Abstract

A channel mismatch model for time-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converters is built by decomposing both optical time division multiplexing channels and the wavelength division multiplexing channels into time channels with uniform and equal-amplitude sampling clock. Based on the model, the influence of power and timing mismatch of optical sampling pulse trains, optical sampling pulse temporal shape mismatches, photodetection bandwidth mismatches on the sampling results are analyzed theoretically. Depending on the found relationship between unmodulated components and modulated components, an effective online amplitude mismatch correction method applicable to wideband signals is proposed. The theoretical results are verified on a 4-channel TIPADC system. The proposed amplitude mismatch correction method can suppress the spurs caused by unmodulated components mismatch and modulated components mismatch by ~50 dB and ~30 dB for a two-tone signal, respectively.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15(5), 1955–1982 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. G. Wu, S. Li, X. Li, and J. Chen, “18 wavelengths 83.9Gs/s optical sampling clock for photonic A/D converters,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21162–21168 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Law, P. J. Hurst, and S. H. Lewis, “A Four-Channel Time-Interleaved ADC With Digital Calibration of Interchannel Timing and Memory Errors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(10), 2091–2103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Matsuno, T. Yamaji, M. Furuta, and T. Itakura, “All-Digital Background Calibration Technique for Time-Interleaved ADC Using Pseudo Aliasing Signal,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 60(5), 1113–1121 (2013).
  8. S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).
  9. S. Singh, M. Valkama, M. Epp, and W. Schlecker, “Frequency Response Mismatch Analysis in Time-Interleaved Analog I/Q Processing and ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 62(6), 608–612 (2015).
  10. A. Haftbaradaran and K. W. Martin, “A Background Sample-Time Error Calibration Technique Using Random Data for Wide-Band High-Resolution Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 55(3), 234–238 (2008).
  11. G. Yang, W. Zou, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of channel mismatch in time-wavelength interleaved optical clock based on mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2174–2186 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Compensation of multi-channel mismatches in high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24061–24074 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. Su, G. Wu, L. Ye, R. Liu, X. Xue, and J. Chen, “Effects of the photonic sampling pulse width and the photodetection bandwidth on the channel response of photonic ADCs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 924–934 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. Su, G. Wu, and J. Chen, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with equivalent analog prefiltering by shaping sampling pulses,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2779–2782 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. X. Zou, S. L. Zhang, Y. C. Lim, and X. Chen, “Timing Mismatch Compensation in Time-Interleaved ADCs Based on Multichannel Lagrange Polynomial Interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1123–1131 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Liu, N. Ning, and Q. Yu, “A Digital Timing Mismatch Calibration Technique in Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 61(7), 486–490 (2014).
  17. J. D. McKinney and K. J. Williams, “Sampled Analog Optical Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(8), 2093–2099 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Kim, M. J. Park, M. H. Perrott, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16509–16515 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

G. Yang, W. Zou, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of channel mismatch in time-wavelength interleaved optical clock based on mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2174–2186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).

S. Singh, M. Valkama, M. Epp, and W. Schlecker, “Frequency Response Mismatch Analysis in Time-Interleaved Analog I/Q Processing and ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 62(6), 608–612 (2015).

2014 (1)

J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Liu, N. Ning, and Q. Yu, “A Digital Timing Mismatch Calibration Technique in Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 61(7), 486–490 (2014).

2013 (1)

J. Matsuno, T. Yamaji, M. Furuta, and T. Itakura, “All-Digital Background Calibration Technique for Time-Interleaved ADC Using Pseudo Aliasing Signal,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 60(5), 1113–1121 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

Y. X. Zou, S. L. Zhang, Y. C. Lim, and X. Chen, “Timing Mismatch Compensation in Time-Interleaved ADCs Based on Multichannel Lagrange Polynomial Interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1123–1131 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. Wu, S. Li, X. Li, and J. Chen, “18 wavelengths 83.9Gs/s optical sampling clock for photonic A/D converters,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21162–21168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Law, P. J. Hurst, and S. H. Lewis, “A Four-Channel Time-Interleaved ADC With Digital Calibration of Interchannel Timing and Memory Errors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(10), 2091–2103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. D. McKinney and K. J. Williams, “Sampled Analog Optical Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(8), 2093–2099 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Haftbaradaran and K. W. Martin, “A Background Sample-Time Error Calibration Technique Using Random Data for Wide-Band High-Resolution Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 55(3), 234–238 (2008).

J. Kim, M. J. Park, M. H. Perrott, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16509–16515 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2001 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Anttila, L.

S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).

Betts, G. E.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Byun, H.

Chen, J.

G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Compensation of multi-channel mismatches in high-speed high-resolution photonic analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24061–24074 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Su, G. Wu, L. Ye, R. Liu, X. Xue, and J. Chen, “Effects of the photonic sampling pulse width and the photodetection bandwidth on the channel response of photonic ADCs,” Opt. Express 24(2), 924–934 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Su, G. Wu, and J. Chen, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with equivalent analog prefiltering by shaping sampling pulses,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2779–2782 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yang, W. Zou, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of channel mismatch in time-wavelength interleaved optical clock based on mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2174–2186 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wu, S. Li, X. Li, and J. Chen, “18 wavelengths 83.9Gs/s optical sampling clock for photonic A/D converters,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21162–21168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Y. X. Zou, S. L. Zhang, Y. C. Lim, and X. Chen, “Timing Mismatch Compensation in Time-Interleaved ADCs Based on Multichannel Lagrange Polynomial Interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1123–1131 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dahlem, M. S.

DiLello, N. A.

Donnell, F. J. O.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Epp, M.

S. Singh, M. Valkama, M. Epp, and W. Schlecker, “Frequency Response Mismatch Analysis in Time-Interleaved Analog I/Q Processing and ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 62(6), 608–612 (2015).

S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).

Esman, R. D.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Furuta, M.

J. Matsuno, T. Yamaji, M. Furuta, and T. Itakura, “All-Digital Background Calibration Technique for Time-Interleaved ADC Using Pseudo Aliasing Signal,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 60(5), 1113–1121 (2013).

Geis, M. W.

Grein, M. E.

Haftbaradaran, A.

A. Haftbaradaran and K. W. Martin, “A Background Sample-Time Error Calibration Technique Using Random Data for Wide-Band High-Resolution Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 55(3), 234–238 (2008).

Hargreaves, J. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hoyt, J. L.

Hurst, P. J.

H. Law, P. J. Hurst, and S. H. Lewis, “A Four-Channel Time-Interleaved ADC With Digital Calibration of Interchannel Timing and Memory Errors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(10), 2091–2103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Itakura, T.

J. Matsuno, T. Yamaji, M. Furuta, and T. Itakura, “All-Digital Background Calibration Technique for Time-Interleaved ADC Using Pseudo Aliasing Signal,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 60(5), 1113–1121 (2013).

Juodawlkis, P. W.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. U.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khilo, A.

Kim, J.

Law, H.

H. Law, P. J. Hurst, and S. H. Lewis, “A Four-Channel Time-Interleaved ADC With Digital Calibration of Interchannel Timing and Memory Errors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(10), 2091–2103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lewis, S. H.

H. Law, P. J. Hurst, and S. H. Lewis, “A Four-Channel Time-Interleaved ADC With Digital Calibration of Interchannel Timing and Memory Errors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(10), 2091–2103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Liu, N. Ning, and Q. Yu, “A Digital Timing Mismatch Calibration Technique in Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 61(7), 486–490 (2014).

Li, S.

Li, X.

Lim, Y. C.

Y. X. Zou, S. L. Zhang, Y. C. Lim, and X. Chen, “Timing Mismatch Compensation in Time-Interleaved ADCs Based on Multichannel Lagrange Polynomial Interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1123–1131 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

Liu, Y.

J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Liu, N. Ning, and Q. Yu, “A Digital Timing Mismatch Calibration Technique in Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 61(7), 486–490 (2014).

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Martin, K. W.

A. Haftbaradaran and K. W. Martin, “A Background Sample-Time Error Calibration Technique Using Random Data for Wide-Band High-Resolution Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 55(3), 234–238 (2008).

Matsuno, J.

J. Matsuno, T. Yamaji, M. Furuta, and T. Itakura, “All-Digital Background Calibration Technique for Time-Interleaved ADC Using Pseudo Aliasing Signal,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 60(5), 1113–1121 (2013).

McKinney, J. D.

J. D. McKinney and K. J. Williams, “Sampled Analog Optical Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(8), 2093–2099 (2009).
[Crossref]

Motamedi, A.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Ning, N.

J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Liu, N. Ning, and Q. Yu, “A Digital Timing Mismatch Calibration Technique in Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 61(7), 486–490 (2014).

Orcutt, J. S.

Park, M. J.

Peng, M. Y.

Perrott, M.

Perrott, M. H.

Popovic, M. A.

Ram, R. J.

Ray, K. G.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sander, M. Y.

Schlecker, W.

S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).

S. Singh, M. Valkama, M. Epp, and W. Schlecker, “Frequency Response Mismatch Analysis in Time-Interleaved Analog I/Q Processing and ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 62(6), 608–612 (2015).

Singh, S.

S. Singh, M. Valkama, M. Epp, and W. Schlecker, “Frequency Response Mismatch Analysis in Time-Interleaved Analog I/Q Processing and ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 62(6), 608–612 (2015).

S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).

Smith, H. I.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

Spector, S. J.

Su, F.

Sun, J.

Twichell, J. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Valkama, M.

S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).

S. Singh, M. Valkama, M. Epp, and W. Schlecker, “Frequency Response Mismatch Analysis in Time-Interleaved Analog I/Q Processing and ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 62(6), 608–612 (2015).

Valley, G. C.

Wang, J. P.

Wasserman, J. L.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

J. D. McKinney and K. J. Williams, “Sampled Analog Optical Links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(8), 2093–2099 (2009).
[Crossref]

Williamson, R. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, G.

Wu, K.

Wu, S.

J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Liu, N. Ning, and Q. Yu, “A Digital Timing Mismatch Calibration Technique in Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 61(7), 486–490 (2014).

Xue, X.

Yamaji, T.

J. Matsuno, T. Yamaji, M. Furuta, and T. Itakura, “All-Digital Background Calibration Technique for Time-Interleaved ADC Using Pseudo Aliasing Signal,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 60(5), 1113–1121 (2013).

Yang, G.

Ye, L.

Yoon, J. U.

Younger, R. D.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O. Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Yu, Q.

J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Liu, N. Ning, and Q. Yu, “A Digital Timing Mismatch Calibration Technique in Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 61(7), 486–490 (2014).

Zhang, S. L.

Y. X. Zou, S. L. Zhang, Y. C. Lim, and X. Chen, “Timing Mismatch Compensation in Time-Interleaved ADCs Based on Multichannel Lagrange Polynomial Interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1123–1131 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G. R.

Zou, W.

Zou, Y. X.

Y. X. Zou, S. L. Zhang, Y. C. Lim, and X. Chen, “Timing Mismatch Compensation in Time-Interleaved ADCs Based on Multichannel Lagrange Polynomial Interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1123–1131 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

H. Law, P. J. Hurst, and S. H. Lewis, “A Four-Channel Time-Interleaved ADC With Digital Calibration of Interchannel Timing and Memory Errors,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(10), 2091–2103 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers (2)

J. Matsuno, T. Yamaji, M. Furuta, and T. Itakura, “All-Digital Background Calibration Technique for Time-Interleaved ADC Using Pseudo Aliasing Signal,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 60(5), 1113–1121 (2013).

S. Singh, L. Anttila, M. Epp, W. Schlecker, and M. Valkama, “Frequency Response Mismatches in 4-channel Time-Interleaved ADCs: Analysis, Blind Identification, and Correction,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. Reg. Papers 62(9), 2268–2279 (2015).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs (3)

S. Singh, M. Valkama, M. Epp, and W. Schlecker, “Frequency Response Mismatch Analysis in Time-Interleaved Analog I/Q Processing and ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 62(6), 608–612 (2015).

A. Haftbaradaran and K. W. Martin, “A Background Sample-Time Error Calibration Technique Using Random Data for Wide-Band High-Resolution Time-Interleaved ADCs,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Exp. Briefs 55(3), 234–238 (2008).

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Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of TIPADC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The sampled results spectrum of channel 1 and channel 2; (b) The combined spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The flow chart for the proposed amplitude correction method.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experiment setup of TIPADCs with OTDM structure. MLL: Mode locked laser; OC: Optical coupler; ODL: Optical delay line; VDL: Variable delay line; PC: Polarization Controller; EDFA: Erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier; MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator; SG: signal generator; AWG: Arrayed waveguide grating; PD: Photodiode; PS: Power splitter; PLL: Phase locked loop.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)The amplitude variation vs relative power mismatch ratio and (b) The ratio of MC to UC of CH11 and CH12.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a)The amplitude variation vs relative time deviation and (b) The ratio of MC to UC of CH11 and CH12.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The measured channel frequency responses under different photodetection bandwidth and (b) The normalized frequency responses of the adopted photodetection.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) the corresponding channel frequency responses in different filter linewidths.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The normalized power responses of the adopted WDM channels and (b) the measured channel frequency responses in different pulse shapes.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The power spectrum of the sampling result in each time channel.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a)The power spectrum of the sampling data without the proposed amplitude correction; (b) The power spectrum of the sampling data with the proposed amplitude correction.

Equations (23)

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p mn (t)= P A,mn p s,mn (t) k= + δ(tk T s d p,mn ) ,
d p,mn = d ρ,mn + d σ,mn .
d ρ,mn = (m1)M+n1 MN T s .
v Q0,mn = 0.5α h E,mn (t d E,mn ) p mn (t)| t=k T s ,
v Q1,mn [k]= h A,mn (t) v I (t)| t=k T s ,
h A,mn (t)=0.5α[ h E,mn (t d E,mn ) p mn (t)] h MD (t),
v Q0,mn =0.5α P A,mn h E,mn ( d E,mn d σ,mn ),
h E,mn (t)= p s,mn (t) h E,mn (t).
V Q0 (Ω)= 1 T s n=1 N m=1 M v Q0,mn l= + δ(Ωl Ω s )exp(jΩ d ρ,mn ) ,
h A,mn (t)= h MD (t) k= + c k,mn δ(t+k T s + d p,mn ) .
c k,mn =0.5α P A,mn h E,mn (k T s d E,mn d σ,mn ) k= + δ(t+k T s + d p,mn ) .
h A,mn (t)= c mn h MD (t+ d p,mn ),
c mn =0.5α P A,mn h E,mn ( d E,mn d σ,mn ).
v Q1,mn [k]=0.5α P A,mn h E,mn ( d E,mn d σ,mn ) v I (t d p,mn d σ,mn ),
V Q1 (Ω)= 1 T s n=1 N m=1 M H A,mn (Ω) V I (Ω),
H A,mn (Ω)=0.5α P A,mn H MD (Ω) P s,mn (Ω) R mn (Ω)exp(jΩ d p,mn ),
R mn (Ω)= 1 T s k= + H E,mn (Ω+k Ω s )exp(jΩ d E,mn )exp[j(Ω+k Ω s ) d p,mn ] ,
H A,mn (Ω)=0.5α P A,mn H MD (Ω) P s,mn (Ω)exp(jΩ d p,mn ).
v Q1,mn [k]= v Q0,mn v I (k T s + d p,mn ).
v Q1,mn [k]= v Q1,mn [k] v Q0,mn .
h A,mn (t)=0.5α P A,mn h MD (t) T A,mn (t),
T A,mn (t)= h E,mn (t d E,mn )[ p s,mn (t) k= + δ(t+k T s + d p,mn ) ].
T A,mn (t)[ p s,mn (t) h E,mn (t d E,mn ) ] k= + δ(t+k T s + d p,mn ) .

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