Abstract

A coaxial multibeam passive coherent combination of lasers with improved beam quality is proposed and verified using cascaded Michelson-type cavities, in which 4f optical systems are used to compensate for the beam waist separation between the combined adjacent lasers. A proof-of-concept experiment shows that three 65 W Nd:YAG lasers with an M2 factor of about 5.5 were coherently combined into a 124.4 W single-lobed output improving the M2 factor to 1.36. The central lobe accounted for 76% of the total power, corresponding to a total combined efficiency of 66.7%.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. P. Zhao, Q. Li, W. Guo, B. Liu, and T. Zuo, “In-phase output beam from broad-area diode array using Talbot cavity,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 5(5), 284–285 (2007).
  7. K. Hirosawa, S. Kittaka, Y. Oishi, F. Kannari, and T. Yanagisawa, “Phase locking in a Nd:YVO4 waveguide laser array using Talbot cavity,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24952–24961 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  14. D. Paboeuf, F. Emaury, S. de Rossi, R. Mercier, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Coherent beam superposition of ten diode lasers with a Dammann grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1515–1517 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. X. Yu, S. J. Augst, S. M. Redmond, K. C. Goldizen, D. V. Murphy, A. Sanchez, and T. Y. Fan, “Coherent combining of a 4 kW, eight-element fiber amplifier array,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2686–2688 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Q. Peng, Z. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Guo, Y. Bo, X. Yang, and Z. Xu, “Efficient improvement of laser beam quality by coherent combining in an improved Michelson cavity,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1485–1487 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  26. W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishaaya, L. Shimshi, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, “Coherent addition of spatially incoherent light beams,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4929–4934 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermène, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, M. Vampouille, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of two Nd:YAG lasers in a vernier-Michelson-type cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4–5), 503–507 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Tondusson, C. Froehly, V. Kermene, and M. Vampouille, “Coherent combination of four laser beams in a multi-axis Fourier cavity using a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. R. Leger, “Lateral mode control of an AlGaAs laser array in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 334–336 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Augst, S. J.

Baker, J. T.

Barthélémy, A.

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermène, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, M. Vampouille, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of two Nd:YAG lasers in a vernier-Michelson-type cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4–5), 503–507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Benham, V.

Bloom, G.

Bo, Y.

Braiman, Y.

Burgy, F.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carras, M.

Chang, N. A.

Chann, B.

Chen, Y.

Cheung, E. C.

Connors, M. K.

Corcoran, C. J.

Creedon, K. J.

Culpepper, M. A.

Davidson, N.

de Rossi, S.

Demmler, S.

Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermène, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, M. Vampouille, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of two Nd:YAG lasers in a vernier-Michelson-type cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4–5), 503–507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Durville, F.

Eidam, T.

Emaury, F.

Fan, T. Y.

Faure, J.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friesem, A.

Froehly, C.

M. Tondusson, C. Froehly, V. Kermene, and M. Vampouille, “Coherent combination of four laser beams in a multi-axis Fourier cavity using a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

George, N.

Georges, P.

Glinec, Y.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldizen, K. C.

Goodno, G. D.

Gordienko, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

Guo, W.

P. Zhao, Q. Li, W. Guo, B. Liu, and T. Zuo, “In-phase output beam from broad-area diode array using Talbot cavity,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 5(5), 284–285 (2007).

Q. Li, P. Zhao, and W. Guo, “Amplitude compensation of a diode laser array phase locked with a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hirosawa, K.

Ho, J. G.

Huang, R. K.

Ishaaya, A.

Jiang, M.

Kannari, F.

Kansky, J. E.

Kermene, V.

M. Tondusson, C. Froehly, V. Kermene, and M. Vampouille, “Coherent combination of four laser beams in a multi-axis Fourier cavity using a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kermène, V.

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermène, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, M. Vampouille, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of two Nd:YAG lasers in a vernier-Michelson-type cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4–5), 503–507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kienel, M.

Kiselev, S.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kittaka, S.

Klenke, A.

Lallier, E.

Larat, C.

Lefebvre, E.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger, “Lateral mode control of an AlGaAs laser array in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 334–336 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent laser addition using binary phase gratings,” Appl. Opt. 26(20), 4391–4399 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

P. Zhao, Q. Li, W. Guo, B. Liu, and T. Zuo, “In-phase output beam from broad-area diode array using Talbot cavity,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 5(5), 284–285 (2007).

Q. Li, P. Zhao, and W. Guo, “Amplitude compensation of a diode laser array phase locked with a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Lin, X.

W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, F.

W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lu, C. A.

Lucas-Leclin, G.

Ma, Y.

Malka, V.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcadet, X.

McComb, T. S.

McNaught, S. J.

Mercier, R.

Missaggia, L. J.

Müller, M.

Murphy, D. V.

Nelson, D. J.

Oishi, Y.

Paboeuf, D.

Peng, Q.

Pilkington, D.

Pukhov, A.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redmond, S. M.

Rice, R. R.

Rothenberg, J.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Rothhardt, J.

Rousseau, J. P.

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabourdy, D.

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermène, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, M. Vampouille, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of two Nd:YAG lasers in a vernier-Michelson-type cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4–5), 503–507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, A.

Sanchez, A. D.

Sanchez-Rubio, A.

Shay, T. M.

Shimshi, L.

Spring, J.

Su, R.

Sun, Z.

Swanson, G. J.

Thielen, P.

Thielen, P. A.

Tondusson, M.

M. Tondusson, C. Froehly, V. Kermene, and M. Vampouille, “Coherent combination of four laser beams in a multi-axis Fourier cavity using a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, G. W.

Vampouille, M.

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermène, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, M. Vampouille, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of two Nd:YAG lasers in a vernier-Michelson-type cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4–5), 503–507 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Tondusson, C. Froehly, V. Kermene, and M. Vampouille, “Coherent combination of four laser beams in a multi-axis Fourier cavity using a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

Veldkamp, W. B.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ward, B.

Weber, M.

Weber, M. E.

Wickham, M.

Wickham, M. G.

Xu, Z.

Yanagisawa, T.

Yang, X.

Yu, C. X.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, P.

P. Zhao, Q. Li, W. Guo, B. Liu, and T. Zuo, “In-phase output beam from broad-area diode array using Talbot cavity,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 5(5), 284–285 (2007).

Q. Li, P. Zhao, and W. Guo, “Amplitude compensation of a diode laser array phase locked with a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

Zuo, T.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Sabourdy, V. Kermène, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, M. Vampouille, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of two Nd:YAG lasers in a vernier-Michelson-type cavity,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4–5), 503–507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. R. Leger, “Lateral mode control of an AlGaAs laser array in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 334–336 (1989).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, P. Zhao, and W. Guo, “Amplitude compensation of a diode laser array phase locked with a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Tondusson, C. Froehly, V. Kermene, and M. Vampouille, “Coherent combination of four laser beams in a multi-axis Fourier cavity using a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3(6), 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J. P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, “A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams,” Nature 431(7008), 541–544 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (8)

E. C. Cheung, J. G. Ho, G. D. Goodno, R. R. Rice, J. Rothenberg, P. Thielen, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, “Diffractive-optics-based beam combination of a phase-locked fiber laser array,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 354–356 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Redmond, K. J. Creedon, J. E. Kansky, S. J. Augst, L. J. Missaggia, M. K. Connors, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, T. Y. Fan, G. W. Turner, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 999–1001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kienel, M. Müller, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Klenke, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherent beam combination of Yb:YAG single-crystal rod amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3278–3281 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bloom, C. Larat, E. Lallier, M. Carras, and X. Marcadet, “Coherent combining of two quantum-cascade lasers in a Michelson cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1917–1919 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paboeuf, F. Emaury, S. de Rossi, R. Mercier, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Coherent beam superposition of ten diode lasers with a Dammann grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1515–1517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Goodno, S. J. McNaught, J. E. Rothenberg, T. S. McComb, P. A. Thielen, M. G. Wickham, and M. E. Weber, “Active phase and polarization locking of a 1.4 kW fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1542–1544 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. X. Yu, S. J. Augst, S. M. Redmond, K. C. Goldizen, D. V. Murphy, A. Sanchez, and T. Y. Fan, “Coherent combining of a 4 kW, eight-element fiber amplifier array,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2686–2688 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Peng, Z. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Guo, Y. Bo, X. Yang, and Z. Xu, “Efficient improvement of laser beam quality by coherent combining in an improved Michelson cavity,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1485–1487 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

W. Gao, S. Zhao, F. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Zhou, and X. Lin, “Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 248(13), 54–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. D. McAulay, Military laser technology for defense: technology for revolutionizing 21st century warfare, (John Wiley & Sons, 2011), pp.207–230 (2004).

T. Mans, “Laser Beam Sources,” in Tailored Light 2: Laser Application Technology, R. Poprawe, ed (Springer Science & Business Media, 2011), pp.155–172.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of an equivalent Michelson-type cavity that has the same output characteristics as a symmetrical plane-parallel cavity (SPPC in Fig. 2) when the output losses in the two cavities are the same. M1, M2, and M3: Cavity mirrors; OC1: output coupler; G1: gain medium.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the symmetrical plane-parallel cavity (SPPC) with a reflectance of R for OC. OC: output coupler.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated reflectivity r of OC1 in the equivalent Michelson-type cavity as a function of the reflectivity R of OC in the SPPC.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the beam combination of two laser elements using CMTCCs, where the 4f optical system is used to compensate for the beam waist separations caused by the parallel separation of the two laser elements.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the beam combination of multiple laser elements. The output beams originating from N similar elements using CMTCCs can be combined into a single beam using 4f optical systems to compensate for the beam waist separation between adjacent laser elements.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pattern of a single beam and combined beams using CMTCCs in the same observed plane in the near field. (a) Beam pattern of a single laser. (b) Beam pattern of the three combined lasers with a random phase relation. (c) Beam pattern of the three combined lasers with in-phase output presenting a single lobe in the beam center.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Output power as a function of the pump current for each laser module in the cases of the single beam, two combined beams, and three combined beams with random phase-correlated relationship.

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