Abstract

Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) uplink in a passive optical network (PON) requires the delay alignment for OFDMA symbols from remotely distributed optical network units (ONUs). In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate and analyze the performance of a Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequence-based upstream ranging scheme in an intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD)-based OFDMA-PON. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve upstream synchronization with only marginal inter-carrier interference (ICI) and requires no additional bandwidths in a typical OFDMA transmission with cyclic prefix (CP).

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. T. O. Olwal, K. Djouani, and A. M. Kurien, “A survey of resource management toward 5G radio access networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(3), 1656–1686 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Mobile, “C-RAN: the road towards green RAN,” White paper V 2.5 (2011).
  4. Common public radio interface (CPRI); interface specification, CPRI specification V 6.1, Ericsson AB, Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd, NEC Corporation, Alcatel Lucent, and Nokia Networks, http://www.cpri.info (2014).
  5. K. Kanonakis, I. Tomkos, T. Pfeiffer, J. Prat, and P. Kourtessis, “ACCORDANCE: A novel OFDMA-PON paradigm for ultra-high capacity converged wireline-wireless access networks,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2010), pp. 1–4.
    [Crossref]
  6. J. von Hoyningen-Huene, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, and W. Rosenkranz, “Asynchronous signal reception in OFDMA-PON-uplink,” in Advanced Photonics 2013, paper SPM4D.2.
  7. J. von Hoyningen-Huene, H. Griesser, M. H. Eiselt, C. Ruprecht, and W. Rosenkranz, “Comparison of Rx-DSP-structures in experimental OFDMA-PON uplink transmission systems,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2014), paper Tu2F.4.
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Y. Jung, S. M. Jung, H. J. Park, and S. K. Han, “Mitigation of timing offset effect in IM/DD based OFDMA-PON uplink multiple access,” Opt. Express 23(11), 13889–13898 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X. Peng, J. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “Single subcarrier gold sequences modulated timing synchronization for upstream OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7200207 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Razmtouz, K. Habel, C. Kottke, C. Ruprecht, and W. Rosenkranz, “Initial ranging scheme based on interpolated Zadoff-Chu sequences for OFDMA-PON,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3669–3674 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. B. Kuang and Y. Wu, “Ranging timing synchronization for OFDMA-PON upstream,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP, 2014), paper ATh3A.177.
    [Crossref]
  12. A. G. Reza and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Zadoff–Chu sequence-based hitless ranging scheme for OFDMA-PON configured 5G fronthaul uplinks,” Opt. Eng. 56(5), 056110 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. L. Frank, S. A. Zadoff, and R. Heimiller, “Phase shift pulse codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8(6), 381–382 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. C. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  15. Telesystem Innovations Inc, white paper, “LTE in a nutshell: the physical layer,” (Telesystem Innovations Inc., 2010), http://frankrayal.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/LTE-in-a-Nutshell-System-Overview.pdf .

2017 (3)

A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Peng, J. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “Single subcarrier gold sequences modulated timing synchronization for upstream OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7200207 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. G. Reza and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Zadoff–Chu sequence-based hitless ranging scheme for OFDMA-PON configured 5G fronthaul uplinks,” Opt. Eng. 56(5), 056110 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. O. Olwal, K. Djouani, and A. M. Kurien, “A survey of resource management toward 5G radio access networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(3), 1656–1686 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

1972 (1)

D. C. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

R. L. Frank, S. A. Zadoff, and R. Heimiller, “Phase shift pulse codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8(6), 381–382 (1962).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

X. Peng, J. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “Single subcarrier gold sequences modulated timing synchronization for upstream OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7200207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chu, D. C.

D. C. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
[Crossref]

Djouani, K.

T. O. Olwal, K. Djouani, and A. M. Kurien, “A survey of resource management toward 5G radio access networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(3), 1656–1686 (2016).
[Crossref]

Frank, R. L.

R. L. Frank, S. A. Zadoff, and R. Heimiller, “Phase shift pulse codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8(6), 381–382 (1962).
[Crossref]

Habel, K.

Han, S. K.

Heath, R. W.

A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Heimiller, R.

R. L. Frank, S. A. Zadoff, and R. Heimiller, “Phase shift pulse codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8(6), 381–382 (1962).
[Crossref]

Jung, S. M.

Jung, S. Y.

Khan, T. A.

A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kottke, C.

Kurien, A. M.

T. O. Olwal, K. Djouani, and A. M. Kurien, “A survey of resource management toward 5G radio access networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(3), 1656–1686 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

X. Peng, J. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “Single subcarrier gold sequences modulated timing synchronization for upstream OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7200207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Olwal, T. O.

T. O. Olwal, K. Djouani, and A. M. Kurien, “A survey of resource management toward 5G radio access networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(3), 1656–1686 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

Park, J.

A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

X. Peng, J. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “Single subcarrier gold sequences modulated timing synchronization for upstream OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7200207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Razmtouz, A.

Reza, A. G.

A. G. Reza and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Zadoff–Chu sequence-based hitless ranging scheme for OFDMA-PON configured 5G fronthaul uplinks,” Opt. Eng. 56(5), 056110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rhee, J.-K. K.

A. G. Reza and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Zadoff–Chu sequence-based hitless ranging scheme for OFDMA-PON configured 5G fronthaul uplinks,” Opt. Eng. 56(5), 056110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rosenkranz, W.

Ruprecht, C.

Song, Y.

X. Peng, J. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “Single subcarrier gold sequences modulated timing synchronization for upstream OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7200207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yazdan, A.

A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zadoff, S. A.

R. L. Frank, S. A. Zadoff, and R. Heimiller, “Phase shift pulse codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8(6), 381–382 (1962).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

T. O. Olwal, K. Djouani, and A. M. Kurien, “A survey of resource management toward 5G radio access networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(3), 1656–1686 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

A. Yazdan, J. Park, S. Park, T. A. Khan, and R. W. Heath, “Energy-efficient massive MIMO: wireless-powered communication, multiuser MIMO with hybrid precoding, and cloud radio access network with variable-resolution ADCs,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 18(5), 18–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Peng, J. Chen, Y. Li, and Y. Song, “Single subcarrier gold sequences modulated timing synchronization for upstream OFDMA-PON,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 7200207 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

D. C. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
[Crossref]

IRE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

R. L. Frank, S. A. Zadoff, and R. Heimiller, “Phase shift pulse codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8(6), 381–382 (1962).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. G. Reza and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Zadoff–Chu sequence-based hitless ranging scheme for OFDMA-PON configured 5G fronthaul uplinks,” Opt. Eng. 56(5), 056110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (7)

B. Kuang and Y. Wu, “Ranging timing synchronization for OFDMA-PON upstream,” in Proceedings of Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP, 2014), paper ATh3A.177.
[Crossref]

C. Mobile, “C-RAN: the road towards green RAN,” White paper V 2.5 (2011).

Common public radio interface (CPRI); interface specification, CPRI specification V 6.1, Ericsson AB, Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd, NEC Corporation, Alcatel Lucent, and Nokia Networks, http://www.cpri.info (2014).

K. Kanonakis, I. Tomkos, T. Pfeiffer, J. Prat, and P. Kourtessis, “ACCORDANCE: A novel OFDMA-PON paradigm for ultra-high capacity converged wireline-wireless access networks,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2010), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

J. von Hoyningen-Huene, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, and W. Rosenkranz, “Asynchronous signal reception in OFDMA-PON-uplink,” in Advanced Photonics 2013, paper SPM4D.2.

J. von Hoyningen-Huene, H. Griesser, M. H. Eiselt, C. Ruprecht, and W. Rosenkranz, “Comparison of Rx-DSP-structures in experimental OFDMA-PON uplink transmission systems,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2014), paper Tu2F.4.
[Crossref]

Telesystem Innovations Inc, white paper, “LTE in a nutshell: the physical layer,” (Telesystem Innovations Inc., 2010), http://frankrayal.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/LTE-in-a-Nutshell-System-Overview.pdf .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Signal reception in the OFDMA-PON uplink. (a) Synchronous transmission. (b) Asynchronous transmission.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Discontinuity mitigation in a time domain OFDMA symbol by a phase precoder.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of the proposed ZC sequence-based uplink synchronization scheme. (i) optical spectrum after 20-km transmission over SMF-28e.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The highest peaks of the auto-correlations for 2-km and 18-km optical path delays. (b) Received RF spectra at the OLT during ranging.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 EVM plots and constellations during asynchronous OFDMA-PON upstream signal transmission. (a) 2-km optical path delay, (b) 18-km optical path delay.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C(k)={ exp( jπr k 2 L ), for even L, exp( jπr k(k+1) L ), for odd L,
X(k,t)={ C(k) , if 1 k (t1)D 2 orL (t1)D 2 +1kL 0 , otherwise t=1,, N T /2+1 k = 1,2,L ,
X ˜ (n,t)={ X(nm+1,t), for mnm1+L, 0, otherwise, for n=0,1,,K-1 ,
X ˜ (n,t)= X ˜ (n,t) e j2πn(t1) N CP 2K ,
r ^ rseq (τ)= i=0 2K+ N cp 1 r(i)*seq(i+τ)

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