Abstract

The fiber vector eigenmode based mode division multiplexing (VMDM) transmission over few-mode fiber (FMF) with the 1st-order cylinder vector beams (CVBs) has been demonstrated. The performances of generated CVB using q-plate (QP) have been characterized before and after transmission over the FMF respectively based on the high-order Poincaré sphere model and polarization grating (PG). The measured minimum mode isolations between the two CVBs (TM01 and TE01 modes) of the used 4-mode FMF are about 16.8 dB after transmitting over 5 m and 12.5 dB over 100 m respectively. Then the dual-vector-mode-multiplexed transmissions over FMF of 96 Gb/s with length of 5m and 48 Gb/s of 100 m have been realized in combination with the modulation of direct-detection (DD) orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) without using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP). The experimental results indicate that the CVB-based technology could find the potential in large-capacity short-reach optical interconnects.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

2017 (8)

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Linearly polarized vector modes: enabling MIMO-free mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11736–11749 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, F. Li, J. Li, and Z. Li, “95.16-Gb/s mode-division-multiplexing signal transmission in free-space enabled by effective-conversion of vector beams,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 7202809 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, M. Tornatore, J. Chen, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “Spatial division multiplexing for high capacity optical interconnects in modular data centers,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(2), A143–A153 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Qiao, T. Lei, Z. Wu, S. Gao, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Approach to multiplexing fiber communication with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2579–2582 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

2015 (9)

G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ndagano, R. Brüning, M. McLaren, M. Duparré, and A. Forbes, “Fiber propagation of vector modes,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17330–17336 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, N. G Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Hu, D. Che, Y. Wang, and W. Shieh, “Advanced modulation formats for high-performance short-reach optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3245–3259 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, E. Zhou, G. N. Liu, T. Zuo, Q. Zhong, L. Zhang, Y. Bao, X. Zhang, J. Li, and Z. Li, “Advanced modulation formats for 400-Gbps short-reach optical inter-connection,” Opt. Express 23(1), 492–500 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. McLaren, T. Konrad, and A. Forbes, “Measuring the nonseparability of vector vortex beams,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023833 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Winzer, “Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 19, 22–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Kilper, K. Bergman, W. Chan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical networks come of age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. Richardson, J. Fini, and L. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Franz and H. Bülow, “Mode group division multiplexing in graded-index multimode fibers,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(3), 153–172 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carpenter, B. Thomsen, and T. Wilkinson, “Degenerate mode-group division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

B. Roxworthy and K. Toussaint., “Optical trapping with pi-phase cylindrical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 12(7), 073012 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

1982 (1)

Ahmed, N.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ai, J.

Alameh, K.

Alan, P.

Alfano, R. R.

G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonio-Lopez, J.

Ashrafi, N.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Y.

Barr’e, N.

Bautista, G.

Benyahya, K.

Berdagué, S.

Bergman, K.

D. Kilper, K. Bergman, W. Chan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical networks come of age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigot, M.

Brüning, R.

Bülow, H.

B. Franz and H. Bülow, “Mode group division multiplexing in graded-index multimode fibers,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(3), 153–172 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

Carpenter, J.

Chan, W.

D. Kilper, K. Bergman, W. Chan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical networks come of age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chand, N.

Charlet, G.

Che, D.

Chen, C. P.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, M.

Chen, S.

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
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J. Zhang, F. Li, J. Li, and Z. Li, “95.16-Gb/s mode-division-multiplexing signal transmission in free-space enabled by effective-conversion of vector beams,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(4), 7202809 (2017).
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J. Zhang, F. Li, J. Li, Y. Feng, and Z. Li, “120 Gbit/s 2× 2 vector-modes-division-multiplexing DD-OFDM-32QAM free-dpace transmission,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907008 (2016).
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H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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Li, S.

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Li, Y.

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W. Qiao, T. Lei, Z. Wu, S. Gao, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Approach to multiplexing fiber communication with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2579–2582 (2017).
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J. Zhang, F. Li, J. Li, Y. Feng, and Z. Li, “120 Gbit/s 2× 2 vector-modes-division-multiplexing DD-OFDM-32QAM free-dpace transmission,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907008 (2016).
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J. Luo, J. Li, Q. Sui, Z. Li, and C. Lu, “40Gb/s Mode-division multiplexed DD-OFDM transmission over standard multi-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7905207 (2016).
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Lipson, M.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
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Liu, H.

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J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, N. G Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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J. Luo, J. Li, Q. Sui, Z. Li, and C. Lu, “40Gb/s Mode-division multiplexed DD-OFDM transmission over standard multi-mode fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7905207 (2016).
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L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
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McLaren, M.

Messaddeq, Y.

Milione, G.

G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
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H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, N. G Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mo, Q.

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Li, F. Ren, T. Hu, Z. Li, Y. He, Z. Chen, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Recent progress in mode-division multiplexed passive optical networks with low modal crosstalk,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 28–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, J. Li, D. Ge, F. Ren, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Z. Li, Z. Chen, and Y. He, “Demonstration of all-optical MDM/WDM switching for short-reach networks,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21609–21618 (2016).
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A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
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Nirmalathas, A.

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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, N. G Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Ren, G. Xie, T. A. Nguyen, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, D. A. Nolan, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “4 × 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1980–1983 (2015).
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G. Milione, T. A. Nguyen, J. Leach, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Using the nonseparability of vector beams to encode information for optical communication,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4887–4890 (2015).
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G. Milione, S. Evans, D. A. Nolan, and R. R. Alfano, “Higher order pancharatnam-berry phase and the angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 190401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophir, N.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
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Poitras, C. B.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
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D. Kilper, K. Bergman, W. Chan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical networks come of age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
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J. Li, F. Ren, T. Hu, Z. Li, Y. He, Z. Chen, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Recent progress in mode-division multiplexed passive optical networks with low modal crosstalk,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 28–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, J. Li, D. Ge, F. Ren, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Z. Li, Z. Chen, and Y. He, “Demonstration of all-optical MDM/WDM switching for short-reach networks,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21609–21618 (2016).
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A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
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Richardson, D.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental setup of the CVB-based DD-OFDM-MDM transmission over FMF link. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; EA: electrical amplifier; ECL: external cavity laser; MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PC: polarization controller; SMF: single mode fiber; COL: collimator; PBS: polarization beam splitter; QP: Q-plate; FMF: four-mode fiber; PC-FMF: polarization controller based on four-mode fiber; ATT: attenuator; TOF: tunable optical filter; PD: photo-detector; OSC: oscilloscope; DSP: digital signal processing. Recorded intensity profiles of (i) the unconverted fundamental mode, (ii) the converted CVBs, (iii) output CVBs after transmission 100m FMF, (iv) the de-multiplexed CVBs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The four typical polarization distributions on the first-order Poincaré sphere, (b) the index profile of the used FMF and (c) the simulated mode fields and effective refractive index of the used vector modes of the FMF at 1550 nm wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The experiment setup for characterizing CVB performance. COL: collimator; LP: linear polarizer; QP: q-plate; FMF: four-mode few-mode fiber; PC-FMF: polarization controller based on four-mode fiber; PG: polarization grating; QWP: quarter-wave plate; CCD: charged-coupled device camera. (b) the measured power differences under different conditions. (c) Insets (A) and (B) depict the used vector modes. Insets (A1) and (A2) / (B1) and (B2) illustrate the separated left- and right-handed polarization intensity patterns corresponding to the insets (A) / (B) after transmission over 5 m FMF. Insets (A3) and (A4) / (B3) and (B4) show the interference patterns of the clockwise spiral and the counter clockwise spiral corresponding to the insets (A1) and (A2) / (B1) and (B2), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The intensity profiles of the 2 CVB channels before (insets A and B) and after (insets C and D) transmission over 100 m FMF, respectively. The arrows indicate the orientations of the transmission axis of the LP. Insets (a) ~(d) show the property of the polarization distribution of the corresponding channels. Insets (E) and (F) depict the intensity profiles of the demultiplexed CVBs corresponding to TM01 and TE01 channels, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Modal isolation for CVBs transmission over the used FMF after (a) 5 m and (b) 100 m respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The BER performances of CVB-based DD-OFDM-MDM transmission over FMF link of distance (a) 5 m with 16QAM; (b) 100 m with QPSK. B2B: back to back.

Equations (2)

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Ψ l | θ,ϕ=cos( θ 2 )| L l e iϕ 2 +sin( θ 2 )| R l e iϕ 2
Ψ l | π 2 ,ϕ= 2 2 ( | L l e iϕ 2 +| R l e iϕ 2 ).

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