Abstract

Superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) are able to reach near-unity detection efficiency in the infrared spectral range. However, due to the intrinsic asymmetry of nanowires, SNSPDs are usually very sensitive to the polarization of the incident radiation, their responsivity being maximum for light polarized parallel to the nanowire length (transverse-electric (TE) polarization). Here, we report on the reduction of the polarization sensitivity obtained by capping NbN-based SNSPDs with a high-index SiNx dielectric layer, which reduces the permittivity mismatch between the NbN wire and the surrounding area. Experimentally, a polarization sensitivity below 0.1 is obtained both at 1.31 and 1.55 µm, in excellent agreement with simulations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (4)

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 035005 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Björck and G. Andersson, “GenX : an extensible X-ray reflectivity refinement program utilizing differential evolution,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(6), 1174–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Akopian, N.

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anant, V.

Andersson, G.

M. Björck and G. Andersson, “GenX : an extensible X-ray reflectivity refinement program utilizing differential evolution,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(6), 1174–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bartolf, H.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

Björck, M.

M. Björck and G. Andersson, “GenX : an extensible X-ray reflectivity refinement program utilizing differential evolution,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(6), 1174–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

Böttger, U.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bulgarini, G.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bussières, F.

Calkins, B.

Chen, J.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dauler, E. A.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobrovolskiy, S.

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dobrovolskiy, S. M.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, S. N.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dyer, S. D.

Engel, A.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Esmaeil Zadeh, I.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

Gérard, J. M.

L. Redaelli, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 035005 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerthsen, D.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gippius, N. A.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gourgues, R. B. M.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grein, M. E.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gruber, S. M.

Günther, B.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horansky, R. D.

Huang, J.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hübers, H.-W.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ilin, K.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jia, X.

Jin, B.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerman, A. J.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klapwijk, T. M.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korzh, B.

Li, H.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lita, A. E.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Miller, A. E. Lita, B. Calkins, I. Vayshenker, S. M. Gruber, and S. W. Nam, “Compact cryogenic self-aligning fiber-to-detector coupling with losses below one percent,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9102–9110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. Y.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Los, J. W. N.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marsili, F.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miki, S.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, A. J.

Mirin, R. P.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Monroy, E.

L. Redaelli, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 035005 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nam, S.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nam, S. W.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. J. Miller, A. E. Lita, B. Calkins, I. Vayshenker, S. M. Gruber, and S. W. Nam, “Compact cryogenic self-aligning fiber-to-detector coupling with losses below one percent,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9102–9110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natarajan, C. M.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Connor, J. A.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Perinetti, U.

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pottapenjara, V. K.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qin, D.

Redaelli, L.

L. Redaelli, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 035005 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reiger, E. M.

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rosfjord, K. M.

Sasaki, M.

Schilling, A.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schneider, R.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Semenov, A.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. D.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Siegel, M.

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Steinmetz, V.

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Terai, H.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Ureña, E. B.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vayshenker, I.

Verma, V. B.

V. B. Verma, B. Korzh, F. Bussières, R. D. Horansky, S. D. Dyer, A. E. Lita, I. Vayshenker, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, H. Zbinden, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33792–33801 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warburton, R. J.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. M.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, X.

Yang, J. K. W.

Yang, X. Y.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

You, L. X.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

Zhang, L.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. J.

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, F.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

R. Xu, F. Zheng, D. Qin, X. Yan, G. Zhu, L. Kang, L. Zhang, X. Jia, X. Tu, B. Jin, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4707–4713 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, T.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zwiller, V.

L. Redaelli, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 035005 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

I. Esmaeil Zadeh, J. W. N. Los, R. B. M. Gourgues, V. Steinmetz, G. Bulgarini, S. M. Dobrovolskiy, V. Zwiller, and S. N. Dorenbos, “Single-photon detectors combining high efficiency, high detection rates, and ultra-high timing resolution,” APL Photonics 2(11), 111301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. N. Dorenbos, E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Superconducting single photon detectors with minimized polarization dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 161102 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251114 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

M. Björck and G. Andersson, “GenX : an extensible X-ray reflectivity refinement program utilizing differential evolution,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(6), 1174–1178 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Semenov, B. Günther, U. Böttger, H.-W. Hübers, H. Bartolf, A. Engel, A. Schilling, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, and N. A. Gippius, “Optical and transport properties of ultrathin NbN films and nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 80(5), 054510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

F. Zheng, R. Xu, G. Zhu, B. Jin, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supercond. Sci. Technol. (4)

J. Huang, W. J. Zhang, L. X. You, X. Y. Liu, Q. Guo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Yang, H. Li, Z. Wang, and X. M. Xie, “Spiral superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with efficiency over 50% at 1550 nm wavelength,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(7), 074004 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, G. Bulgarini, S. Dobrovolskiy, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29(6), 065016 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Redaelli, V. Zwiller, E. Monroy, and J. M. Gérard, “Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 035005 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. Gu, Y. Cheng, X. Zhu, and X. Hu, “Fractal-Inspired, Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” OSA Tech. Dig. Online JM3A.10 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Film resistance vs. temperature for the NbN thin film under study. Inset: 1 × 1 µm2 atomic force microscopy image of the NbN surface. (b) X-ray reflectivity of the NbN film on SiO2-on-silicon. Black squares are experimental measurements and the solid gray line is a fit generated with the GenX software.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a,b) SEM images of the NbN meander. (c) SNSPD device mounted on a print circuit board for characterization.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated absorption efficiency as a function of the wavelength (a) for the uncapped NbN meander; (b) for the NbN meander covered with 330 nm of SiNx. Insets: Designs of the structures for which simulations have been performed.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated dependence of TE and TM absorption efficiency, as well as the TM/TE absorption ratio, as a function of the thickness of the SiNx cap layer at (a) 1.31 µm, and (b) 1.55 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Detection efficiency as a function of the bias current / critical current ratio (Ib/Icrit), measured for a typical SNSPD device (a) at 1.31 µm, and (b) at 1.55 µm. The dark count rate is represented in (a). Inset in (b): measurement of the NTM/NTE response ratio of bare devices (open symbol) and devices capped with SiNx (solid symbols). The curves represent theoretical calculations for both cases.

Equations (1)

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C= 1 N TM / N TE 1+ N TM / N TE .

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