Abstract

We report the first experimental demonstration of germanium-tin (GeSn) lateral p-i-n photodetector on a novel GeSn-on-insulator (GeSnOI) substrate. The GeSnOI is formed by direct wafer bonding and layer transfer technique, which is promising for large-scale integration of nano-electronics and photonics devices. The fabricated GeSnOI photodetector shows well-behaved diode characteristics with high Ion/Ioff ratio of ~4 orders of magnitude (at ± 1 V) at room temperature. A cutoff detection beyond 2 µm with photo responsivity (Rop) of 0.016 A/W was achieved at the wavelength (λ) of 2004 nm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (2)

K. Xu, Q. Wu, Y. Xie, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “High speed single-wavelength modulation and transmission at 2 μm under bandwidth-constrained condition,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4528–4534 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. Lei, K. H. Lee, S. Bao, W. Wang, B. Wang, X. Gong, C. S. Tan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 022106 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Chang, H. Li, C.-T. Ku, S.-G. Yang, H. H. Cheng, J. Hendrickson, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “Ge0.975Sn0.025 320 × 256 imager chip for 1.6-1.9 μm infrared vision,” Appl. Opt. 55(36), 10170–10173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (7)

J.-Z. Chen, H. Li, H. Cheng, and G.-E. Chang, “Structural and optical characteristics of Ge1−xSnx/Ge superlattices grown on Ge-buffered Si (001) wafers,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(6), 1178–1185 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chroneos and H. Bracht, “Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Wen, X. Zhang, C. Li, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “High hole mobility GeSn on insulator formed by self-organized seeding lateral growth,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(44), 445103 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chikita, R. Matsumura, Y. Kai, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Ultra-high-speed lateral solid phase crystallization of GeSn on insulator combined with Sn-melting-induced seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 202112 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Gonzalez, E. Simoen, G. Eneman, B. De Jaeger, G. Wang, R. Loo, and C. Claeys, “Defect assessment and leakage control in Ge junctions,” Microelectron. Eng. 125, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, L. Li, Q. Zhou, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge1−xSnx layer on Ge (001) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 321, 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

H. Li, Y. Cui, K. Wu, W. Tseng, H. Cheng, and H. Chen, “Strain relaxation and Sn segregation in GeSn epilayers under thermal treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251907 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, J. P. Gupta, L. Wielunski, and J. Kolodzey, “Lattice constant and substitutional composition of GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041908 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

K. L. Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1-xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn chemical vapor deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1− xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1− xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si (001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium pin photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge 1− xSnx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1−xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge (001) 2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: Growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(9), 875–877 (1990).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. Olego and M. Cardona, “Self-energy effects of the optical phonons of heavily doped p-GaAs and p-Ge,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6592–6602 (1981).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

F. Trumbore, “Solid solubilities and electrical properties of tin in germanium single crystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 103(11), 597–600 (1956).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: Growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(9), 875–877 (1990).
[Crossref]

Afshinmanesh, F.

Ambrico, P. F.

Amodeo, A.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Ang, K.-W.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium pin photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Antoniadis, D.

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bai, F.

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bak, J.

Bando, Y.

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, S.

D. Lei, K. H. Lee, S. Bao, W. Wang, B. Wang, X. Gong, C. S. Tan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 022106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bauer, M.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

Bender, H.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, N.

N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, J. P. Gupta, L. Wielunski, and J. Kolodzey, “Lattice constant and substitutional composition of GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bracht, H.

A. Chroneos and H. Bracht, “Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brendel, C. E.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Cardona, M.

D. Olego and M. Cardona, “Self-energy effects of the optical phonons of heavily doped p-GaAs and p-Ge,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6592–6602 (1981).
[Crossref]

Carlsson, J.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1−xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge (001) 2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[Crossref]

Caymax, M.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn chemical vapor deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

Chang, G.-E.

Chen, H.

H. Li, Y. Cui, K. Wu, W. Tseng, H. Cheng, and H. Chen, “Strain relaxation and Sn segregation in GeSn epilayers under thermal treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-Z.

Chen, R.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1− xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B.

Z. Liu, J. Wen, X. Zhang, C. Li, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “High hole mobility GeSn on insulator formed by self-organized seeding lateral growth,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(44), 445103 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1− xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si (001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

J.-Z. Chen, H. Li, H. Cheng, and G.-E. Chang, “Structural and optical characteristics of Ge1−xSnx/Ge superlattices grown on Ge-buffered Si (001) wafers,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(6), 1178–1185 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Cui, K. Wu, W. Tseng, H. Cheng, and H. Chen, “Strain relaxation and Sn segregation in GeSn epilayers under thermal treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. H.

Cheng, R.

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chikita, H.

H. Chikita, R. Matsumura, Y. Kai, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Ultra-high-speed lateral solid phase crystallization of GeSn on insulator combined with Sn-melting-induced seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 202112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chizmeshya, A.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chroneos, A.

A. Chroneos and H. Bracht, “Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(1), 011301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, H.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Claeys, C.

M. Gonzalez, E. Simoen, G. Eneman, B. De Jaeger, G. Wang, R. Loo, and C. Claeys, “Defect assessment and leakage control in Ge junctions,” Microelectron. Eng. 125, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coppinger, M.

N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, J. P. Gupta, L. Wielunski, and J. Kolodzey, “Lattice constant and substitutional composition of GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

H. Li, Y. Cui, K. Wu, W. Tseng, H. Cheng, and H. Chen, “Strain relaxation and Sn segregation in GeSn epilayers under thermal treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251907 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Jaeger, B.

M. Gonzalez, E. Simoen, G. Eneman, B. De Jaeger, G. Wang, R. Loo, and C. Claeys, “Defect assessment and leakage control in Ge junctions,” Microelectron. Eng. 125, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dekoster, J.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

Desjardins, P.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1−xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge (001) 2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[Crossref]

Di Girolamo, P.

Dong, Y.

Douhard, B.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eberl, K.

W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: Growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(9), 875–877 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eneman, G.

M. Gonzalez, E. Simoen, G. Eneman, B. De Jaeger, G. Wang, R. Loo, and C. Claeys, “Defect assessment and leakage control in Ge junctions,” Microelectron. Eng. 125, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

K. L. Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1-xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fenrich, C. S.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

Fukata, N.

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gassenq, A.

Geiger, R.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gencarelli, F.

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn chemical vapor deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gollhofer, M.

M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gong, X.

D. Lei, K. H. Lee, S. Bao, W. Wang, B. Wang, X. Gong, C. S. Tan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 022106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, D. Lei, X. Gong, Q. Zhou, S. Y. Lee, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, E. S. Tok, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Suppression of dark current in germanium-tin on silicon p-i-n photodiode by a silicon surface passivation technique,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18611–18619 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, M.

M. Gonzalez, E. Simoen, G. Eneman, B. De Jaeger, G. Wang, R. Loo, and C. Claeys, “Defect assessment and leakage control in Ge junctions,” Microelectron. Eng. 125, 33–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Greene, J.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1−xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge (001) 2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grützmacher, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, P.

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gupta, J. P.

N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, J. P. Gupta, L. Wielunski, and J. Kolodzey, “Lattice constant and substitutional composition of GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gurdal, O.

O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1−xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge (001) 2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
[Crossref]

Han, G.

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. L. Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1-xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hansen, O.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1− xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, J.

Henrichsen, H.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heyns, M.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn chemical vapor deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hitzman, C.

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1− xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, J. I.

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1− xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si (001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.-J.

Huang, Y.-C.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1− xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jensen, P. S.

Jung, W. S.

Kai, Y.

H. Chikita, R. Matsumura, Y. Kai, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Ultra-high-speed lateral solid phase crystallization of GeSn on insulator combined with Sn-melting-induced seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 202112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, D. Nam, W. S. Jung, T. I. Kamins, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator p-i-n photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15816–15823 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1− xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

Kaschel, M.

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirkham, M.

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
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Koerner, R.

Kolodzey, J.

N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, J. P. Gupta, L. Wielunski, and J. Kolodzey, “Lattice constant and substitutional composition of GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 041908 (2013).
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Kouvetakis, J.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
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Ku, C.-T.

Kwong, D.-L.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium pin photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223515 (2009).
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D. Lei, K. H. Lee, S. Bao, W. Wang, B. Wang, X. Gong, C. S. Tan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 022106 (2016).
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Lei, D.

Li, C.

Z. Liu, J. Wen, X. Zhang, C. Li, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “High hole mobility GeSn on insulator formed by self-organized seeding lateral growth,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(44), 445103 (2014).
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Li, H.

Li, L.

W. Wang, L. Li, Q. Zhou, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge1−xSnx layer on Ge (001) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 321, 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, G.

Lin, A. C.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1− xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.-H.

Liu, B.

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
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Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. Wen, X. Zhang, C. Li, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “High hole mobility GeSn on insulator formed by self-organized seeding lateral growth,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(44), 445103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium pin photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223515 (2009).
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Loke, W. K.

Loo, R.

M. Gonzalez, E. Simoen, G. Eneman, B. De Jaeger, G. Wang, R. Loo, and C. Claeys, “Defect assessment and leakage control in Ge junctions,” Microelectron. Eng. 125, 33–37 (2014).
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A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn chemical vapor deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

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K. L. Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1-xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Magyari-Kope, B.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsumura, R.

H. Chikita, R. Matsumura, Y. Kai, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Ultra-high-speed lateral solid phase crystallization of GeSn on insulator combined with Sn-melting-induced seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 202112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meersschaut, J.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
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W. Wegscheider, K. Eberl, U. Menczigar, and G. Abstreiter, “Single crystal Sn/Ge superlattices on Ge substrates: Growth and structural properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(9), 875–877 (1990).
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M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2992–2994 (2002).
[Crossref]

Merckling, C.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mitome, M.

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyao, M.

H. Chikita, R. Matsumura, Y. Kai, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Ultra-high-speed lateral solid phase crystallization of GeSn on insulator combined with Sn-melting-induced seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 202112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Morea, M.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakatsuka, O.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge 1− xSnx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nam, D.

Nam, J. H.

Narcy, G.

Ng, J. W.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium pin photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nishi, Y.

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, M.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge 1− xSnx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
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K. Toko, N. Oya, N. Saitoh, N. Yoshizawa, and T. Suemasu, “70° C synthesis of high-Sn content (25%) GeSn on insulator by Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

W. Wang, L. Li, Q. Zhou, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge1−xSnx layer on Ge (001) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 321, 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
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Petersen, D. H.

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 152103 (2011).
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O. Gurdal, P. Desjardins, J. Carlsson, N. Taylor, H. Radamson, J.-E. Sundgren, and J. Greene, “Low-temperature growth and critical epitaxial thicknesses of fully strained metastable Ge1−xSnx (x≤0.26) alloys on Ge (001) 2×1,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(1), 162–170 (1998).
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Richard, O.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, L. Souriau, O. Richard, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, and M. Heyns, “Low-temperature Ge and GeSn chemical vapor deposition using Ge2H6,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3211–3215 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Sadoh, T.

H. Chikita, R. Matsumura, Y. Kai, T. Sadoh, and M. Miyao, “Ultra-high-speed lateral solid phase crystallization of GeSn on insulator combined with Sn-melting-induced seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 202112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, N.

K. Toko, N. Oya, N. Saitoh, N. Yoshizawa, and T. Suemasu, “70° C synthesis of high-Sn content (25%) GeSn on insulator by Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sakai, A.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge 1− xSnx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, E.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K. C.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, D. Nam, W. S. Jung, T. I. Kamins, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator p-i-n photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15816–15823 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, R. Chen, B. Vincent, D. Lin, B. Magyari-Kope, M. Caymax, J. Dekoster, J. S. Harris, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “GeSn channel n and p MOSFETs,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 937–941 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, M.

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schulze, J.

M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, B.

Sekiguchi, T.

N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. Von Den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping and Raman characterization of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires,” ACS Nano 4(7), 3807–3816 (2010).
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S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
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D. Lei, K. H. Lee, S. Bao, W. Wang, B. Wang, X. Gong, C. S. Tan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 022106 (2016).
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Taraci, J.

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Vandervorst, W.

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H. Li, Y. Cui, K. Wu, W. Tseng, H. Cheng, and H. Chen, “Strain relaxation and Sn segregation in GeSn epilayers under thermal treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251907 (2013).
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Z. Liu, J. Wen, X. Zhang, C. Li, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “High hole mobility GeSn on insulator formed by self-organized seeding lateral growth,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(44), 445103 (2014).
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[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1− xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si (001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
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Yang, S.-G.

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X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
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L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
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Yeo, Y.-C.

D. Lei, K. H. Lee, S. Bao, W. Wang, B. Wang, X. Gong, C. S. Tan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “GeSn-on-insulator substrate formed by direct wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 022106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, D. Lei, X. Gong, Q. Zhou, S. Y. Lee, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, E. S. Tok, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Suppression of dark current in germanium-tin on silicon p-i-n photodiode by a silicon surface passivation technique,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18611–18619 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, L. Li, Q. Zhou, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge1−xSnx layer on Ge (001) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 321, 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. L. Low, Y. Yang, G. Han, W. Fan, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Electronic band structure and effective mass parameters of Ge1-xSnx alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 103715 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.-F.

Yoshizawa, N.

K. Toko, N. Oya, N. Saitoh, N. Yoshizawa, and T. Suemasu, “70° C synthesis of high-Sn content (25%) GeSn on insulator by Sn-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 082109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zaima, S.

S. Takeuchi, Y. Shimura, O. Nakatsuka, S. Zaima, M. Ogawa, and A. Sakai, “Growth of highly strain-relaxed Ge 1− xSnx/virtual Ge by a Sn precipitation controlled compositionally step-graded method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 231916 (2008).
[Crossref]

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M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0. 03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

Zhang, D.

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. Su, W. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Tong, B. Liu, P. Guo, X. Gong, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–tin junction formed using phosphorus ion implant and 400 °C rapid thermal anneal,” Electron Device Lett. 33, 1529–1531 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1− xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si (001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, J. Wen, X. Zhang, C. Li, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “High hole mobility GeSn on insulator formed by self-organized seeding lateral growth,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(44), 445103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

W. Wang, L. Li, Q. Zhou, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Tin surface segregation, desorption, and island formation during post-growth annealing of strained epitaxial Ge1−xSnx layer on Ge (001) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 321, 240–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, G. Han, F. Bai, S. Su, P. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Cheng, D. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, E. S. Tok, D. Antoniadis, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium–Tin (GeSn) p-channel MOSFETs fabricated on (100) and (111) surface orientations with Sub-400 °C Si2H6 passivation,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34, 339–341 (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XTEM image of the CVD-grown GeSn on the Si substrate. (b) HRXRD rocking curve of the GeSn/Ge/Si sample at (004) orientation, showing very good crystalline quality of GeSn layer. (c) (224) RSM of the as-grown sample indicates the substitutional Sn composition is ~7% with compressive strain of ~-0.8%.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A simplified schematic illustrating the process for forming the GeSnOI substrate. The highest temperature used in the entire process is 350 °C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Key process steps for fabricating the GeSnOI lateral p-i-n photodiode. (b) Simulated as-implant doping concentrations of phosphorus and boron as a function of the depth from the surface. The implanted energy and dose are indicated in (a), and the ion implant was conducted at a tilted angle of 7°. (c) Raman spectra of the Ge/GeSn/BOX/Si in phosphorus-implanted, boron-implanted, and unimplant region after 450 °C anneal. 532 nm green laser beam was utilized for the Raman measurement. The well-defined Ge-Ge LO Raman peak confirms the solid-phase epitaxial regrowth of implanted amorphous Ge during anneal.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Three-dimensional (3D) schematic of the GeSnOI lateral p-i-n photodiode. (b) Cross-sectional schematic of the photodiode along the dashed line A-A’, showing the alternating p- and n-type doped regions. There are three pairs of p- and n-doped regions in this design. Both drawings of (a) and (b) are not to scale. (c) Top-view SEM image of the fabricated GeSnOI photodiode.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-sectional TEM images of a GeSn lateral p-i-n photodetector (a) along and (b) between two adjacent interdigital finger electrodes. HRTEM images of (c) Ge/GeSn interface and (d) GeSn/SiO2(BOX) interface. Platinum (Pt) is deposited as a protection layer during the focus ion beam (FIB) preparation of the sample for TEM inspection.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Idark-Vbias characteristics of the GeSnOI photodiode with intrinsic width of 500 nm measured at room-temperature.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Temperature-dependent dark I-V characteristics of the GeSnOI photodetector. The temperature ranges from 270 to 330 K with an increasing step of 10 K. (b) Plot of ln(Idark/T3/2) as a function of 1/kT for the photodiode at various reverse bias voltages Vre. (c) Extracted activation energy from the linear fitting in (B) vs.Vre.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Temporal photoresponse of the GeSnOI photodiode under various fiber output power at illumination wavelength of (a) 1877 and (b) 2004 nm. The laser was modulated through a function generator at a frequency of 1 Hz.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Photocurrent Iph of the GeSnOI photodetector as a function of actual illuminated power Pin at wavelength of 1877 and 2004 nm. (b) Wavelength-dependent photoresponsivity of the GeSnOI photodetector. (c) Responsivity-voltage Rop-Vbias characteristics of the photodetector. The photoresponsivity is almost constant for reverse bias voltage ranging from 0 to −1.0 V.

Equations (1)

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I dark =B T 3/2 e E a /kT ( e q V a /2kT 1),

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