Abstract

We study odd-even high-harmonic generation (HHG) from oriented asymmetric molecules with different symmetries in strong laser fields. A model based on strong-field approximations is used which allows us to resolve the contributions of different emission routes to odd-even HHG. The comparison between the HHG yields of all routes versus one certain route demonstrates that the routes in which the electron ionizes from the gerade component of the asymmetric orbital contribute mainly to odd-even HHG. We show that the potential mechanism is associated with effects of intramolecular interference in tunneling ionization as the bound electron passes through the barrier formed by the laser field and the asymmetric Coulomb potential. The influences of different emission routes on asymmetric orbital imagining with odd-even HHG are also addressed.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (6)

J. Chen, S. Yu, Y. Li, S. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Odd-even harmonic emission from asymmetric molecules: Identifying the mechanism,” Chin. Phys. B 26, 094209 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Li, S. J. Yu, W. Y. Li, and Y. J. Chen, “Orientation dependence of harmonic emission from vibrating HeH2+ versus HeT2+: Effects of a permanent dipole,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hongtao Hu, Na Li, Peng Liu, Ruxin Li, and Zhizhan Xu, “Pure even harmonic generation from oriented CO in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 173201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Li, S. Wang, Y. Z. Shi, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Probing the structure of stretched molecular ions with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 50, 085003 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Yu, W. Y. Li, Y. P. Li, and Y. J. Chen, “Probing degrees of orientation of top molecules with odd-even high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 013432 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Gao, Y. J. Chen, G. G. Xin, J. Liu, and L. B. Fu, “Distilling two-center-interference information during tunneling of aligned molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063414 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Lara-Astiaso, R. E. F. Silva, A. Gubaydullin, P. Rivière, C. Meier, and F. Martín, “Enhancing High-Order Harmonic Generation in Light Molecules by Using Chirped Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. F. Silva, P. Rivière, F. Morales, O. Smirnova, M. Ivanov, and F. Martín, “Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32653 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Li, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, and Y. J. Chen, “Probing nuclear dynamics of oriented HeH+ with odd-even high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053407 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

B. Zhang, S. J. Yu, Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Jiang, and X. D. Sun, “Time-resolved dynamics of odd and even harmonic emission from oriented asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053833 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. L. Dong, Y. Q. Tian, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 23, 18106–18116 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Li, F. L. Dong, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics from stretched molecules,” Opt. Express 23, 31010–31025 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

S. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. Li, S. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. M. Kraus, D. Baykusheva, and H. J. Wörner, “Two-pulse field-free orientation reveals anisotropy of molecular shape resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Y. Miao and C. P. Zhang, “Multichannel recombination in high-order-harmonic generation from asymmetric molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033410 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. F. Lu, C. Yu, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, and Y. D. Zhang, “Control of electron localization to isolate and enhance molecular harmonic plateau in asymmetric HeH2+ system,” Phys. Lett. A 378, 90–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. J. Chen, L. B. Fu, and J. Liu, “Asymmetric molecular imaging through decoding odd-even high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 073902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, S. F. Zhao, and X. X. Zhou, “Generation of isolated sub-40-as pulses from gas-phase CO molecules using an intense few-cycle chirped laser and a unipolar pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 035805 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Jiang, and X. D. Sun, “Identifying the interference effect in different harmonic-emission channels from oriented asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 053428 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

P. M. Kraus, A. Rupenyan, and H. J. Wörner, “High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233903 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Du, L. Luo, X. Wang, and B. Hu, “Generating isolated elliptically polarized attosecond pulses from oriented CO gas medium using linearly polarized driving pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013846 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Frumker, C. T. Hebeisen, N. Kajumba, J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Oriented Rotational wave-packet dynamics studies via high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 113901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Frumker, N. Kajumba, J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, C. T. Hebeisen, P. Hockett, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, G. G. Paulus, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing polar molecules with high harmonic spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233904 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Qin, X. S. Zhu, Q. B. Zhang, and P. X. Lu, “Tomographic imaging of asymmetric molecular orbitals with a two-color multicycle laser field,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5208–5210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

H. Li, D. Ray, S. De, I. Znakovskaya, W. Cao, G. Laurent, Z. Wang, M. F. Kling, A. T. Le, and C. L. Cocke, “Orientation dependence of the ionization of CO and NO in an intense femtosecond two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043429 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Hasovic, M. Busuladzic, W. Becker, and D. B. Milosevic, “Dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation: Application to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063418 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Etches, M. B. Gaardeand, and L. B. Madsen, “Two-center minima in harmonic spectra from aligned polar molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023418 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Heslar, D. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “High-order-harmonic generation in homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules: Exploration of multiple orbital contributions,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043414 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys. 7, 822–826 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from heteronuclear diatomic molecules,” Opt. Express 19, 436–447 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Y. J. Chen and Bambi Hu, “Intense field ionization of diatomic molecules: Two-center interference and tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013411 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nature Phys. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xue-Bin Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Multichannel molecular high-order harmonic generation from asymmetric diatomic oolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093903 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Etches and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B 43, 155602 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and Shih-I Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Reading molecular messages from high-order harmonic spectra zt different orientatiom angles,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 044311 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D.M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Tunnel Ionization from Multiple Orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and Bambi Hu, “Intensity dependence of intramolecular interference from a full quantum analysis of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. V. van der Zwan, C. C. Chirila, and M. Lein, “Molecular orbital tomography using short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033410 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75041402(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Charge-resonance effect on harmonic generation by symmetric diatomic molecular ions in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063405 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anh-Thu Le, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Evidence of two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from CO2,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 041402(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39, R203 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

D. Bauer, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023415 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B 38, 2593 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, ”Three-dimensional time-profile analysis of high-order harmonic generation in molecules: Nuclear interferences in H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053407 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature (London) 435, 470–474 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Lein, P. P. Corso, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Orientation dependence of high-order harmonic generation in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 023819 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramoleculer phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Intereference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milosěvić and W. Becker, “Role of long quantum orbits in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063417 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Salieres, B. Carre, L. Le Deroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217, 119–130 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillierand, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Rings in above-threshold ionization: A quasiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1495 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonics generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Akagi, H.

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D.M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Tunnel Ionization from Multiple Orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillierand, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nature Phys. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue-Bin Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Multichannel molecular high-order harmonic generation from asymmetric diatomic oolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093903 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, ”Three-dimensional time-profile analysis of high-order harmonic generation in molecules: Nuclear interferences in H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 053407 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bauer, D.

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39, R203 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Bauer, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023415 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baykusheva, D.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Kraus, D. Baykusheva, and H. J. Wörner, “Two-pulse field-free orientation reveals anisotropy of molecular shape resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

E. Hasovic, M. Busuladzic, W. Becker, and D. B. Milosevic, “Dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation: Application to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063418 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39, R203 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Bauer, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 023415 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milosěvić and W. Becker, “Role of long quantum orbits in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 063417 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Salieres, B. Carre, L. Le Deroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertrand, J. B.

E. Frumker, C. T. Hebeisen, N. Kajumba, J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Oriented Rotational wave-packet dynamics studies via high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 113901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Frumker, N. Kajumba, J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, C. T. Hebeisen, P. Hockett, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, G. G. Paulus, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing polar molecules with high harmonic spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233904 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bian, Xue-Bin

Xue-Bin Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Multichannel molecular high-order harmonic generation from asymmetric diatomic oolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boutu, W.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nature Phys. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Breger, P.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nature Phys. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

M. Lewenstein, K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Rings in above-threshold ionization: A quasiclassical analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1495 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busuladzic, M.

E. Hasovic, M. Busuladzic, W. Becker, and D. B. Milosevic, “Dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation: Application to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caillat, J.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nature Phys. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys. 7, 822–826 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

H. Li, D. Ray, S. De, I. Znakovskaya, W. Cao, G. Laurent, Z. Wang, M. F. Kling, A. T. Le, and C. L. Cocke, “Orientation dependence of the ionization of CO and NO in an intense femtosecond two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carre, B.

P. Salieres, B. Carre, L. Le Deroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosevic, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, W. Boutu, C. Giovanetti-Teixeira, T. Ruchon, T. Auguste, Z. Diveki, P. Breger, A. Maquet, B. Carré, R. Taïeb, and P. Salières, “Attosecond imaging of molecular electronic wavepackets,” Nature Phys. 6, 200–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caumes, J. P.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, S. Yu, Y. Li, S. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Odd-even harmonic emission from asymmetric molecules: Identifying the mechanism,” Chin. Phys. B 26, 094209 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75041402(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Charge-resonance effect on harmonic generation by symmetric diatomic molecular ions in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063405 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. G.

J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75041402(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. Chen, S. Yu, Y. Li, S. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Odd-even harmonic emission from asymmetric molecules: Identifying the mechanism,” Chin. Phys. B 26, 094209 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. P. Li, S. J. Yu, W. Y. Li, and Y. J. Chen, “Orientation dependence of harmonic emission from vibrating HeH2+ versus HeT2+: Effects of a permanent dipole,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063412 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Gao, Y. J. Chen, G. G. Xin, J. Liu, and L. B. Fu, “Distilling two-center-interference information during tunneling of aligned molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063414 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Li, S. Wang, Y. Z. Shi, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Probing the structure of stretched molecular ions with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 50, 085003 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Yu, W. Y. Li, Y. P. Li, and Y. J. Chen, “Probing degrees of orientation of top molecules with odd-even high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 013432 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Li, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, and Y. J. Chen, “Probing nuclear dynamics of oriented HeH+ with odd-even high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053407 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, S. J. Yu, Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Jiang, and X. D. Sun, “Time-resolved dynamics of odd and even harmonic emission from oriented asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053833 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. L. Dong, Y. Q. Tian, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 23, 18106–18116 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Li, F. L. Dong, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics from stretched molecules,” Opt. Express 23, 31010–31025 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. Li, S. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Jiang, and X. D. Sun, “Identifying the interference effect in different harmonic-emission channels from oriented asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 053428 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, L. B. Fu, and J. Liu, “Asymmetric molecular imaging through decoding odd-even high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 073902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen and Bambi Hu, “Intense field ionization of diatomic molecules: Two-center interference and tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Reading molecular messages from high-order harmonic spectra zt different orientatiom angles,” J. Chem. Phys. 130, 044311 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and Bambi Hu, “Intensity dependence of intramolecular interference from a full quantum analysis of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A. 79, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Charge-resonance effect on harmonic generation by symmetric diatomic molecular ions in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063405 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chirila, C. C.

E. V. van der Zwan, C. C. Chirila, and M. Lein, “Molecular orbital tomography using short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033410 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. I.

J. Heslar, D. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “High-order-harmonic generation in homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules: Exploration of multiple orbital contributions,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 043414 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217, 119–130 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chu, Shih-I

S.-K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and Shih-I Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cocke, C. L.

H. Li, D. Ray, S. De, I. Znakovskaya, W. Cao, G. Laurent, Z. Wang, M. F. Kling, A. T. Le, and C. L. Cocke, “Orientation dependence of the ionization of CO and NO in an intense femtosecond two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

E. Frumker, N. Kajumba, J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, C. T. Hebeisen, P. Hockett, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, G. G. Paulus, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing polar molecules with high harmonic spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233904 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Frumker, C. T. Hebeisen, N. Kajumba, J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wörner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Oriented Rotational wave-packet dynamics studies via high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 113901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dörner, D.M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser Tunnel Ionization from Multiple Orbitals in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corso, P. P.

M. Lein, P. P. Corso, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Orientation dependence of high-order harmonic generation in molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 023819 (2003).
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De, S.

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H. Du, L. Luo, X. Wang, and B. Hu, “Generating isolated elliptically polarized attosecond pulses from oriented CO gas medium using linearly polarized driving pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013846 (2012).
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S. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. Li, S. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
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Y. J. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
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X. Y. Miao and C. P. Zhang, “Multichannel recombination in high-order-harmonic generation from asymmetric molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033410 (2014).
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Zhang, Q. B.

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R. F. Lu, C. Yu, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, and Y. D. Zhang, “Control of electron localization to isolate and enhance molecular harmonic plateau in asymmetric HeH2+ system,” Phys. Lett. A 378, 90–94 (2014).
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Chem. Phys. (1)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Theoretical study of multiple high-order harmonic generation by intense ultrashort pulsed laser fields: A new generalized pseudospectral time-dependent method,” Chem. Phys. 217, 119–130 (1997).
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Chin. Phys. B (1)

J. Chen, S. Yu, Y. Li, S. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Odd-even harmonic emission from asymmetric molecules: Identifying the mechanism,” Chin. Phys. B 26, 094209 (2017).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

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Phys. Rev. A (32)

Y. P. Li, S. J. Yu, W. Y. Li, and Y. J. Chen, “Orientation dependence of harmonic emission from vibrating HeH2+ versus HeT2+: Effects of a permanent dipole,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063412 (2017).
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B. Zhang, S. J. Yu, Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Jiang, and X. D. Sun, “Time-resolved dynamics of odd and even harmonic emission from oriented asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053833 (2015).
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W. Y. Li, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, and Y. J. Chen, “Probing nuclear dynamics of oriented HeH+ with odd-even high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 053407 (2016).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Harmonic spectra (a,b) and relevant dipoles (c,d) for model HeH2+ with Ip = 1.11 a.u. at θ = 0° (a,c) and θ = 40° (b,d). In (a) and (b), we plot the full odd spectra of Eq. (7) plus Eq. (8) (thin-solid-black), the main-route odd spectra of Eq. (7) (dash-black), the minor-route odd spectra of Eq. (8) (short-dash-magenta), full even spectra of Eq. (9) plus Eq. (10) (bold-solid-red), main-route even spectra of Eq. (9) (short-dot-red) and minor-route even spectra of Eq. (10) (dash-dot-blue). In (c) and (d), we plot the main-route odd dipole | | D g 1 σ ( p , θ ) | 2 of Eq. (13) (solid-black) and the main-route even dipole | D u 1 σ ( p , θ ) | 2 of Eq. (14) (dash-red) with p2/2 = ωIp. Here, the vertical arrows indicate the intersections of odd-even HHG spectra and relevant odd-even dipoles. The horizontal arrows indicate the interference-induced hollows in spectra and relevant dipoles. The molecular parameters used are as shown. The laser parameters used are I = 5 × 1014 W/cm 2 and λ = 800 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Same as Fig. 1, but for model CO with Ip = 0.515 a.u.. The dipoles in (c) and (d) are calculated with Eq. (15) (main odd, solid-black) and Eq. (16) (main even, dash-red). The molecular parameters used are as shown. The laser parameters used are I = 3 × 1014 W/cm2 and λ = 800 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Same as Fig. 2, but results obtained for Ip = 0.515 a.u. and R = 4 a.u. (the left column) and for Ip = 0.98 a.u. and R = 2.08 a.u. (right) at θ = 0°.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Angle dependence of ratio γ(θ) of Eq. (32) for ionization probability of main versus minor routes of HeH2+ at different laser and molecular parameters, with Z1/Z2 = 1.54 and λ = 800 nm. In (a), the molecular parameters are as in Fig. 1, the laser intensities are as shown. In (b), the laser intensities are as in Fig. 1, the molecular parameters are as shown. The log10 scale is used here.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Same as Fig. 4 but for model CO with Z1/Z2 = 1.5 and λ = 800 nm. In (a), the molecular parameters are as in Fig. 2, the laser intensities are as shown. In (b), the laser intensities are as in Fig. 2, the molecular parameters are as shown.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Same as Fig. 4(b) but for model HeH2+ with 2σ valence orbital. (b) Same as Fig. 5(b) but for model CO with 6σ valence orbital.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of the exact results (left column), the reconstructions of full routes (middle column), and the reconstructions of main route (right column) for the gerade component (first row), the ungerade component (second row), and the total component (third row) of the 1σ wave function ψ1σ of model HeH2+, projected in the xoz plane. The laser and molecular parameters used are as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Same as Fig. 7, but for model CO with 5σ valence orbital. The laser and molecular parameters used are as in Fig. 2.

Equations (32)

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x ( t ) = i 0 τ d τ [ ξ ( τ ) d r ( p st + A ( t ) ) e i S ( p st , t , τ ) × E ( t τ ) d i ( p st + A ( t τ ) ) ] + c . c .
F ( ω , θ ) = i d t 0 d τ [ ξ ( τ ) e θ d r ( p st + A ( t ) ) × E ( t τ ) d i ( p st + A ( t τ ) ) e i S ( p st , t , τ ) e i ω t ] .
L g g o = [ e θ d i g ( p ) ] [ e θ d r g ( p ) ]
L u u o = [ e θ d i u ( p ) ] [ e θ d r u ( p ) ] .
L g u e = [ e θ d i g ( p ) ] [ e θ d r u ( p ) ] ,
L u g e = [ e θ d r u ( p ) ] [ e θ d i g ( p ) ] .
F main odd ( ω , θ ) = i d t 0 d τ [ ξ ( τ ) e θ d r g ( p st + A ( t ) ) × E ( t τ ) d i g ( p st + A ( t τ ) ) e i S ( p st , t , τ ) e i ω t ] ,
F minor odd ( ω , θ ) = i d t 0 d τ [ ξ ( τ ) e θ d r u ( p st + A ( t ) ) × E ( t τ ) d i u ( p st + A ( t τ ) ) e i S ( p st , t , τ ) e i ω t ] ,
F main even ( ω , θ ) = i d t 0 d τ [ ξ ( τ ) e θ d r u ( p st + A ( t ) ) × E ( t τ ) d i g ( p st + A ( t τ ) ) e i S ( p st , t , τ ) e i ω t ] ,
F minor even ( ω , θ ) = i d t 0 d τ [ ξ ( τ ) e θ d r g ( p st + A ( t ) ) × E ( t τ ) d i u ( p st + A ( t τ ) ) e i S ( p st , t , τ ) e i ω t ]
S ( ω , θ ) = N ( θ ) ω 4 | a ( p ) e θ d r ( p ) | 2 .
S odd ( ω , θ ) = N ( θ ) ω 4 | a ( p ) e θ d r g ( p ) | 2 ; S even ( ω , θ ) = N ( θ ) ω 4 | a ( p ) e θ d r u ( p ) | 2 .
D g 1 σ = G g 1 σ ( p , θ ) d 1 s ( p ) G g 1 σ ( p , θ ) ψ ˜ 1 s ( p )
D u 1 σ = G u 1 σ ( p , θ ) d 1 s ( p ) G u 1 σ ( p , θ ) ψ ˜ 1 s ( p )
D g 5 σ = G g 5 σ ( p , θ ) d 2 p z ( p ) G g 5 σ ( p , θ ) ψ ˜ 2 p z ( p )
D u 5 σ = G u 5 σ ( p , θ ) d 2 p z ( p ) G u 5 σ ( p , θ ) ψ ˜ 2 p z ( p )
c main ( v , θ ) = i 0 T p d t E ( t ) d i g ( v + A ( t ) ) e i S ( v , t )
c minor ( v , θ ) = i 0 T p d t E ( t ) d i u ( v + A ( t ) ) e i S ( v , t )
[ p st ( t s , t s ) + A ( t s ) ] 2 / 2 = I p ,
[ p st ( t s , t s ) + A ( t s ) ] 2 / 2 = ω I p .
F main odd ( even ) ( ω , θ ) s [ η e θ d r g ( u ) ( p st + A ( t s ) ) × E ( t s ) d i g ( p st + A ( t s ) ) e i S ( p st , t s , τ s ) ]
F minor odd ( even ) ( ω , θ ) s [ η e θ d r u ( g ) ( p st + A ( t s ) ) × E ( t s ) d i u ( p st + A ( t s ) ) e i S ( p st , t s , τ s ) ]
F main odd ( even ) ( ω , θ ) ~ s [ G g ( u ) ( ± ρ ( ω ) , θ ) × G g ( ± i κ , θ ) F a ( p st , t s , t s ) ]
F main odd ( even ) ( ω , θ ) ~ s [ G u ( g ) ( ± ρ ( ω ) , θ ) × G u ( ± i κ , θ ) F a ( p st , t s , t s ) ] .
[ v + A ( t s ) ] 2 / 2 = I p .
c main ( v , θ ) s [ β E ( t s ) d i g ( v + A ( t s ) ) e i S ]
c minor ( v , θ ) s [ β E ( t s ) d i u ( v + A ( t s ) ) e i S ]
c main ( v , θ ) ~ s [ G g ( ± i κ , θ ) c a ( v , t s ) ]
c minor ( v , θ ) ~ s [ G u ( ± i κ , θ ) c a ( v , t s ) ] .
| G g 1 σ | = | a 1 cos ( i κ R a cos θ ) + a 2 cos ( i κ R b cos θ ) | ; | G u 1 σ | = | a 1 sin ( i κ R a cos θ ) a 2 sin ( i κ R b cos θ ) | .
| G g 5 σ | = | a 1 sin ( i κ R a cos θ ) + a 2 sin ( i κ R b cos θ ) | ; | G u 5 σ | = | a 1 cos ( i κ R a cos θ ) a 2 cos ( i κ R b cos θ ) | .
γ ( θ ) = N main ( θ ) / N minor ( θ )

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