Abstract

Satellite remote sensing of chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a) in the Arctic Ocean is spatially and temporally limited and needs to be supplemented and validated with substantial volumes of in situ observations. Here, we evaluated the capability of obtaining highly resolved in situ surface Chl-a using underway spectrophotometry operated during two summer cruises in 2015 and 2016 in the Fram Strait. Results showed that Chl-a measured using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was well related (R2 = 0.90) to the collocated particulate absorption line height at 676 nm obtained from the underway spectrophotometry system. This enabled continuous surface Chl-a estimation along the cruise tracks. When used to validate Chl-a operational products as well as to assess the Chl-a algorithms of the aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS-A) and Sentinel-3 Ocean Land Color Imager (OLCI) Level 2 Chl-a operational products, and from OLCI Level 2 products processed with Polymer atmospheric correction algorithm (version 4.1), the underway spectrophotometry based Chl-a data sets proved to be a much more sufficient data source by generating over one order of magnitude more match-ups than those obtained from discrete water samples. Overall, the band ratio (OCI, OC4) Chl-a operational products from MODIS-A and OLCI as well as OLCI C2RCC products showed acceptable results. The OLCI Polymer standard output provided the most reliable Chl-a estimates, and nearly as good results were obtained from the OCI algorithm with Polymer atmospheric correction method. This work confirms the great advantage of the underway spectrophotometry in enlarging in situ Chl-a data sets for the Fram Strait and improving satellite Chl-a validation and Chl-a algorithm assessment over discrete water sample analysis in the laboratory.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (5)

C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xing, H. Claustre, E. Boss, C. Roesler, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, M. Barbieux, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Correction of profiles of in‐situ chlorophyll fluorometry for the contribution of fluorescence originating from non‐algal matter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(1), 80–93 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Dall’Olmo, R. J. W. Brewin, F. Nencioli, E. Organelli, I. Lefering, D. McKee, R. Röttgers, C. Mitchell, E. Boss, A. Bricaud, and G. Tilstone, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry,” Opt. Express 25(24), A1079–A1095 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Losa, M. A. Soppa, T. Dinter, A. Wolanin, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, J. Oelker, I. Peeken, B. Gentili, V. Rozanov, and A. Bracher, “Synergistic Exploitation of Hyper-and Multi-Spectral Precursor Sentinel Measurements to Determine Phytoplankton Functional Types (SynSenPFT),” Front. Mater. Sci. 4, 1–22 (2017).

M. Hieronymi, D. Müller, and R. Doerffer, “The OLCI Neural Network Swarm (ONNS): A Bio-geo-optical Algorithm for Open Ocean and Coastal Waters,” Front. Mater. Sci. 4, 1–18 (2017).

2016 (4)

R. Röttgers, D. Doxaran, and C. Dupouy, “Quantitative filter technique measurements of spectral light absorption by aquatic particles using a portable integrating cavity absorption meter (QFT-ICAM),” Opt. Express 24(2), A1–A20 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Nardelli and M. S. Twardowski, “Assessing the link between chlorophyll concentration and absorption line height at 676 nm over a broad range of water types,” Opt. Express 24(22), A1374–A1389 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Lewis, B. G. Mitchell, G. L. van Dijken, and K. R. Arrigo, “Regional chlorophyll a algorithms in the Arctic Ocean and their effect on satellite-derived primary production estimates,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 130, 14–27 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, G. Dall’Olmo, S. Pardo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, and E. S. Boss, “Underway spectrophotometry along the Atlantic Meridional Transect reveals high performance in satellite chlorophyll retrievals,” Remote Sens. Environ. 183, 82–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

M. H. Halvorsen, L. H. Smedsrud, R. Zhang, and K. Kloster, “Fram Strait spring ice export and September Arctic sea ice,” Cryosphere Discuss. 9(4), 4205–4235 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. M. Nöthig, A. Bracher, A. Engel, K. Metfies, B. Niehoff, I. Peeken, E. Bauerfeind, A. Cherkasheva, S. Gäbler-Schwarz, K. Hardge, E. Kilias, A. Kraft, Y. Mebrahtom Kidane, C. Lalande, J. Piontek, K. Thomisch, and M. Wurst, “Summertime plankton ecology in Fram Strait—a compilation of long- and short-term observations,” Polar Res. 34(1), 23349 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Park, J. S. Kug, J. Bader, R. Rolph, and M. Kwon, “Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(19), 5921–5926 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Arrigo and G. L. van Dijken, “Continued increases in Arctic Ocean primary production,” Prog. Oceanogr. 136, 60–70 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sá, D. D’Alimonte, A. C. Brito, T. Kajiyama, C. R. Mendes, J. Vitorino, P. B. Oliveira, J. C. B. Da Silva, and V. Brotas, “Validation of standard and alternative satellite ocean-color chlorophyll products off Western Iberia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 403–419 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Jackson, R. Barlow, V. Brotas, R. Airs, and T. Lamont, “Influence of light in the mixed-layer on the parameters of a three-component model of phytoplankton size class,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 437–450 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: II. Spatial and temporal homogeneity of satellite data retrieval due to systematic effects in atmospheric correction processors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 257–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bracher, M. Taylor, B. Taylor, T. Dinter, R. Roettgers, and F. Steinmetz, “Using empirical orthogonal functions derived from remote sensing reflectance for the prediction of phytoplankton pigments concentrations,” Ocean Sci. 11(1), 139–158 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. Cherkasheva, A. Bracher, C. Melsheimer, C. Köberle, R. Gerdes, E. M. Nöthig, E. Bauerfeind, and A. Boetius, “Influence of the physical environment on polar phytoplankton blooms: a case study in the Fram Strait,” J. Mar. Syst. 132, 196–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Chase, E. Boss, R. Zaneveld, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, G. Dall’Olmo, and T. K. Westberry, “Decomposition of in situ particulate absorption spectra,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 110–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Levasseur, “Impact of Arctic meltdown on the microbial cycling of Sulphur,” Nat. Geosci. 6(9), 691–700 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tunved, J. Ström, and R. Krejci, “Arctic aerosol life cycle: linking aerosol size distributions observed between 2000 and 2010 with air mass transport and precipitation at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(7), 3643–3660 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Roesler and A. H. Barnard, “Optical proxy for phytoplankton biomass in the absence of photophysiology: Rethinking the absorption line height,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 79–94 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, C. W. Proctor, E. Boss, T. Leeuw, and M. Ouhssain, “Underway sampling of marine inherent optical properties on the Tara Oceans expedition as a novel resource for ocean color satellite data product validation,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 40–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

R. Röttgers and S. Gehnke, “Measurement of light absorption by aquatic particles: improvement of the quantitative filter technique by use of an integrating sphere approach,” Appl. Opt. 51(9), 1336–1351 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ben Mustapha, S. Bélanger, and P. Larouche, “Evaluation of ocean color algorithms in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic: new parameterization using SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS spectral bands,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 38(5), 535–556 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. K. Westberry, “Particulate optical scattering coefficients along an Atlantic Meridional Transect,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21532–21551 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Beszczynska-Möller, E. Fahrbach, U. Schauer, and E. Hansen, “Variability in Atlantic water temperature and transport at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, 1997–2010,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 69(5), 852–863 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (10)

A. Kraft, E. Bauerfeind, and E. M. Nöthig, “Amphipod abundance in sediment trap samples at the long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait, ∼ 79° N/4° E). Variability in species community patterns,” Mar. Biodivers. 41(3), 353–364 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Wassmann, “Arctic marine ecosystems in an era of rapid climate change,” Prog. Oceanogr. 90(1–4), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Reigstad, J. Carroll, D. Slagstad, I. Ellingsen, and P. Wassmann, “Intra-regional comparison of productivity, carbon flux and ecosystem composition within the northern Barents Sea,” Prog. Oceanogr. 90(1–4), 33–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Matsuoka, V. Hill, Y. Huot, M. Babin, and A. Bricaud, “Seasonal variability in the light absorption properties of western Arctic waters: parameterization of the individual components of absorption for ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(C2), C02007 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Y. W. Chang, S. J. Sjostedt, J. R. Pierce, T. N. Papakyriakou, M. G. Scarratt, S. Michaud, M. Levasseur, W. R. Leaitch, and J. P. Abbatt, “Relating atmospheric and oceanic DMS levels to particle nucleation events in the Canadian Arctic,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D17), D00S03 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosciences 8(11), 3423–3439 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Rabe, M. Karcher, U. Schauer, J. M. Toole, R. A. Krishfield, S. Pisarev, F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, and T. Kikuchi, “An assessment of Arctic Ocean freshwater content changes from the 1990s to the 2006–2008 period,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 58(2), 173–185 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Steinmetz, P. Y. Deschamps, and D. Ramon, “Atmospheric correction in presence of sun glint: application to MERIS,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9783–9800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioka, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosciences 8(2), 311–327 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. B. Taylor, E. Torrecilla Ribalta, A. Bernhardt, M. H. Taylor, I. Peeken, R. Röttgers, J. Piera, and A. Bracher, “Bio-optical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and their biogeographical relevance,” Biogeosci. 8(12), 3609–3629 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

A. Forest, P. Wassmann, D. Slagstad, E. Bauerfeind, E. M. Nöthig, and M. Klages, “Relationships between primary production and vertical particle export at the Atlantic-Arctic boundary (Fram Strait, HAUSGARTEN),” Polar Biol. 33(12), 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Wassmann, D. Slagstad, and I. Ellingsen, “Primary production and climatic variability in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean prior to 2007: preliminary results,” Polar Biol. 33(12), 1641–1650 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(10), 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Bauerfeind, E. M. Nöthig, A. Beszczynska, K. Fahl, L. Kaleschke, K. Kreker, M. Klages, T. Soltwedel, C. Lorenzen, and J. Wegner, “Particle sedimentation patterns in the eastern Fram Strait during 2000–2005: Results from the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 56(9), 1471–1487 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. Hardman-Mountford, “Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995–2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. H. Smedsrud, A. Sorteberg, and K. Kloster, “Recent and future changes of the Arctic sea-ice cover,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(20), L20503 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

M. C. Serreze, M. M. Holland, and J. Stroeve, “Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover,” Science 315(5818), 1533–1536 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Matsuoka, Y. Huot, K. Shimada, S. Saitoh, and M. Babin, “Bio-optical characteristics of the western Arctic Ocean: implications for ocean color algorithms,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 33(6), 503–518 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Koponen, J. Attila, J. Pulliainen, K. Kallio, T. Pyhälahti, A. Lindfors, K. Rasmus, and M. Hallikainen, “A case study of airborne and satellite remote sensing of a spring bloom event in the Gulf of Finland,” Cont. Shelf Res. 27(2), 228–244 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Doerffer and H. Schiller, “The MERIS Case 2 water algorithm,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(3–4), 517–535 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111(C8), C08005 (2006).

2005 (3)

S. G. Simis, M. Tijdens, H. L. Hoogveld, and H. J. Gons, “Optical changes associated with cyanobacterial bloom termination by viral lysis,” J. Plankton Res. 27(9), 937–949 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Falck, G. Kattner, and G. Budéus, “Disappearance of Pacific water in the northwestern Fram Strait,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(14), L14619 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Lindfors, K. Rasmus, and N. Strömbeck, “Point or pointless - quality of ground data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(2), 415–423 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. F. Cota, J. Wang, and J. C. Comiso, “Transformation of global satellite chlorophyll retrievals with a regionally tuned algorithm,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90(3), 373–377 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. J. Kettle and M. O. Andreae, “Flux of dimethylsulfide from the oceans: a comparison of updated data sets and flux models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D22), 26793–26808 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, and S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono-and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

B. G. Mitchell, “Predictive bio-optical relationships for polar oceans and marginal ice zones,” J. Mar. Syst. 3(1-2), 91–105 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. Neveux, D. Delmas, J. C. Romano, P. Algarra, L. Ignatiades, A. Herbland, P. Morand, A. Neori, D. Bonin, J. Barbe, and A. Sukenik, “Comparison of chlorophyll and phaeopigment determinations by spectrophotometric, fluorometric, spectrofluorometric and HPLCmethods,” Mar. Microb. Food Webs 4(2), 217–238 (1990).

1986 (1)

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, and J. M. Brooks, “Distribution of chlorophylls and phaeopigments in the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean,” J. Plankton Res. 8(3), 447–458 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

C. C. Trees, M. C. Kennicutt, and J. M. Brooks, “Errors associated with the standard fluorimetric determination of chlorophylls and phaeopigments,” Mar. Chem. 17(1), 1–12 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abbatt, J. P.

R. Y. W. Chang, S. J. Sjostedt, J. R. Pierce, T. N. Papakyriakou, M. G. Scarratt, S. Michaud, M. Levasseur, W. R. Leaitch, and J. P. Abbatt, “Relating atmospheric and oceanic DMS levels to particle nucleation events in the Canadian Arctic,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D17), D00S03 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aiken, J.

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioka, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosciences 8(2), 311–327 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. Hardman-Mountford, “Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995–2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[Crossref]

Airs, R.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Jackson, R. Barlow, V. Brotas, R. Airs, and T. Lamont, “Influence of light in the mixed-layer on the parameters of a three-component model of phytoplankton size class,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 437–450 (2015).
[Crossref]

Algarra, P.

J. Neveux, D. Delmas, J. C. Romano, P. Algarra, L. Ignatiades, A. Herbland, P. Morand, A. Neori, D. Bonin, J. Barbe, and A. Sukenik, “Comparison of chlorophyll and phaeopigment determinations by spectrophotometric, fluorometric, spectrofluorometric and HPLCmethods,” Mar. Microb. Food Webs 4(2), 217–238 (1990).

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

Andreae, M. O.

A. J. Kettle and M. O. Andreae, “Flux of dimethylsulfide from the oceans: a comparison of updated data sets and flux models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D22), 26793–26808 (2000).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

K. Barker, C. Mazeran, C. Lerebourg, M. Bouvet, D. Antoine, M. Ondrusek, and L. Zibordi, “MERMAID: The MEris MAtchup In-situ Database,” in Proceedings of the 2nd MERIS/(A) ATSR User WorkshopH. Lacoste and L. Ouwehand, eds. (ESA Communication Production Office, 2008).

Arnone, R. A.

Arrigo, K. R.

K. M. Lewis, B. G. Mitchell, G. L. van Dijken, and K. R. Arrigo, “Regional chlorophyll a algorithms in the Arctic Ocean and their effect on satellite-derived primary production estimates,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 130, 14–27 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. R. Arrigo and G. L. van Dijken, “Continued increases in Arctic Ocean primary production,” Prog. Oceanogr. 136, 60–70 (2015).
[Crossref]

Attila, J.

S. Koponen, J. Attila, J. Pulliainen, K. Kallio, T. Pyhälahti, A. Lindfors, K. Rasmus, and M. Hallikainen, “A case study of airborne and satellite remote sensing of a spring bloom event in the Gulf of Finland,” Cont. Shelf Res. 27(2), 228–244 (2007).
[Crossref]

Babin, M.

A. Matsuoka, V. Hill, Y. Huot, M. Babin, and A. Bricaud, “Seasonal variability in the light absorption properties of western Arctic waters: parameterization of the individual components of absorption for ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(C2), C02007 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Matsuoka, Y. Huot, K. Shimada, S. Saitoh, and M. Babin, “Bio-optical characteristics of the western Arctic Ocean: implications for ocean color algorithms,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 33(6), 503–518 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bader, J.

J. Y. Park, J. S. Kug, J. Bader, R. Rolph, and M. Kwon, “Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(19), 5921–5926 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barbe, J.

J. Neveux, D. Delmas, J. C. Romano, P. Algarra, L. Ignatiades, A. Herbland, P. Morand, A. Neori, D. Bonin, J. Barbe, and A. Sukenik, “Comparison of chlorophyll and phaeopigment determinations by spectrophotometric, fluorometric, spectrofluorometric and HPLCmethods,” Mar. Microb. Food Webs 4(2), 217–238 (1990).

Barbieux, M.

C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xing, H. Claustre, E. Boss, C. Roesler, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, M. Barbieux, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Correction of profiles of in‐situ chlorophyll fluorometry for the contribution of fluorescence originating from non‐algal matter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(1), 80–93 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barker, K.

K. Barker, C. Mazeran, C. Lerebourg, M. Bouvet, D. Antoine, M. Ondrusek, and L. Zibordi, “MERMAID: The MEris MAtchup In-situ Database,” in Proceedings of the 2nd MERIS/(A) ATSR User WorkshopH. Lacoste and L. Ouwehand, eds. (ESA Communication Production Office, 2008).

Barlow, R.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Jackson, R. Barlow, V. Brotas, R. Airs, and T. Lamont, “Influence of light in the mixed-layer on the parameters of a three-component model of phytoplankton size class,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 437–450 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioka, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosciences 8(2), 311–327 (2011).
[Crossref]

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R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, and S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono-and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
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Bauerfeind, E.

E. M. Nöthig, A. Bracher, A. Engel, K. Metfies, B. Niehoff, I. Peeken, E. Bauerfeind, A. Cherkasheva, S. Gäbler-Schwarz, K. Hardge, E. Kilias, A. Kraft, Y. Mebrahtom Kidane, C. Lalande, J. Piontek, K. Thomisch, and M. Wurst, “Summertime plankton ecology in Fram Strait—a compilation of long- and short-term observations,” Polar Res. 34(1), 23349 (2015).
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A. Cherkasheva, A. Bracher, C. Melsheimer, C. Köberle, R. Gerdes, E. M. Nöthig, E. Bauerfeind, and A. Boetius, “Influence of the physical environment on polar phytoplankton blooms: a case study in the Fram Strait,” J. Mar. Syst. 132, 196–207 (2014).
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A. Kraft, E. Bauerfeind, and E. M. Nöthig, “Amphipod abundance in sediment trap samples at the long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait, ∼ 79° N/4° E). Variability in species community patterns,” Mar. Biodivers. 41(3), 353–364 (2011).
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A. Forest, P. Wassmann, D. Slagstad, E. Bauerfeind, E. M. Nöthig, and M. Klages, “Relationships between primary production and vertical particle export at the Atlantic-Arctic boundary (Fram Strait, HAUSGARTEN),” Polar Biol. 33(12), 1733–1746 (2010).
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E. Bauerfeind, E. M. Nöthig, A. Beszczynska, K. Fahl, L. Kaleschke, K. Kreker, M. Klages, T. Soltwedel, C. Lorenzen, and J. Wegner, “Particle sedimentation patterns in the eastern Fram Strait during 2000–2005: Results from the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 56(9), 1471–1487 (2009).
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Behrenfeld, M. J.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. K. Westberry, “Particulate optical scattering coefficients along an Atlantic Meridional Transect,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21532–21551 (2012).
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G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosciences 8(11), 3423–3439 (2011).
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W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(10), 1733–1746 (2010).
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T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
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G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
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Bélanger, S.

S. Ben Mustapha, S. Bélanger, and P. Larouche, “Evaluation of ocean color algorithms in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic: new parameterization using SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS spectral bands,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 38(5), 535–556 (2012).
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Ben Mustapha, S.

S. Ben Mustapha, S. Bélanger, and P. Larouche, “Evaluation of ocean color algorithms in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic: new parameterization using SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS spectral bands,” Can. J. Rem. Sens. 38(5), 535–556 (2012).
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Bernhardt, A.

B. B. Taylor, E. Torrecilla Ribalta, A. Bernhardt, M. H. Taylor, I. Peeken, R. Röttgers, J. Piera, and A. Bracher, “Bio-optical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and their biogeographical relevance,” Biogeosci. 8(12), 3609–3629 (2011).
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Beszczynska, A.

E. Bauerfeind, E. M. Nöthig, A. Beszczynska, K. Fahl, L. Kaleschke, K. Kreker, M. Klages, T. Soltwedel, C. Lorenzen, and J. Wegner, “Particle sedimentation patterns in the eastern Fram Strait during 2000–2005: Results from the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 56(9), 1471–1487 (2009).
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Beszczynska-Möller, A.

A. Beszczynska-Möller, E. Fahrbach, U. Schauer, and E. Hansen, “Variability in Atlantic water temperature and transport at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, 1997–2010,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 69(5), 852–863 (2012).
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Bidigare, R. R.

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, and J. M. Brooks, “Distribution of chlorophylls and phaeopigments in the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean,” J. Plankton Res. 8(3), 447–458 (1986).
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Boetius, A.

A. Cherkasheva, A. Bracher, C. Melsheimer, C. Köberle, R. Gerdes, E. M. Nöthig, E. Bauerfeind, and A. Boetius, “Influence of the physical environment on polar phytoplankton blooms: a case study in the Fram Strait,” J. Mar. Syst. 132, 196–207 (2014).
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Bonin, D.

J. Neveux, D. Delmas, J. C. Romano, P. Algarra, L. Ignatiades, A. Herbland, P. Morand, A. Neori, D. Bonin, J. Barbe, and A. Sukenik, “Comparison of chlorophyll and phaeopigment determinations by spectrophotometric, fluorometric, spectrofluorometric and HPLCmethods,” Mar. Microb. Food Webs 4(2), 217–238 (1990).

Boss, E.

X. Xing, H. Claustre, E. Boss, C. Roesler, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, M. Barbieux, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Correction of profiles of in‐situ chlorophyll fluorometry for the contribution of fluorescence originating from non‐algal matter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(1), 80–93 (2017).
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C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
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G. Dall’Olmo, R. J. W. Brewin, F. Nencioli, E. Organelli, I. Lefering, D. McKee, R. Röttgers, C. Mitchell, E. Boss, A. Bricaud, and G. Tilstone, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry,” Opt. Express 25(24), A1079–A1095 (2017).
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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Chase, E. Boss, R. Zaneveld, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, G. Dall’Olmo, and T. K. Westberry, “Decomposition of in situ particulate absorption spectra,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 110–124 (2013).
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P. J. Werdell, C. W. Proctor, E. Boss, T. Leeuw, and M. Ouhssain, “Underway sampling of marine inherent optical properties on the Tara Oceans expedition as a novel resource for ocean color satellite data product validation,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 40–51 (2013).
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G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. K. Westberry, “Particulate optical scattering coefficients along an Atlantic Meridional Transect,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21532–21551 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosciences 8(11), 3423–3439 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(10), 1733–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boss, E. S.

R. J. Brewin, G. Dall’Olmo, S. Pardo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, and E. S. Boss, “Underway spectrophotometry along the Atlantic Meridional Transect reveals high performance in satellite chlorophyll retrievals,” Remote Sens. Environ. 183, 82–97 (2016).
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Bouvet, M.

K. Barker, C. Mazeran, C. Lerebourg, M. Bouvet, D. Antoine, M. Ondrusek, and L. Zibordi, “MERMAID: The MEris MAtchup In-situ Database,” in Proceedings of the 2nd MERIS/(A) ATSR User WorkshopH. Lacoste and L. Ouwehand, eds. (ESA Communication Production Office, 2008).

Bracher, A.

S. N. Losa, M. A. Soppa, T. Dinter, A. Wolanin, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, J. Oelker, I. Peeken, B. Gentili, V. Rozanov, and A. Bracher, “Synergistic Exploitation of Hyper-and Multi-Spectral Precursor Sentinel Measurements to Determine Phytoplankton Functional Types (SynSenPFT),” Front. Mater. Sci. 4, 1–22 (2017).

E. M. Nöthig, A. Bracher, A. Engel, K. Metfies, B. Niehoff, I. Peeken, E. Bauerfeind, A. Cherkasheva, S. Gäbler-Schwarz, K. Hardge, E. Kilias, A. Kraft, Y. Mebrahtom Kidane, C. Lalande, J. Piontek, K. Thomisch, and M. Wurst, “Summertime plankton ecology in Fram Strait—a compilation of long- and short-term observations,” Polar Res. 34(1), 23349 (2015).
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A. Bracher, M. Taylor, B. Taylor, T. Dinter, R. Roettgers, and F. Steinmetz, “Using empirical orthogonal functions derived from remote sensing reflectance for the prediction of phytoplankton pigments concentrations,” Ocean Sci. 11(1), 139–158 (2015).
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A. Cherkasheva, A. Bracher, C. Melsheimer, C. Köberle, R. Gerdes, E. M. Nöthig, E. Bauerfeind, and A. Boetius, “Influence of the physical environment on polar phytoplankton blooms: a case study in the Fram Strait,” J. Mar. Syst. 132, 196–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. B. Taylor, E. Torrecilla Ribalta, A. Bernhardt, M. H. Taylor, I. Peeken, R. Röttgers, J. Piera, and A. Bracher, “Bio-optical provinces in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and their biogeographical relevance,” Biogeosci. 8(12), 3609–3629 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brewin, R. J.

S. N. Losa, M. A. Soppa, T. Dinter, A. Wolanin, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, J. Oelker, I. Peeken, B. Gentili, V. Rozanov, and A. Bracher, “Synergistic Exploitation of Hyper-and Multi-Spectral Precursor Sentinel Measurements to Determine Phytoplankton Functional Types (SynSenPFT),” Front. Mater. Sci. 4, 1–22 (2017).

R. J. Brewin, G. Dall’Olmo, S. Pardo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, and E. S. Boss, “Underway spectrophotometry along the Atlantic Meridional Transect reveals high performance in satellite chlorophyll retrievals,” Remote Sens. Environ. 183, 82–97 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Jackson, R. Barlow, V. Brotas, R. Airs, and T. Lamont, “Influence of light in the mixed-layer on the parameters of a three-component model of phytoplankton size class,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 437–450 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: II. Spatial and temporal homogeneity of satellite data retrieval due to systematic effects in atmospheric correction processors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 257–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brewin, R. J. W.

G. Dall’Olmo, R. J. W. Brewin, F. Nencioli, E. Organelli, I. Lefering, D. McKee, R. Röttgers, C. Mitchell, E. Boss, A. Bricaud, and G. Tilstone, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry,” Opt. Express 25(24), A1079–A1095 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioka, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosciences 8(2), 311–327 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

S. N. Losa, M. A. Soppa, T. Dinter, A. Wolanin, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, J. Oelker, I. Peeken, B. Gentili, V. Rozanov, and A. Bracher, “Synergistic Exploitation of Hyper-and Multi-Spectral Precursor Sentinel Measurements to Determine Phytoplankton Functional Types (SynSenPFT),” Front. Mater. Sci. 4, 1–22 (2017).

C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Dall’Olmo, R. J. W. Brewin, F. Nencioli, E. Organelli, I. Lefering, D. McKee, R. Röttgers, C. Mitchell, E. Boss, A. Bricaud, and G. Tilstone, “Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry,” Opt. Express 25(24), A1079–A1095 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chase, E. Boss, R. Zaneveld, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, G. Dall’Olmo, and T. K. Westberry, “Decomposition of in situ particulate absorption spectra,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 110–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Matsuoka, V. Hill, Y. Huot, M. Babin, and A. Bricaud, “Seasonal variability in the light absorption properties of western Arctic waters: parameterization of the individual components of absorption for ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(C2), C02007 (2011).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
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A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
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Briggs, N.

C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
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Brito, A. C.

C. Sá, D. D’Alimonte, A. C. Brito, T. Kajiyama, C. R. Mendes, J. Vitorino, P. B. Oliveira, J. C. B. Da Silva, and V. Brotas, “Validation of standard and alternative satellite ocean-color chlorophyll products off Western Iberia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 403–419 (2015).
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Brockmann, C.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: II. Spatial and temporal homogeneity of satellite data retrieval due to systematic effects in atmospheric correction processors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 257–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
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C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, M. Peters, S. Kerstin, S. Embacher, and A. Ruescas, “Evolution of the C2RCC neural network for Sentinel 2 and 3 for the retrieval of ocean colour products in normal and extreme optically complex waters,” in Proceedings of Living Planet SymposiumL. Ouwehand ed. (ESA, 2016).

Brooks, J. M.

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, and J. M. Brooks, “Distribution of chlorophylls and phaeopigments in the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean,” J. Plankton Res. 8(3), 447–458 (1986).
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C. C. Trees, M. C. Kennicutt, and J. M. Brooks, “Errors associated with the standard fluorimetric determination of chlorophylls and phaeopigments,” Mar. Chem. 17(1), 1–12 (1985).
[Crossref]

Brotas, V.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Jackson, R. Barlow, V. Brotas, R. Airs, and T. Lamont, “Influence of light in the mixed-layer on the parameters of a three-component model of phytoplankton size class,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 437–450 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sá, D. D’Alimonte, A. C. Brito, T. Kajiyama, C. R. Mendes, J. Vitorino, P. B. Oliveira, J. C. B. Da Silva, and V. Brotas, “Validation of standard and alternative satellite ocean-color chlorophyll products off Western Iberia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 168, 403–419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Budéus, G.

E. Falck, G. Kattner, and G. Budéus, “Disappearance of Pacific water in the northwestern Fram Strait,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(14), L14619 (2005).
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Carder, K. L.

Carroll, J.

M. Reigstad, J. Carroll, D. Slagstad, I. Ellingsen, and P. Wassmann, “Intra-regional comparison of productivity, carbon flux and ecosystem composition within the northern Barents Sea,” Prog. Oceanogr. 90(1–4), 33–46 (2011).
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Chang, R. Y. W.

R. Y. W. Chang, S. J. Sjostedt, J. R. Pierce, T. N. Papakyriakou, M. G. Scarratt, S. Michaud, M. Levasseur, W. R. Leaitch, and J. P. Abbatt, “Relating atmospheric and oceanic DMS levels to particle nucleation events in the Canadian Arctic,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D17), D00S03 (2011).
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Chase, A.

A. Chase, E. Boss, R. Zaneveld, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, G. Dall’Olmo, and T. K. Westberry, “Decomposition of in situ particulate absorption spectra,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 110–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cherkasheva, A.

E. M. Nöthig, A. Bracher, A. Engel, K. Metfies, B. Niehoff, I. Peeken, E. Bauerfeind, A. Cherkasheva, S. Gäbler-Schwarz, K. Hardge, E. Kilias, A. Kraft, Y. Mebrahtom Kidane, C. Lalande, J. Piontek, K. Thomisch, and M. Wurst, “Summertime plankton ecology in Fram Strait—a compilation of long- and short-term observations,” Polar Res. 34(1), 23349 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Cherkasheva, A. Bracher, C. Melsheimer, C. Köberle, R. Gerdes, E. M. Nöthig, E. Bauerfeind, and A. Boetius, “Influence of the physical environment on polar phytoplankton blooms: a case study in the Fram Strait,” J. Mar. Syst. 132, 196–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xing, H. Claustre, E. Boss, C. Roesler, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, M. Barbieux, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Correction of profiles of in‐situ chlorophyll fluorometry for the contribution of fluorescence originating from non‐algal matter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(1), 80–93 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Chase, E. Boss, R. Zaneveld, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, G. Dall’Olmo, and T. K. Westberry, “Decomposition of in situ particulate absorption spectra,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 110–124 (2013).
[Crossref]

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E. M. Nöthig, A. Bracher, A. Engel, K. Metfies, B. Niehoff, I. Peeken, E. Bauerfeind, A. Cherkasheva, S. Gäbler-Schwarz, K. Hardge, E. Kilias, A. Kraft, Y. Mebrahtom Kidane, C. Lalande, J. Piontek, K. Thomisch, and M. Wurst, “Summertime plankton ecology in Fram Strait—a compilation of long- and short-term observations,” Polar Res. 34(1), 23349 (2015).
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X. Xing, H. Claustre, E. Boss, C. Roesler, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, M. Barbieux, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Correction of profiles of in‐situ chlorophyll fluorometry for the contribution of fluorescence originating from non‐algal matter,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(1), 80–93 (2017).
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Prieur, L.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosciences 8(11), 3423–3439 (2011).
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P. J. Werdell, C. W. Proctor, E. Boss, T. Leeuw, and M. Ouhssain, “Underway sampling of marine inherent optical properties on the Tara Oceans expedition as a novel resource for ocean color satellite data product validation,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 40–51 (2013).
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G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosciences 8(11), 3423–3439 (2011).
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S. Koponen, J. Attila, J. Pulliainen, K. Kallio, T. Pyhälahti, A. Lindfors, K. Rasmus, and M. Hallikainen, “A case study of airborne and satellite remote sensing of a spring bloom event in the Gulf of Finland,” Cont. Shelf Res. 27(2), 228–244 (2007).
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B. Rabe, M. Karcher, U. Schauer, J. M. Toole, R. A. Krishfield, S. Pisarev, F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, and T. Kikuchi, “An assessment of Arctic Ocean freshwater content changes from the 1990s to the 2006–2008 period,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 58(2), 173–185 (2011).
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Simis, S. G.

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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).
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W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. Dall’Olmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27(10), 1733–1746 (2010).
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Sorteberg, A.

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M. C. Serreze, M. M. Holland, and J. Stroeve, “Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover,” Science 315(5818), 1533–1536 (2007).
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Ström, J.

P. Tunved, J. Ström, and R. Krejci, “Arctic aerosol life cycle: linking aerosol size distributions observed between 2000 and 2010 with air mass transport and precipitation at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(7), 3643–3660 (2013).
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A. Lindfors, K. Rasmus, and N. Strömbeck, “Point or pointless - quality of ground data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(2), 415–423 (2005).
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J. Neveux, D. Delmas, J. C. Romano, P. Algarra, L. Ignatiades, A. Herbland, P. Morand, A. Neori, D. Bonin, J. Barbe, and A. Sukenik, “Comparison of chlorophyll and phaeopigment determinations by spectrophotometric, fluorometric, spectrofluorometric and HPLCmethods,” Mar. Microb. Food Webs 4(2), 217–238 (1990).

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Suzuki, K.

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioka, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosciences 8(2), 311–327 (2011).
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Toole, J. M.

B. Rabe, M. Karcher, U. Schauer, J. M. Toole, R. A. Krishfield, S. Pisarev, F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, and T. Kikuchi, “An assessment of Arctic Ocean freshwater content changes from the 1990s to the 2006–2008 period,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 58(2), 173–185 (2011).
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Uitz, J.

C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
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E. Bauerfeind, E. M. Nöthig, A. Beszczynska, K. Fahl, L. Kaleschke, K. Kreker, M. Klages, T. Soltwedel, C. Lorenzen, and J. Wegner, “Particle sedimentation patterns in the eastern Fram Strait during 2000–2005: Results from the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 56(9), 1471–1487 (2009).
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S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1), 12–23 (2006).
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A. Chase, E. Boss, R. Zaneveld, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, G. Dall’Olmo, and T. K. Westberry, “Decomposition of in situ particulate absorption spectra,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 110–124 (2013).
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Xing, X.

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Yamanaka, Y.

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Zhang, R.

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G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosciences 8(11), 3423–3439 (2011).
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T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioka, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosciences 8(2), 311–327 (2011).
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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).
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P. J. Werdell, C. W. Proctor, E. Boss, T. Leeuw, and M. Ouhssain, “Underway sampling of marine inherent optical properties on the Tara Oceans expedition as a novel resource for ocean color satellite data product validation,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 40–51 (2013).
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A. Forest, P. Wassmann, D. Slagstad, E. Bauerfeind, E. M. Nöthig, and M. Klages, “Relationships between primary production and vertical particle export at the Atlantic-Arctic boundary (Fram Strait, HAUSGARTEN),” Polar Biol. 33(12), 1733–1746 (2010).
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R. J. Brewin, G. Dall’Olmo, S. Pardo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, and E. S. Boss, “Underway spectrophotometry along the Atlantic Meridional Transect reveals high performance in satellite chlorophyll retrievals,” Remote Sens. Environ. 183, 82–97 (2016).
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G. F. Cota, J. Wang, and J. C. Comiso, “Transformation of global satellite chlorophyll retrievals with a regionally tuned algorithm,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90(3), 373–377 (2004).
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D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cruise tracks for PS93.2 (July-August 2015) and PS99.2 (June-July 2016) for underway HPLC data.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) show the relationships between the collocated aLH(676) derived from the underway spectrophotometry and HPLC Chl-a data for PS93.2 and PS99.2, respectively. The solid lines are power fits according to Table 2. The dash lines are ± 20% error lines. Different colors filled in the circles represent the dominating phytoplankton groups by diatom, prymnesiophyte, both diatom and prymnesiophyte or green algae, while the term “mixed” denotes a mixture of phytoplankton groups with no dominating group; (c) and (d) show frequency distribution of AC-S derived and HPLC Chl-a.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison between Chl-a data obtained from underway spectrophotometry and HPLC measurements.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Time series of AC-S derived and HPLC Chl-a data during the cruise period of (a) PS93.2, and (b) PS99.2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Density plots of satellite to in situ match-up analysis.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Satellite Chl-a algorithms being evaluated for the cruises PS93.2 and PS99.2.

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Table 2 Regression coefficients and statistics for HPLC Chl-a and in situ aLH(676) power function relationships for the cruises PS93.2 and PS99.2. The uncertainties of the regression coefficients A and B were calculated with 95% confidence bounds.

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Table 3 Summary statistics of linear regression analysis between in situ and coincident satellite Chl-a data.

Equations (9)

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T(λ)= e OD(λ)
a p (λ)=ln(T(λ)×A×β× V 1 )
RMSE= 1 N i=1 N ( C i E C i M ) 2
MAE= 1 N i=1 N | C i E C i M |
δ= 1 N i=1 N ( C i E C i M )
Δ= 1 N i=1 N [( C i E μ E )( C i M μ M )] 2
RPD= 1 N i=1 N C i E C i M C i M ×100
a LH ( 676 )= a p ( 676 ) a p ( 715 ) a p ( 650 ) 715650 ×(676650) a p ( 650 ).
Chla=A a LH ( 676 ) B .

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