Abstract

Mode creation and temporal response of broad-area quantum cascade lasers (BA-QCL) placed within an external feedback cavity are described in this publication. The critical feedback parameter becomes the mirror angle relative to the BA-QCL facet. With judicious angle choices, a plethora of curious modes can be created, each with their particular threshold and slope efficiency. These range from a nearly single far-field intensity peak to highly multimode emission similar to their diode counterparts. Dynamics are strongly dominated by transverse mode competition ranging for less than 20MHz to greater than 100MHz. When the mirror is parallel to the facet, higher frequency external cavity oscillations become undamped.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Stelmakh, “Harnessing Multimode Broad-Area Laser-Diode Emission Into a Single-Lobe Diffraction- Limited Spot,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1392–1394 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. M. DeSantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.
    [Crossref]
  6. G. C. Dente and M. L. Tilton, “Class of resonator for slab waveguide lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2384–2389 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. J. Bossert, J. R. Marciante, and M. W. Wright, “Feedback effects in tapered broad area semiconductor lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(5), 470–472 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. R. Marciante and G. P. Agrawal, “Lateral spatial effects of feedback in gain-guided and broad-area semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1630–1635 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. K. Mandre, I. Fischer, and W. Elsässer, “Spatiotemporal emission dynamics of a broad-area semiconductor laser in an external cavity: stabilization and feedback-induced instabilities,” Opt. Commun. 244(1-6), 355–365 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Tachikawa, S. Takimoto, R. Shogenji, and J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics of Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers with Short Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 140–149 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Chi and P. M. Petersen, “Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 103101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. Stelmakh, M. Vasilyev, F. Toor, and C. Gmachl, “Degenerate and nondegenerate lateral-mode patterns in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013501 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).
  18. G. C. Dente, “Low Confinement Factors for Suppressed Filaments in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 37(12), 1650–1653 (2001).
  19. L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, “Statistics of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), R3370–R3373 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  21. Private conversations with Prof. A. Lyakh at the University of Central Florida and independently Prof. F. Grillot’s group at Telecomm ParisTech. Both groups have observed drop outs in free-running single transverse mode QCLs.

2017 (2)

S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. C. Dente and M. L. Tilton, “Class of resonator for slab waveguide lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2384–2389 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chi and P. M. Petersen, “Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 103101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

2010 (2)

A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Tachikawa, S. Takimoto, R. Shogenji, and J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics of Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers with Short Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 140–149 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Stelmakh, M. Vasilyev, F. Toor, and C. Gmachl, “Degenerate and nondegenerate lateral-mode patterns in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Stelmakh, “Harnessing Multimode Broad-Area Laser-Diode Emission Into a Single-Lobe Diffraction- Limited Spot,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1392–1394 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. K. Mandre, I. Fischer, and W. Elsässer, “Spatiotemporal emission dynamics of a broad-area semiconductor laser in an external cavity: stabilization and feedback-induced instabilities,” Opt. Commun. 244(1-6), 355–365 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. C. Dente, “Low Confinement Factors for Suppressed Filaments in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 37(12), 1650–1653 (2001).

1997 (1)

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, “Statistics of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), R3370–R3373 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. R. Marciante and G. P. Agrawal, “Lateral spatial effects of feedback in gain-guided and broad-area semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1630–1635 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. J. Bossert, J. R. Marciante, and M. W. Wright, “Feedback effects in tapered broad area semiconductor lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(5), 470–472 (1995).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

J. R. Marciante and G. P. Agrawal, “Lateral spatial effects of feedback in gain-guided and broad-area semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1630–1635 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bate, T.

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Belyanin, A.

A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bossert, D. J.

D. J. Bossert, J. R. Marciante, and M. W. Wright, “Feedback effects in tapered broad area semiconductor lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(5), 470–472 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bour, D.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunner, M.

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

Capasso, F.

A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carras, M.

S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chi, M.

M. Chi and P. M. Petersen, “Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 103101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Corzine, S.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubukcu, E.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darvish, S. R.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dente, G. C.

G. C. Dente and M. L. Tilton, “Class of resonator for slab waveguide lasers,” Appl. Opt. 53(11), 2384–2389 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Dente, “Low Confinement Factors for Suppressed Filaments in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 37(12), 1650–1653 (2001).

Diehl, L.

A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsässer, W.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. K. Mandre, I. Fischer, and W. Elsässer, “Spatiotemporal emission dynamics of a broad-area semiconductor laser in an external cavity: stabilization and feedback-induced instabilities,” Opt. Commun. 244(1-6), 355–365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ferré, S.

S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, R.

S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, I.

S. K. Mandre, I. Fischer, and W. Elsässer, “Spatiotemporal emission dynamics of a broad-area semiconductor laser in an external cavity: stabilization and feedback-induced instabilities,” Opt. Commun. 244(1-6), 355–365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, F.

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

Gardner, J. R.

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, “Statistics of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), R3370–R3373 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, D. J.

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, “Statistics of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), R3370–R3373 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

N. Stelmakh, M. Vasilyev, F. Toor, and C. Gmachl, “Degenerate and nondegenerate lateral-mode patterns in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gokden, B.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grillot, F.

S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haddadi, A.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Höfler, G.

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugger, S.

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

Jumpertz, L.

S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaspi, R.

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kinzer, M.

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luong, S.

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mandre, S. K.

S. K. Mandre, I. Fischer, and W. Elsässer, “Spatiotemporal emission dynamics of a broad-area semiconductor laser in an external cavity: stabilization and feedback-induced instabilities,” Opt. Commun. 244(1-6), 355–365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Marciante, J. R.

J. R. Marciante and G. P. Agrawal, “Lateral spatial effects of feedback in gain-guided and broad-area semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1630–1635 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. J. Bossert, J. R. Marciante, and M. W. Wright, “Feedback effects in tapered broad area semiconductor lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(5), 470–472 (1995).
[Crossref]

Michel, F.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

Newell, T. C.

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ohtsubo, J.

T. Tachikawa, S. Takimoto, R. Shogenji, and J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics of Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers with Short Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 140–149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pawlus, R.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

Petersen, P. M.

M. Chi and P. M. Petersen, “Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 103101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schires, K.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sciamanna, M.

L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shogenji, R.

T. Tachikawa, S. Takimoto, R. Shogenji, and J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics of Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers with Short Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 140–149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stefan, B.

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

Stelmakh, N.

N. Stelmakh, M. Vasilyev, F. Toor, and C. Gmachl, “Degenerate and nondegenerate lateral-mode patterns in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013501 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Stelmakh, “Harnessing Multimode Broad-Area Laser-Diode Emission Into a Single-Lobe Diffraction- Limited Spot,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1392–1394 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sukow, D. W.

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, “Statistics of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), R3370–R3373 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tachikawa, T.

T. Tachikawa, S. Takimoto, R. Shogenji, and J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics of Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers with Short Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 140–149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takimoto, S.

T. Tachikawa, S. Takimoto, R. Shogenji, and J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics of Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers with Short Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 140–149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tilton, M. L.

Toor, F.

N. Stelmakh, M. Vasilyev, F. Toor, and C. Gmachl, “Degenerate and nondegenerate lateral-mode patterns in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vasilyev, M.

N. Stelmakh, M. Vasilyev, F. Toor, and C. Gmachl, “Degenerate and nondegenerate lateral-mode patterns in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J.

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

Wojcik, A. K.

A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, M. W.

D. J. Bossert, J. R. Marciante, and M. W. Wright, “Feedback effects in tapered broad area semiconductor lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(5), 470–472 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

Yu, N.

A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsässer, K. Schires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden, and M. Razeghi, “High power broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221104 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Stelmakh, M. Vasilyev, F. Toor, and C. Gmachl, “Degenerate and nondegenerate lateral-mode patterns in quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013501 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Kaspi, S. Luong, T. Bate, C. Lu, T. C. Newell, and C. Yang, “Distributed loss method to suppress high order modes in broad area quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201109 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE J Quant. Electron. (2)

M. Kinzer, Q. Yang, S. Hugger, B. Stefan, M. Brunner, F. Fuchs, and J. Wagner, “Diffraction-Limited Infrared-Imaging of the Near-Field Intensity Emitted by Quantum-Cascade Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 48(5), 696–702 (2012).

G. C. Dente, “Low Confinement Factors for Suppressed Filaments in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J Quant. Electron. 37(12), 1650–1653 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. R. Marciante and G. P. Agrawal, “Lateral spatial effects of feedback in gain-guided and broad-area semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1630–1635 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Tachikawa, S. Takimoto, R. Shogenji, and J. Ohtsubo, “Dynamics of Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers with Short Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 140–149 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. J. Bossert, J. R. Marciante, and M. W. Wright, “Feedback effects in tapered broad area semiconductor lasers and amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(5), 470–472 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. Stelmakh, “Harnessing Multimode Broad-Area Laser-Diode Emission Into a Single-Lobe Diffraction- Limited Spot,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1392–1394 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Chi and P. M. Petersen, “Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(10), 103101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Jumpertz, K. Schires, M. Carras, M. Sciamanna, and F. Grillot, “Chaotic light at mid-infrared wavelength,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(6), e16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Mandre, I. Fischer, and W. Elsässer, “Spatiotemporal emission dynamics of a broad-area semiconductor laser in an external cavity: stabilization and feedback-induced instabilities,” Opt. Commun. 244(1-6), 355–365 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. K. Wojcik, N. Yu, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, and A. Belyanin, “Nonlinear coupling of transverse modes in quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111114 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. W. Sukow, J. R. Gardner, and D. J. Gauthier, “Statistics of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), R3370–R3373 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Yu, L. Diehl, E. Cubukcu, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, A. K. Wojcik, K. B. Crozier, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Coherent Coupling of Multiple Transverse Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Ferré, L. Jumpertz, M. Carras, R. Ferreira, and F. Grillot, “Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. M. DeSantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.
[Crossref]

Private conversations with Prof. A. Lyakh at the University of Central Florida and independently Prof. F. Grillot’s group at Telecomm ParisTech. Both groups have observed drop outs in free-running single transverse mode QCLs.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental arrangement.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Facet images of 40um QCL, (a) Free-running case with M = 9, (b) Feedback case with a dominant single peak, (c) Feedback case with two symmetric oval peaks, (d) fuzzy image indicative of a strongly multimode beam.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The slope efficiency and threshold current relative to the free-running case when the mirror angle is varied. Dots are measured points. (a) slope efficiency and (b) threshold.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Time series taken at two different positions in the beam front. The oscillations are out of phase showing mode competition.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode competition oscillations are injection current dependent and similar regardless of the feedback mirror angle. Each plot represents a different mirror angle.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 A two-dimensional plot of the observed oscillation frequencies plotted versus the mirror angle. The strength of the oscillations is gray-scale colored with lighter colors signifying a stronger signal. External cavity oscillations at 430MHz are only observed when the mirror is aligned parallel to the QCL facets.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Quasi-periodic behavior when high frequency external cavity oscillations exist concurrently with lower frequency mode competition.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Rare cases in which (a) the time series shows similarities to low-frequency oscillations and (b) sudden power dropouts lasting nearly 180ns.