Abstract

The interaction of spatially structured light fields with atomic media can generate spatial structures inscribed in the atomic populations and coherences, allowing for example the storage of optical images in atomic vapours. Typically, this involves coherent optical processes based on Raman or EIT transitions. Here we study the simpler situation of shaping atomic populations via spatially dependent optical depletion. Using a near resonant laser beam with a holographically controlled 3D intensity profile, we imprint 3D population structures into a thermal rubidium vapour. This 3D population structure is simultaneously read out by recording the spatially resolved fluorescence of an unshaped probe laser. We find that the reconstructed atomic population structure is largely complementary to the intensity structure of the control beam, however appears blurred due to global repopulation processes. We identify and model these mechanisms which limit the achievable resolution of the 3D atomic population. We expect this work to set design criteria for future 2D and 3D atomic memories.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (4)

2016 (5)

G. Gauthier, I. Lenton, N. McKay Parry, M. Baker, M. J. Davis, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and T. W. Neely, “Direct imaging of a digital-micromirror device for configurable microscopic optical potentials,” Optica 3, 1136–1142 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. De Leon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G.-L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarisation shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233903 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Trichili, C. Rosales-Guzman, A. Dudley, B. Ndagano, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27674 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. W. Clark, R. F. Offer, S. Franke-Arnold, A. S. Arnold, and N. Radwell, “Comparison of beam generation techniques using a phase only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 24, 6249–6264 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

V. E. Lembessis, J. Courtial, N. Radwell, A. Selyem, S. Franke-Arnold, O. M. Aldossary, and M. Babiker, “Graphene-like optical light field and its interaction with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmend, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Arbitrary manipulation of spatial amplitude and phase using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7441 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Rong, Y. J. Han, S. Z. Wang, and C. S. Guo, “Generation of arbitrary vector beams with cascaded liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22, 1636–1644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

N. Radwell, G. Walker, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Cold-atom densities of more than 1012 cm−3 in a holographically shaped dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043409 (2013).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Ding, Z.-Y. Zhou, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Veissier, A. Nicolas, L. Giner, D. Maxein, A. S. Sheremet, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Reversible optical memory for twisted photons,” Opt. Lett. 38, 712–714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nicolas, L. Veissier, L. Giner, E. Giacobino, D. Maxein, and J. Laurat, “A quantum memory for orbital angular momentum photonic qubits,” Nature Phot. 8, 234–238 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Radwell, M. A. Boukhet, and S. Franke-Arnold, “3D beam reconstruction by fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 22215–22220 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. S. Arnold, “Extending dark optical trapping geometries,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Walker, A. S. Arnold, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Trans-spectral orbital angular momentum transfer via four-wave mixing in rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 243601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lin, G. Hong-Lian, H. Lu, EL Zhao-Lin, and L. Zhi-Yuan, “The measurement of displacement and optical force in multi-optical tweezers,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 014214 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Storing images in warm atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 223601 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Siddons, C. S. Adam, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, “Absolute absorption on the rubidium d lines: comparison between theory and experiment,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 155004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Vortex knots in light,” New J. Phys. 7, 55 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

G. Shabtay, “Three-dimensional beam forming and Ewald’s surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 226, 33–37 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High efficiency electrically-addressable phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6, 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

K. Dholakia, “Atom hosepipes,” Contemp. Phys. 39, 351–369 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Schiffer, M. Rauner, S. Kuppens, M. Zinner, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, “Guiding, focusing, and cooling of atoms in a strong dipole potential,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 705–708 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and D. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253–2256 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, and H. Dehmelt, “Shelved optical electron amplifier: Observation of quantum jumps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sauter, W. Neuhauser, R. Blatt, and P. E. Toschek, “Observation of quantum jumps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1696 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Bergquist, R. G. Hulet, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, “Observation of quantum jumps in a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1699 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, C. S.

P. Siddons, C. S. Adam, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, “Absolute absorption on the rubidium d lines: comparison between theory and experiment,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 155004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahmend, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmend, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aldossary, O. M.

V. E. Lembessis, J. Courtial, N. Radwell, A. Selyem, S. Franke-Arnold, O. M. Aldossary, and M. Babiker, “Graphene-like optical light field and its interaction with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alpmann, C.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andreson, M.

Andrews, D. L.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arlt, J.

Arnold, A. S.

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmend, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmend, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Babiker, M.

V. E. Lembessis, J. Courtial, N. Radwell, A. Selyem, S. Franke-Arnold, O. M. Aldossary, and M. Babiker, “Graphene-like optical light field and its interaction with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 063833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baker, M.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Gauthier, I. Lenton, N. McKay Parry, M. Baker, M. J. Davis, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and T. W. Neely, “Direct imaging of a digital-micromirror device for configurable microscopic optical potentials,” Optica 3, 1136–1142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Banzer, P.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmend, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bauer, T.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belmonte, A.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ben Salem, A.

A. Trichili, C. Rosales-Guzman, A. Dudley, B. Ndagano, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27674 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

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V. E. Lembessis, J. Courtial, N. Radwell, A. Selyem, S. Franke-Arnold, O. M. Aldossary, and M. Babiker, “Graphene-like optical light field and its interaction with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 063833 (2015).
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M. Schiffer, M. Rauner, S. Kuppens, M. Zinner, K. Sengstock, and W. Ertmer, “Guiding, focusing, and cooling of atoms in a strong dipole potential,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 705–708 (1998).
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F. Bouchard, H. Larocque, A. M. Yao, C. Travis, I. De Leon, A. Rubano, E. Karimi, G.-L. Oppo, and R. W. Boyd, “Polarisation shaping for control of nonlinear propagation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 233903 (2016).
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A. Trichili, C. Rosales-Guzman, A. Dudley, B. Ndagano, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27674 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Simplified energy level scheme of Rb85 showing spectroscopic notation. D1 and D2 transitions are shown in red and blue, respectively. b) Interpretation in terms of electron shelving. Detecting fluorescence of the probe light reveals that the atom is in |1〉, the absence of fluorescence indicates that the atom was transferred from |1〉 to |0〉 due to excitation by the control beam and subsequent spontaneous decay.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. AOM: acousto-optic modulator, QWP: quarter waveplate, (N)PBS: (non-) polarising beam splitter, SLM: spatial light modulator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated and reconstructed cross-sections from a control beam with a yin-yang symbol profile (a, b, e, f) and a linear azimuthal intensity ramp (c, d, g, h), measured in the image plane of the SLM. a,c) Desired control intensity profile. e,g) Corresponding reconstruction from fluorescence of the control beam. b,d) Simulation of probe fluorescence indicating population in |1〉. f,h) Measured probe fluorescence reconstruction. i) Unwrapped control (red) and probe (blue) fluorescence profiles, individually peak-normalised, at a fixed beam radius corresponding to the red dashed circle in c). Error bars represent the standard deviation calculated from 10 cross-sections and solid lines are simulations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalised population contrast as a function of varying a) dark core radii R in a flat-top control beam and b) temperature. In a) radii R are ranging from 0 cm (shown in dark blue) to the full beam radius of 0.5 cm (cyan) at a temperature of 300 K. In b) the temperature is ranging from 1 K (shown in red) to 300 K (yellow), for R=0.3. Fits show as black lines are smoothed spline interpolations calculated from 15 data points in both figures. Inset i) shows the control beam shape, indicating the definition of R. Insets ii) and iii) show population pattern cross-sections through the centre of the control beam.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Full 3D reconstructions of the atomic population structure arising from depletion via structured control light beams. The control beams had a cross-section of a) a 3-by-3 array of discs and b) an optical Ferris wheel, propagating in the −z direction. Observing the scattering of the control beams allows us to visualise the light field structure (top panels). Observing the scattering of an unshaped probe beam allows us to reconstruct the resulting population structures in |1〉 (bottom panels). The dimensions of the boxes are approximately 1 cm × 1 cm × 7 cm. Propagation distances z are measured from the focus. For clarity, isosurfaces were plotted at intensities indicated in the colourboxes. For clarity we also show sample cross-sections.

Equations (3)

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R c ( r ) = 2 6 Γ λ 4 3 π k b T / m Rb 85 Γ 2 I ( r ) / I S 1 + I ( r ) / I S ,
d P 1 d r = P 1 R c v r ,
P 1 ( x , y ) 7 12 0 2 π d θ P 1 , θ ( θ ) , with P 1 , θ ( θ ) = exp ( 0 w a l l d r R c ( r cos θ + x , r sin θ + y ) v r ) .