Abstract

We demonstrate independently and simultaneously controlled color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with vertically stacked blue, green, and red elements. The blue, green, and red elements were placed at the bottom, middle, and top positions, respectively, forming color-tunable OLEDs. The independently driven blue, green, and red elements in the color-tunable OLEDs exhibited low driving voltages of 5.3 V, 3.0 V, and 4.6 V, as well as high external quantum efficiencies of 11.1%, 10.9%, and 9.6%, respectively, at approximately 1000 cd/m2. Each element in the color-tunable OLEDs showed high-purity blue, green, and red colors with little parasitic emission owing to the delicately designed device structure resultant from optical simulations. The color-tunable OLEDs could produce any colors inside the triangle formed with blue (0.136, 0.261), green (0.246, 0.697), and red (0.614, 0.386) Commission Internationale de l'éclairage (CIE) 1931 color coordinates. In addition, the correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of white colors in the color-tunable OLED can be easily changed from the warm white to the cool white by controlling the red, green, and blue emissions simultaneously. The white colors in the color-tunable OLED have the CIE 1931 color coordinate of (0.304, 0.351), with a CCT of 6289 K and (0.504, 0.440), with a CCT of 2407K at the driving voltage of 5 V (blue), 2.8 V (green), 4.4 V (red), and 4.6 V (blue), 3 V (green), 5 V (red), respectively. Furthermore, the white color in the color-tunable OLED exhibited a high color rendering index (~88.7) due to vertically stacked three color system. Moreover, we successfully fabricated a large-sized, 14 × 12 pixel array of the color-tunable OLEDs to demonstrate lighting and display applications, respectively.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  4. A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (6)

J. Y. Noh, D. M. Han, W. C. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Cha, “Development of 55” 4K UHD OLED TV employing the internal gate IC with high reliability and short channel IGZO TFTs,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 288–290 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Guo, A. Karl, Q.-F. Xue, K. C. Tam, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “The fabrication of color-tunable organic light-emitting diode display via solution processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17094 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Kwon and C. Lee, “Non-interlayer hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes via a bipolar mixed host for the blue-fluorescent-emitting layer,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(4), 153–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Tsujimura, T. Hakii, and S. Noda, “A color-tunable polychromatic organic-light-emitting-diode device with low resistive intermediate electrode for roll-to-roll manufacturing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(1), 402–407 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

Y. Jiang, J. Lian, S. Chen, and H.-S. Kwok, “Fabrication of color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by an alignment free mask patterning method,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2001–2006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, J. Kido, S. K. So, and F. So, “Orgin of enhanced hole injection in inverted organic devices with electron accepting interlayer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3261–3266 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. L. Mulder, K. Celebi, K. M. Milaninia, and M. A. Baldo, “Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211109 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1–2), 200–206 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, S. P. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Color-tunable organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2959–2961 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ali, T.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bae, W. K.

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldo, M. A.

C. L. Mulder, K. Celebi, K. M. Milaninia, and M. A. Baldo, “Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brabec, C. J.

F. Guo, A. Karl, Q.-F. Xue, K. C. Tam, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “The fabrication of color-tunable organic light-emitting diode display via solution processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17094 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[Crossref]

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, S. P. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Color-tunable organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2959–2961 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cai, C.

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1–2), 200–206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Celebi, K.

C. L. Mulder, K. Celebi, K. M. Milaninia, and M. A. Baldo, “Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cha, S. Y.

J. Y. Noh, D. M. Han, W. C. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Cha, “Development of 55” 4K UHD OLED TV employing the internal gate IC with high reliability and short channel IGZO TFTs,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 288–290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Char, K.

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Y. Jiang, J. Lian, S. Chen, and H.-S. Kwok, “Fabrication of color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by an alignment free mask patterning method,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2001–2006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiba, T.

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cho, N. S.

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, B.-S.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Donoghue, E. P.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Draper, R.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fellowes, D.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Forberich, K.

F. Guo, A. Karl, Q.-F. Xue, K. C. Tam, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “The fabrication of color-tunable organic light-emitting diode display via solution processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17094 (2017).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, S. P. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Color-tunable organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2959–2961 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fröbel, M.

M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, A.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, G.

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[Crossref]

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T. Tsujimura, T. Hakii, and S. Noda, “A color-tunable polychromatic organic-light-emitting-diode device with low resistive intermediate electrode for roll-to-roll manufacturing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(1), 402–407 (2016).
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Han, D. M.

J. Y. Noh, D. M. Han, W. C. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Cha, “Development of 55” 4K UHD OLED TV employing the internal gate IC with high reliability and short channel IGZO TFTs,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 288–290 (2017).
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Han, J.-H.

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
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H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
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H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
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Jeon, H.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
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Jeon, Y. M.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
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J. Y. Noh, D. M. Han, W. C. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Cha, “Development of 55” 4K UHD OLED TV employing the internal gate IC with high reliability and short channel IGZO TFTs,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 288–290 (2017).
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Jiang, N.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1–2), 200–206 (2003).
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Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, J. Lian, S. Chen, and H.-S. Kwok, “Fabrication of color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by an alignment free mask patterning method,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2001–2006 (2013).
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C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
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F. Guo, A. Karl, Q.-F. Xue, K. C. Tam, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “The fabrication of color-tunable organic light-emitting diode display via solution processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17094 (2017).
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A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
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C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, J. Kido, S. K. So, and F. So, “Orgin of enhanced hole injection in inverted organic devices with electron accepting interlayer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3261–3266 (2012).
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C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
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J. Y. Noh, D. M. Han, W. C. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Cha, “Development of 55” 4K UHD OLED TV employing the internal gate IC with high reliability and short channel IGZO TFTs,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 288–290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
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M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
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W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
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H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153306 (2010).
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Y. Jiang, J. Lian, S. Chen, and H.-S. Kwok, “Fabrication of color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by an alignment free mask patterning method,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2001–2006 (2013).
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Y. Kwon and C. Lee, “Non-interlayer hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes via a bipolar mixed host for the blue-fluorescent-emitting layer,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(4), 153–157 (2017).
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Lee, C.

Y. Kwon and C. Lee, “Non-interlayer hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes via a bipolar mixed host for the blue-fluorescent-emitting layer,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(4), 153–157 (2017).
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W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
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H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153306 (2010).
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Lee, D.

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
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Lee, H.

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153306 (2010).
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Lee, H. S.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
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Lee, J.

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
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C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-I.

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
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Lee, S.

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
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Leo, K.

M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
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S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
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Y. Jiang, J. Lian, S. Chen, and H.-S. Kwok, “Fabrication of color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by an alignment free mask patterning method,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2001–2006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
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S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1–2), 200–206 (2003).
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Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
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Mao, J.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1–2), 200–206 (2003).
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R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
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C. L. Mulder, K. Celebi, K. M. Milaninia, and M. A. Baldo, “Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211109 (2007).
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H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
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C. L. Mulder, K. Celebi, K. M. Milaninia, and M. A. Baldo, “Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211109 (2007).
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Najnin, R.

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
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C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
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Noda, S.

T. Tsujimura, T. Hakii, and S. Noda, “A color-tunable polychromatic organic-light-emitting-diode device with low resistive intermediate electrode for roll-to-roll manufacturing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(1), 402–407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Noh, J.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
[Crossref]

Noh, J. Y.

J. Y. Noh, D. M. Han, W. C. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Cha, “Development of 55” 4K UHD OLED TV employing the internal gate IC with high reliability and short channel IGZO TFTs,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 288–290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Olthof, S.

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, I.

H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, M.

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
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G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
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A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

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C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiao, J.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1–2), 200–206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
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Sasabe, H.

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
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R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schwab, T.

M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
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Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
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Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
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P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, S. P. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Color-tunable organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2959–2961 (1996).
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C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, J. Kido, S. K. So, and F. So, “Orgin of enhanced hole injection in inverted organic devices with electron accepting interlayer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3261–3266 (2012).
[Crossref]

So, F.

C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, J. Kido, S. K. So, and F. So, “Orgin of enhanced hole injection in inverted organic devices with electron accepting interlayer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3261–3266 (2012).
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So, S. K.

C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, J. Kido, S. K. So, and F. So, “Orgin of enhanced hole injection in inverted organic devices with electron accepting interlayer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3261–3266 (2012).
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Song, J.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, K.

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
[Crossref]

Su, S.-J.

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sziklas, L.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tam, K. C.

F. Guo, A. Karl, Q.-F. Xue, K. C. Tam, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “The fabrication of color-tunable organic light-emitting diode display via solution processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17094 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, S. P. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Color-tunable organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2959–2961 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tice, K.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tsang, S.-W.

C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, J. Kido, S. K. So, and F. So, “Orgin of enhanced hole injection in inverted organic devices with electron accepting interlayer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3261–3266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsujimura, T.

T. Tsujimura, T. Hakii, and S. Noda, “A color-tunable polychromatic organic-light-emitting-diode device with low resistive intermediate electrode for roll-to-roll manufacturing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(1), 402–407 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vazan, F.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wacyk, I.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xue, Q.-F.

F. Guo, A. Karl, Q.-F. Xue, K. C. Tam, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “The fabrication of color-tunable organic light-emitting diode display via solution processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17094 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D. Y.

H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.-G.

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, J. Kido, S. K. So, and F. So, “Orgin of enhanced hole injection in inverted organic devices with electron accepting interlayer,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(15), 3261–3266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. K. Bae, J. Lim, D. Lee, M. Park, H. Lee, J. Kwak, K. Char, C. Lee, and S. Lee, “R/G/B/natural white light thin colloidal quantum dot-based light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6387–6393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. Gu, V. Bulović, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[Crossref]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, S. P. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Color-tunable organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2959–2961 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153306 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Mulder, K. Celebi, K. M. Milaninia, and M. A. Baldo, “Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211109 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

T. Tsujimura, T. Hakii, and S. Noda, “A color-tunable polychromatic organic-light-emitting-diode device with low resistive intermediate electrode for roll-to-roll manufacturing,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(1), 402–407 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Meerheim, S. Scholz, S. Olthof, G. Schwartz, S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Influence of charge balance and exciton distribution on efficiency and lifetime of phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014510 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. Kwon and C. Lee, “Non-interlayer hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes via a bipolar mixed host for the blue-fluorescent-emitting layer,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(4), 153–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

H. Lee, M.-J. Maeng, J.-A. Hong, R. Najnin, J. Moon, H. Cho, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, Y. Park, and N. S. Cho, “Highly efficient green, blue, and white phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting diodes by improving charge injection and balance,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(38), 9911–9919 (2017).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

F. Guo, A. Karl, Q.-F. Xue, K. C. Tam, K. Forberich, and C. J. Brabec, “The fabrication of color-tunable organic light-emitting diode display via solution processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17094 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Fröbel, T. Schwab, M. Kliem, S. Hofmann, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Get it white: color-tunable AC/DC OLEDs,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e247 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (3)

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Color temperature tunable white organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 189–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, J. Lian, S. Chen, and H.-S. Kwok, “Fabrication of color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by an alignment free mask patterning method,” Org. Electron. 14(8), 2001–2006 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Cai, S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, K. Nakayama, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency red, green and blue phosphorescent homojunction organic light-emitting diodes based on bipolar host materials,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 843–850 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997).
[Crossref]

SID 2017 DIGEST (3)

J. Y. Noh, D. M. Han, W. C. Jeong, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Cha, “Development of 55” 4K UHD OLED TV employing the internal gate IC with high reliability and short channel IGZO TFTs,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 288–290 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ghosh, E. P. Donoghue, L. Khayrullin, T. Ali, I. Wacyk, K. Tice, F. Vazan, O. Prache, Q. Wang, L. Sziklas, D. Fellowes, and R. Draper, “Ultra-high-brightness 2K x 2K full-color OLED microdisplay using direct patterning of OLED emitters,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 226–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. S. Lee, S. Jang, J. Noh, H. Jeon, B.-S. Choi, Y. M. Jeon, K. Song, J. Song, H. Y. Chu, and S. Kim, “An ultra high density 1.96” UHD 2250ppi display,” SID 2017 DIGEST 48(1), 403–405 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/Ag/ZnS transparent conductive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1–2), 200–206 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

IEC 61966–2-1:1999, https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/6169 .

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Large-sized color-tunable OLEDs with vertically stacked blue, green, and red colors (panel size: 90 mm x 85 mm).
» Visualization 2       Color-tunable OLEDs pixel arrays with vertically stacked blue, green, and red colors (panel size: 90 mm x 85 mm).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process of the color-tunable OLEDs with three primary colors. The intermediate electrode 1 is used as a common electrode to the top electrode of the bottom OLED and the bottom electrode of the middle OLED, and the intermediate electrode 2 is used as a common electrode to the top electrode of the middle OLED and the bottom electrode of the top OLED, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic structure of the color-tunable OLED with independently controlled B, G, R OLEDs and (b) schematic optical bandgaps, depending on colors.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 J-V-L characteristics of (a) independently controlled B, G, R OLEDs in the color-tunable OLED, (b) B OLEDs, (c) R OLEDs in the single and the color-tunable (middle G OLED off (0 V) and on (3 V) state) device structures, (d) EQE and luminous efficacy (LE) (at ~1,000 cd/m2) of independently controlled B, G, R OLEDs in the color-tunable OLED.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Normalized EL spectra of independently controlled B, G, R OLEDs (Solid line: measured values, dashed line: simulated values), (b) Normalized EL spectra, (c) CIE 1931 color coordinates of three independently controlled B, G, R OLEDs under various driving voltages, (d) photograph of color-tunable OLEDs with various colors, (e) CIE x, and (f) CIE y of B, G, R OLEDs, depending on viewing angles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated EL spectra of B, G, R in the color-tunable OLEDs depending on the thicknesses of HTLs, ETLs, and IEs ((a) HTL1 and (b) ETL1: TAPC and BmPyPB in the bottom OLED, (c) HTL2 and (d) ETL2: TAPC and 3TPYMB/3TPYMB:Li in the middle OLED, and (e) HTL3 and (f) ETL3: TAPC and BmPyPB in the top OLED).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photographs of (a) large-sized color-tunable OLEDs with different colors (see Visualization 1) and (b) 14 × 12 color-tunable OLEDs pixel arrays with B, G, R (see Visualization 2).

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