Abstract

Here, a non-volatile optically controllable metasurface is theoretically investigated at the operating wavelength of 1.55 μm by utilizing low loss phase-change Ge2Sb2Se4Te1 (GSST) as the constituent material of high-index resonant element. The GSST nanobar as the proposed building block supports both the magnetic and electric resonances whose strength and spectral positions can be governed by varying the GSST crystallization level. The possibility of operating at off-resonance regime (middle of geometrical resonances) and preventing from the concurrence of high field confinement and large dissipative loss provide the opportunity to obtain high reflection level (varying between 0.6 and 0.8) and wide phase agility (≈270°). The phase distribution at the interface of an array of GSST nanobars can be tailored by selective modification of the crystallization level of nanobars leading to active control over the wave-front of reflected beam with numerically calculated reflection efficiency higher than 45%.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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2018 (5)

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (> 300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Taghinejad, H. Taghinejad, Z. Xu, Y. Liu, S. P. Rodrigues, K. T. Lee, T. Lian, A. Adibi, and W. Cai, “Hot-Electron-Assisted Femtosecond All-Optical Modulation in Plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1704915 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wen, Y. Meng, M. Jiang, and Y. Wang, “Multi-level coding-recoding by ultrafast phase transition on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4979 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Li, R. Soref, T. Gu, and J. Hu, “Broadband nonvolatile photonic switching based on optical phase change materials: beyond the classical figure-of-merit,” Opt. Lett. 43(1), 94–97 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez‐Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase‐Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (13)

T. Li, L. Huang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Tunable wave plate based on active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4216–4226 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-K. U. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Design parameters for phase-change materials for nanostructure resonance tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700261 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cheng, S. Inampudi, and H. Mosallaei, “Optimization-based dielectric metasurfaces for angle-selective multifunctional beam deflection,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12228 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Holsteen, S. Raza, P. Fan, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas,” Science 358(6369), 1407–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Forouzmand and H. Mosallaei, “Real-time controllable and multifunctional metasurfaces utilizing indium tin oxide materials: A phased array perspective,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(2), 296–306 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, A. Lotnyk, M. Ehrhardt, J. W. Gerlach, and B. Rauschenbach, “Realization of multilevel states in phase‐change thin films by fast laser pulse irradiation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(12), 1700169 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, T. Steinle, L. Huang, T. Taubner, M. Wuttig, T. Zentgraf, and H. Giessen, “Beam switching and bifocal zoom lensing using active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(7), e17016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J. H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Raeis-Hosseini and J. Rho, “Metasurfaces based on phase-change material as a reconfigurable platform for multifunctional devices,” Materials (Basel) 10(9), 1046 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, and T. Taubner, “Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 465–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (11)

P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. I. Zheludev and E. Plum, “Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 16–22 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Guo, R. D. Schaller, L. E. Ocola, B. T. Diroll, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. Chang, “Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Poon, and G. Eleftheriades, “Vanadium-dioxide-assisted digital optical metasurfaces for dynamic wavefront engineering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(5), 980 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Lei, Y. Wang, M. Jiang, and Y. Wu, “Refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(17), 173105 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. G. Carrillo, G. R. Nash, H. Hayat, M. J. Cryan, M. Klemm, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “Design of practicable phase-change metadevices for near-infrared absorber and modulator applications,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13563–13573 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chu, M. Tseng, J. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Chen, W. Hsieh, H. Wu, G. Sun, and D. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. MacDonald, and N. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

T. Cao, G. Zheng, S. Wang, and C. Wei, “Ultrafast beam steering using gradient Au-Ge2Sb2Te5-Au plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18029–18039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tittl, A. K. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid‐infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Roberts, S. Inampudi, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Diffractive interface theory: nonlocal susceptibility approach to the optics of metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2764–2776 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ríos, M. Stegmaier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 725–732 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Su, C. Ouyang, N. Xu, W. Cao, X. Wei, G. Song, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. F. O’Hara, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active metasurface terahertz deflector with phase discontinuities,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27152–27158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in. 2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Chen, T. S. Kao, B. Ng, X. Li, X. G. Luo, B. Luk’yanchuk, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Hybrid phase-change plasmonic crystals for active tuning of lattice resonances,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13691–13698 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. Stewart Aitchison, and J. K. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

W. H. Pernice and H. Bhaskaran, “Photonic non-volatile memories using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171101 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

1996 (1)

R. Thielsch, T. Böhme, and H. Böttcher, “Optical and Structural Properties of Nanocrystalline ZnS‐SiO2 Composite Films,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 155(1), 157–170 (1996).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Abb, M.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
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Adibi, A.

M. Taghinejad, H. Taghinejad, Z. Xu, Y. Liu, S. P. Rodrigues, K. T. Lee, T. Lian, A. Adibi, and W. Cai, “Hot-Electron-Assisted Femtosecond All-Optical Modulation in Plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1704915 (2018).
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Aieta, F.

Aizpurua, J.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alain, D.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. Stewart Aitchison, and J. K. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
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Albella, P.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexeev, A. M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez‐Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase‐Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
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Arbabi, A.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
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A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
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Atwater, H. A.

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (> 300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018), doi:.
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Au, Y. Y.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez‐Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase‐Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aziz, M. M.

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
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Bertolotti, J.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez‐Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase‐Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
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Bhaskaran, H.

M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, and T. Taubner, “Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 465–476 (2017).
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S. G. Carrillo, G. R. Nash, H. Hayat, M. J. Cryan, M. Klemm, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “Design of practicable phase-change metadevices for near-infrared absorber and modulator applications,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13563–13573 (2016).
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C. Ríos, M. Stegmaier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 725–732 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Pernice and H. Bhaskaran, “Photonic non-volatile memories using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Böhme, T.

R. Thielsch, T. Böhme, and H. Böttcher, “Optical and Structural Properties of Nanocrystalline ZnS‐SiO2 Composite Films,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 155(1), 157–170 (1996).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Böttcher, H.

R. Thielsch, T. Böhme, and H. Böttcher, “Optical and Structural Properties of Nanocrystalline ZnS‐SiO2 Composite Films,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 155(1), 157–170 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brar, V. W.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. Park, J. H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Holsteen, S. Raza, P. Fan, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas,” Science 358(6369), 1407–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

M. Taghinejad, H. Taghinejad, Z. Xu, Y. Liu, S. P. Rodrigues, K. T. Lee, T. Lian, A. Adibi, and W. Cai, “Hot-Electron-Assisted Femtosecond All-Optical Modulation in Plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1704915 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, T.

T. Cao, G. Zheng, S. Wang, and C. Wei, “Ultrafast beam steering using gradient Au-Ge2Sb2Te5-Au plasmonic resonators,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18029–18039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139 (2017).
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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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Carrillo, S. G.

Chang, R. P.

P. Guo, R. D. Schaller, L. E. Ocola, B. T. Diroll, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. Chang, “Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

C. Chu, M. Tseng, J. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Chen, W. Hsieh, H. Wu, G. Sun, and D. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

C. Chu, M. Tseng, J. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Chen, W. Hsieh, H. Wu, G. Sun, and D. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

C. Chu, M. Tseng, J. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Chen, W. Hsieh, H. Wu, G. Sun, and D. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. G.

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, S. Inampudi, and H. Mosallaei, “Optimization-based dielectric metasurfaces for angle-selective multifunctional beam deflection,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12228 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chigrin, D. N.

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, T. C.

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, C.

C. Chu, M. Tseng, J. Chen, P. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Wang, T. Chen, W. Hsieh, H. Wu, G. Sun, and D. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

Craig, C.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in. 2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez‐Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase‐Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M. J.

S. G. Carrillo, G. R. Nash, H. Hayat, M. J. Cryan, M. Klemm, H. Bhaskaran, and C. D. Wright, “Design of practicable phase-change metadevices for near-infrared absorber and modulator applications,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13563–13573 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, L.

A. Tittl, A. K. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid‐infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Galarreta, C. R.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez‐Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase‐Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R.

Diroll, B. T.

P. Guo, R. D. Schaller, L. E. Ocola, B. T. Diroll, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. Chang, “Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Ehrhardt, M.

X. Sun, A. Lotnyk, M. Ehrhardt, J. W. Gerlach, and B. Rauschenbach, “Realization of multilevel states in phase‐change thin films by fast laser pulse irradiation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(12), 1700169 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eleftheriades, G.

Elliott, S. R.

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the speed limits of phase-change memory,” Science 336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emani, N. K.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, P. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, P.

A. L. Holsteen, S. Raza, P. Fan, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas,” Science 358(6369), 1407–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forouzmand, A.

A. Forouzmand and H. Mosallaei, “Real-time controllable and multifunctional metasurfaces utilizing indium tin oxide materials: A phased array perspective,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 16(2), 296–306 (2017).
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Fountaine, K. T.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, J. C.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T.

Genevet, P.

Gerlach, J. W.

X. Sun, A. Lotnyk, M. Ehrhardt, J. W. Gerlach, and B. Rauschenbach, “Realization of multilevel states in phase‐change thin films by fast laser pulse irradiation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(12), 1700169 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gholipour, B.

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2016).
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A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. MacDonald, and N. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
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A. Tittl, A. K. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid‐infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

X. Yin, T. Steinle, L. Huang, T. Taubner, M. Wuttig, T. Zentgraf, and H. Giessen, “Beam switching and bifocal zoom lensing using active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(7), e17016 (2017).
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A. Tittl, A. K. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid‐infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Gu, T.

Guo, P.

P. Guo, R. D. Schaller, L. E. Ocola, B. T. Diroll, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. Chang, “Large optical nonlinearity of ITO nanorods for sub-picosecond all-optical modulation of the full-visible spectrum,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haglund, R. F.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

Han, S.

Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayat, H.

Hewak, D. W.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in. 2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hicken, R. J.

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
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S. Wen, Y. Meng, M. Jiang, and Y. Wang, “Multi-level coding-recoding by ultrafast phase transition on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 4979 (2018).
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Ni, X.

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Ocola, L. E.

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Pala, R. A.

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A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. Stewart Aitchison, and J. K. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
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P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
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C. Ríos, M. Stegmaier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 725–732 (2015).
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Poon, J. K.

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Rodrigues, S. P.

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Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in. 2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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C. Ríos, M. Stegmaier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 725–732 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez‐Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Phase‐Change Metadevices for Beam Steering in the Near Infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(10), 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

M. Taghinejad, H. Taghinejad, Z. Xu, Y. Liu, S. P. Rodrigues, K. T. Lee, T. Lian, A. Adibi, and W. Cai, “Hot-Electron-Assisted Femtosecond All-Optical Modulation in Plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 30(9), 1704915 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tittl, A. K. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid‐infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (3)

P. Iyer, M. Pendharkar, and J. Schuller, “Electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces using heterojunction resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(10), 1582–1588 (2016).
[Crossref]

A.-K. U. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Design parameters for phase-change materials for nanostructure resonance tuning,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700261 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, A. Lotnyk, M. Ehrhardt, J. W. Gerlach, and B. Rauschenbach, “Realization of multilevel states in phase‐change thin films by fast laser pulse irradiation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(12), 1700169 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. MacDonald, and N. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. Stewart Aitchison, and J. K. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

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