-hole recombination contacts for tandem organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sahin, Y.

Y. Sahin, S. Alem, R. de Bettignies, and J. M. Nunzi, “Development of air stable polymer solar cells using an inverted gold on top anode structure,” Thin Solid Films 476(2), 340–343 (2005).
[Crossref]

Salis, E.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schafer, S.

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schuenemann, C.

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schueppel, R.

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seki, K.

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seo, J. W.

S. H. Lee, J. W. Seo, and J. Y. Lee, “Stable inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a p-doped optical spacer,” Nanoscale 7(1), 157–165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seok, J.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, J.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, T. J.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sojoudi, H.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundarraj, S.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sweetnam, S. M.

J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tietze, M.

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Timmreck, R.

R. Timmreck, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells comprising subcells of identical absorber material,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(10), 1353–1356 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Timmreck, S. Olthof, K. Leo, and M. K. Riede, “Highly doped layers as efficient electron-hole recombination contacts for tandem organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tress, W.

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uhrich, C.

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Verreet, B.

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wei, P.

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weiss, A.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Werner, A.

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

Widmer, J.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wienk, M. M.

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Measuring the External Quantum Efficiency of Two-Terminal Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(22), 3904–3911 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winget, P.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wynands, D.

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, P.

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yeol Ryu, D.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yip, H. L.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Young Park, J.

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, J. D.

X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zou, J. Y.

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Energy Mater. (6)

X. Xiao, K. J. Bergemann, J. D. Zimmerman, K. Lee, and S. R. Forrest, “Small‐Molecule Planar‐Mixed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells with Fullerene‐Based Electron Filtering Buffers,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(7), 1301557 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Z. Che, X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, D. J. Fan, and S. R. Forrest, “High Efficiency, Vacuum-Deposited, Small-Molecule Organic Tandem and Triple-Junction Photovoltaic Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(18), 1400568 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bartelt, D. Lam, T. M. Burke, S. M. Sweetnam, and M. D. McGehee, “Charge-Carrier Mobility Requirements for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Fill Factor and External Quantum Efficiency >90%,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(15), 1500577 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Tress, A. Merten, M. Furno, M. Hein, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Correlation of Absorption Profile and Fill Factor in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Mobility Imbalance,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(5), 631–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Baek, J. Hun Kim, J. Kang, H. Lee, J. Young Park, and J.-Y. Lee, “Enhancing the Internal Quantum Efficiency and Stability of Organic Solar Cells via Metallic Nanofunnels,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(24), 1501393 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Bahro, M. Koppitz, A. Mertens, K. Glaser, J. Mescher, and A. Colsmann, “Understanding the External Quantum Efficiency of Organic Homo-Tandem Solar Cells Utilizing a Three-Terminal Device Architecture,” Adv. Energy Mater. 5(22), 1501019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

J. Gilot, M. M. Wienk, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Measuring the External Quantum Efficiency of Two-Terminal Polymer Tandem Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(22), 3904–3911 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Riede, C. Uhrich, J. Widmer, R. Timmreck, D. Wynands, G. Schwartz, W. M. Gnehr, D. Hildebrandt, A. Weiss, J. Hwang, S. Sundarraj, P. Erk, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells based on Small Molecules,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(16), 3019–3028 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Meiss, A. Merten, M. Hein, C. Schuenemann, S. Schafer, M. Tietze, C. Uhrich, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Fluorinated Zinc Phthalocyanine as Donor for Efficient Vacuum-Deposited Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(2), 405–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Proctor, J. A. Love, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Mobility Guidelines for High Fill Factor Solution-Processed Small Molecule Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(34), 5957–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Y. Zou, K. O’Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 253301 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, J. D. Zimmerman, B. E. Lassiter, K. J. Bergemann, and S. R. Forrest, “A hybrid planar-mixed tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene/C70 photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Wang, Y. Guo, W. Chen, Q. Luo, W. Lu, P. Xu, D. Chen, X. Yin, and M. He, “Sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide/MoS2 composite with exposed active sites as efficient Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 452, 232–238 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

K. Norrman, M. V. Madsen, S. A. Gevorgyan, and F. C. Krebs, “Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(47), 16883–16892 (2010).
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C. H. Hsieh, Y. J. Cheng, P. J. Li, C. H. Chen, M. Dubosc, R. M. Liang, and C. S. Hsu, “Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4887–4893 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

F. H. Li, M. Pfeiffer, A. Werner, K. Harada, K. Leo, N. Hayashi, K. Seki, X. J. Liu, and X. D. Dang, “Acridine orange base as a dopant for n doping of C60 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023716 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Schueppel, R. Timmreck, N. Allinger, T. Mueller, M. Furno, C. Uhrich, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Controlled current matching in small molecule organic tandem solar cells using doped spacer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044503 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Timmreck, S. Olthof, K. Leo, and M. K. Riede, “Highly doped layers as efficient electron-hole recombination contacts for tandem organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033108 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

Z. Z. Xu, X. Yin, Y. J. Guo, Y. Pu, and M. He, “Ru-Doping in TiO2 electron transport layers of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells for enhanced performance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(17), 4746–4752 (2018).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Dirnberger, U. Kraeling, H. Muellejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and K. Kiefer, “Progress in photovoltaic module calibration: results of a worldwide intercomparison between four reference laboratories,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25(10), 10 (2014).
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Nanoscale (1)

S. H. Lee, J. W. Seo, and J. Y. Lee, “Stable inverted small molecular organic solar cells using a p-doped optical spacer,” Nanoscale 7(1), 157–165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Cnops, B. P. Rand, D. Cheyns, B. Verreet, M. A. Empl, and P. Heremans, “8.4% efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells exploiting long-range exciton energy transfer,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (1)

T. Menke, P. Wei, D. Ray, H. Kleemann, B. D. Naab, Z. A. Bao, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “A comparison of two air-stable molecular n-dopants for C60,” Org. Electron. 13(12), 3319–3325 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

R. Timmreck, K. Leo, and M. Riede, “Characterization of tandem organic solar cells comprising subcells of identical absorber material,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(10), 1353–1356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient Organic Photovoltaics Utilizing Nanoscale Heterojunctions in Sequentially Deposited Polymer/fullerene Bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, J. Meyer, A. J. Giordano, H. Li, P. Winget, T. Papadopoulos, H. Cheun, J. Kim, M. Fenoll, A. Dindar, W. Haske, E. Najafabadi, T. M. Khan, H. Sojoudi, S. Barlow, S. Graham, J. L. Brédas, S. R. Marder, A. Kahn, and B. Kippelen, “A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics,” Science 336(6079), 327–332 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. Sahin, S. Alem, R. de Bettignies, and J. M. Nunzi, “Development of air stable polymer solar cells using an inverted gold on top anode structure,” Thin Solid Films 476(2), 340–343 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Design of the single-junction inverted DBP:C70 device (a) A schematic of the inverted DBP:C70 device with the layer configuration. (b) Molecular structures of C60 (electron transport layer), C70 (acceptor material), and DBP (donor material).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Performance and quantum efficiencies of inverted devices with active layers of different thicknesses. (a) JV characteristics of inverted DBP:C70 devices with active layers of 50, 100, 133, 150, 172, and 200 nm thicknesses. (b) Solar cell parameters of inverted DBP:C70 devices with different thicknesses. (c) The absorption, EQE, and estimated IQE of inverted DBP:C70 devices with the 50-nm active layer (open symbols) and 200 nm active layer (filled symbols). (d) Relation between the obtained IQE from the simulation and normalized absorption of active layers with increased thicknesses in the DBP:C70 devices.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Design of the homo-tandem structure. (a) A schematic of a homo-tandem device with layer configuration. A MoO3 (10 nm)/n-doped C60 (5 nm) were used as a recombination contact for the homo-tandem device. (b) Energy levels of each layer in the homo-tandem structure. Arrows represent the direction of flow of electron and hole charge carriers. The dotted line in the n-C60 layer represents the pinned Fermi energy level, resulting from the doping method. (c) The 3D contour plot of the normalized Jsc, which can be obtained from the homo-tandem devices.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Performance and spectral response of the homo-tandem device. (a) JV characteristics of the single and homo-tandem devices for comparison. (b) Total absorption and EQE of the single and homo-tandem devices. The EQE of the homo-tandem device is represented as the sum of the EQE from each sub-cell. (c) Spectrum of the bias light sources for characterizing the homo-tandem device. (d) Calculated and measured EQEs of both sub-cells in the homo-tandem device.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Refractive indices of each material used in single devices. Extinction coefficient (k) of a DBP:C70 (1:9 volume ratio), a C60 and a MoO3.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 J-V characteristics of homo-tandem devices with a doped recombination contact and without doping.
Fig.7
Fig.7 The statistics of the homo-tandem devices.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Light dependency of the single DBP:C70 device. (a) J-V characteristics of the single DBP:C70 device under different light intensities (1, 0.64, 0.5, 0.36, 0.21, and 0.065 sun) (b) Light dependency of the Voc in the single device.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Properties of dummy cells for reproducing sub-cells in the homo-tandem device. (a) Measured absorption and EQE, and calculated total and active absorption of the front dummy cells. (b) That of the back dummy cell. (c) The IQE which was calculated by measured EQE divided by active absorption, in the front dummy cell (d) and in the back dummy cell.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Calculated EQEs of sub-cells in the homo-tandem device. (a) Calculated total absorption of the homo-tandem device and absorption of each sub-cell by the TMF simulation. (b) Calculated EQEs of sub-cells using IQEs of dummy cells.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Performance of inverted DBP:C70 devices with active layers of different thicknesses.

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Table 2 Performance of the best single and homo-tandem devices.

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Table 3 Characterization of the homo-tandem device.

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Table 4 Performance of homo-tandem devices with and without doping.

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