Abstract

We systematically study the efficiency enhancement of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in an Ar gas cell up to the soft X-ray (SXR) range using a two-color laser field composed of 2.1 μm (ω) and 700 nm (3ω) with parallel linear polarization. Our experiment follows the recent theoretical investigations that determined two-color mid-infrared (IR) pulses, mixed with their third harmonic (ω + 3ω), to be close to optimal driving waveforms for enhancing HHG efficiency in the SXR region [Jin et al., Nature Comm. 5, 4003 (2014)]. We observed sub-optical-cycle-dependent efficiency enhancements of up to 8.2 of photon flux integrated between 20 – 70 eV, and up to 2.2 between 85 – 205 eV. Enhancement of HHG efficiency was most pronounced for the lowest tested backing pressure ( 140 mbar), and decreased monotonically as the pressure was increased. The single-color (ω)-driven HHG was optimal at the highest backing pressure tested in the experiment ( 375 mbar). Our numerical simulations based on single-atom response and 3D pulse propagation show good qualitative agreement with experimental observations. The lower enhancement at high pressure and higher photon energy indicates that phase matching of two-color-driven HHG is more sensitive to ionization rate and pulse propagation effects than the single-color case. We show that with further improvements to the relative phase jitter and the spatio-temporal overlap of the two beams, the efficiency enhancement could be further improved by at least a factor of 2.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  42. A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013401 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2016 (3)

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(15), 155601 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, K.-H. Hong, and C. D. Lin, “Optimal generation of spatially coherent soft X-ray isolated attosecond pulses in a gas-filled waveguide using two-color synthesized laser pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38165 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (5)

K. B. Dinh, H. V. Le, P. Hannaford, and L. V. Dao, “Two color laser fields for studying the cooper minimum with phase-matched high-order harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(20), 203103 (2014).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, J. P. Siqueira, P. Krogen, J. Moses, C.-L. Chang, G. J. Stein, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Multi-mJ, kHz, 2.1 μm optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and high-flux soft X-ray high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3145–3148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jin, G. Wang, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Route to optimal generation of soft X-ray high harmonics with synthesized two-color laser pulses,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7067 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Ultra-broadband water window supercontinuum generation with high efficiency in a three-color laser field,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2683–2692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Jin, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 023411 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. D. Lin, A.-T. Le, Z. Chen, T. Morishita, and R. Lucchese, “Strong-field rescattering physics - self-imaging of a molecule by its own electrons,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(12), 122001 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, L.-J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high-order harmonic efficiencies with visible wavelength drivers: A route to efficient extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061107 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (8)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, M. Gkortsas, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Analytic scaling analysis of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11217–11229 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3125–3127 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets, “Tailoring the waveforms to extend the high-order harmonic generation cutoff,” Phys. Rev. A 80(2), 023809 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013401 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Wörner, H. Niikura, J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 103901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

P. Liang-Wen, S. Ting-Yun, and Q. Hao-Xue, “Enhancement of bichromatic high-order harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(6), 1490–1493 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 975–977 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and ionization of He+ under simultaneous irradiation of fundamental laser and high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043002 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. L. Yudin and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64(1), 013409 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2967–2970 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(20), 2692–2695 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

1967 (1)

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electrical field III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).

1966 (1)

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23(5), 924–934 (1966).

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307 (1965).

Abel, M. J.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 975–977 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

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S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
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D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
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F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1410 (2013).
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K. B. Dinh, H. V. Le, P. Hannaford, and L. V. Dao, “Two color laser fields for studying the cooper minimum with phase-matched high-order harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(20), 203103 (2014).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
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D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
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F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3125–3127 (2009).
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M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

Devetta, M.

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
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K. B. Dinh, H. V. Le, P. Hannaford, and L. V. Dao, “Two color laser fields for studying the cooper minimum with phase-matched high-order harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(20), 203103 (2014).
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Doumy, G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
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Dudovich, N.

B. D. Bruner, M. Krüger, O. Pedatzur, G. Orenstein, D. Azoury, and N. Dudovich, “Robust enhancement of high harmonic generation via attosecond control of ionization,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9310–9322 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
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Faccialà, D.

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
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E. L. Falcão-Filho, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, L.-J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high-order harmonic efficiencies with visible wavelength drivers: A route to efficient extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061107 (2010).
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E. L. Falcão-Filho, M. Gkortsas, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Analytic scaling analysis of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11217–11229 (2009).
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S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
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Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
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Gkortsas, V.-M.

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, L.-J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high-order harmonic efficiencies with visible wavelength drivers: A route to efficient extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gordon, A.

V.-M. Gkortsas, S. Bhardwaj, E. L. Falcão-Filho, K.-H. Hong, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(4), 045601 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, M. Gkortsas, A. Gordon, and F. X. Kärtner, “Analytic scaling analysis of high harmonic generation conversion efficiency,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11217–11229 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

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S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
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Han, S.

Hannaford, P.

K. B. Dinh, H. V. Le, P. Hannaford, and L. V. Dao, “Two color laser fields for studying the cooper minimum with phase-matched high-order harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(20), 203103 (2014).
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C. Jin, K.-H. Hong, and C. D. Lin, “Optimal generation of spatially coherent soft X-ray isolated attosecond pulses in a gas-filled waveguide using two-color synthesized laser pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38165 (2016).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2967–2970 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nabekawa, Y.

K. Kondo, Y. Kobayashi, A. Sagisaka, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(2), 424–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(20), 2692–2695 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagel, P. M.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Negro, M.

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3125–3127 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neumark, D. M.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 975–977 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niikura, H.

H. J. Wörner, H. Niikura, J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 103901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Orenstein, G.

Pabst, S.

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pedatzur, O.

Perelomov, A. M.

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electrical field III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23(5), 924–934 (1966).

Pfeifer, T.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Single attosecond pulse generation in the multicycle-driver regime by adding a weak second-harmonic field,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 975–977 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, V. S.

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electrical field III,” Sov. Phys. JETP 25(2), 336–343 (1967).

A. M. Perelomov and V. S. Popov, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23(5), 924–934 (1966).

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugžlys, A.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rading, L.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1410 (2013).
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Robinson, J. S.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
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Rouzée, A.

Rudawski, P.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high-order harmonic generation boosted by below-threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2967–2970 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sagisaka, A.

K. Kondo, Y. Kobayashi, A. Sagisaka, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(2), 424–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(20), 2692–2695 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

Sartania, S.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schnürer, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schütte, B.

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sidorenko, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siqueira, J. P.

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(15), 155601 (2016).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, J. P. Siqueira, P. Krogen, J. Moses, C.-L. Chang, G. J. Stein, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Multi-mJ, kHz, 2.1 μm optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and high-flux soft X-ray high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3145–3148 (2014).
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Soifer, H.

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Squibb, R.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3125–3127 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stein, G. J.

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(15), 155601 (2016).
[Crossref]

K.-H. Hong, C.-J. Lai, J. P. Siqueira, P. Krogen, J. Moses, C.-L. Chang, G. J. Stein, L. E. Zapata, and F. X. Kärtner, “Multi-mJ, kHz, 2.1 μm optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and high-flux soft X-ray high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3145–3148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
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Ting-Yun, S.

P. Liang-Wen, S. Ting-Yun, and Q. Hao-Xue, “Enhancement of bichromatic high-order harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(6), 1490–1493 (2006).
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Tisch, J. W. G.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(6), 063003 (2009).
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Tonzani, S.

A.-T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 013401 (2009).
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Trallero-Herrero, C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
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Varjú, K.

Villeneuve, D. M.

H. J. Wörner, H. Niikura, J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 103901 (2009).
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A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

Vozzi, C.

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. De Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(9), 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3125–3127 (2009).
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Wang, G.

C. Jin, G. Wang, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Route to optimal generation of soft X-ray high harmonics with synthesized two-color laser pulses,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7067 (2014).
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C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4003 (2014).
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Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 2967–2970 (1997).
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Watanabe, S.

K. Kondo, Y. Kobayashi, A. Sagisaka, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(2), 424–429 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(20), 2692–2695 (1994).
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Wei, H.

C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4003 (2014).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 386–389 (2008).
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S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
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Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

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H. J. Wörner, H. Niikura, J. B. Bertrand, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Observation of electronic structure minima in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 103901 (2009).
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G. L. Yudin and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64(1), 013409 (2001).
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S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021028 (2014).
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Zhang, Q.

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E. L. Falcão-Filho, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, V.-M. Gkortsas, S.-W. Huang, L.-J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Scaling of high-order harmonic efficiencies with visible wavelength drivers: A route to efficient extreme ultraviolet sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061107 (2010).
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P. Liang-Wen, S. Ting-Yun, and Q. Hao-Xue, “Enhancement of bichromatic high-order harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(6), 1490–1493 (2006).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4003 (2014).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

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Opt. Express (5)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental layout of the HHG chamber and detection systems. A CaF2 lens focuses the output of the Michelson-type, two-color interferometer into the gas cell [shown in detail in (b)] and HHG beamline. Different combinations of filters and EUV/SXR PDs, connected to an electronic amplifier (A), or an XUV spectrometer can be used to characterize the generated high harmonics. Flippable mirrors can send the beam to a power meter or other characterization units such as a CCD camera or traveling-knife-edge stage as well as FWM in air (not shown) to optimize the temporal overlap of the two pulses. (b) Layout of the custom gas cell in the HHG beamline. The driving field enters the cell from the left and interacts with the target gas (gas flow indicated by the yellow arrow) at adjustable pressure in the gas capillary (blue). (c) Normalized spectra of both ω (blue) and 3ω (red) pulse.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Selected two-color (ω + 3ω) HHG spectra measured within a scan of one half of the modulation period with approximately equally spaced phase-shifts (≈π/2) of the two-color waveform at a backing pressure of 200 mbar. The Al-filter cuts off the spectra around 72 eV which is not shown. The spectra were recorded at four different locations on the Rowland circle. For comparison the corresponding single-color (ω) driven spectrum is shown in black (dashed line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Integrated enhancement factors calculated from the measured EUV/SXR PD currents normalized by the single-color ω-driven signal for three different Ar backing pressures (noted at the top of each plot). The 0 fs position of the relative delay was chosen using the maximized FWM-based 5ω signal (ω + ω + 3ω) between ω and 3ω pulses in air. The black dashed line serves as a guide to the eye. The area under the curve was colored to indicate the degree of overlap between ω and 3ω pulse, with the highest degree of overlap in the center around 0 fs. The figures in the upper row show the enhancement factors integrated over photon energies between approximately 20 – 73 eV, while the bottom row contains the data for 85 – 205 eV.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Pressure dependence of HHG spectra for maximum enhancement cases in four different spectral regions from 35 to 210 eV. The dash-dotted spectra are the corresponding single-color driven HHG spectra.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Ratio between two-color-driven HHG spectra with maximal amplitude to single-color-driven HHG spectra (enhancement factor) shown in Fig. 4 for the different Ar pressures for 40 - 70 eV (a) and above 80 eV (b). In the 40 – 70 eV range the data was smoothed using the adjacent-averaging method with a window approximately matching the distance between adjacent harmonic peaks to clear numerical artifacts.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated HHG spectra depending on pressure and two-color phase. Experimental backing pressures (given in brackets) are specified along with the corresponding pressure at the interaction region. (a) – (c) show the two-color driven HHG spectra and the single-color driven spectrum (black). The simulated HHG enhancement factors for 200 mbar (backing pressure of 375 mbar), taking the spectrometer resolution and experimental jitter ( 400 as) in the two-color phase (via smoothing along the energy and phase-axis using Gaussians of the corresponding widths) into account, are shown in (d). The color bar saturates at a factor of 100, as the region around the Cooper minimum ( 50 eV) is hard to quantitatively model. The dashed line indicates where the enhancement factor drops below a value of 1, meaning the two-color-driven HHG yield is lower than the single-color-driven case. (e) Smoothed simulated single-atom HHG spectra for both the single-color-driven (ω only) and the optimal two-color-driven case using the laser intensities at the focus for vacuum.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 On-axis laser electric fields at the entrance (blue lines) and the exit (magenta lines) of the gas medium for (a) the single-color-driven case and two-color-driven cases with the selected relative phases of (b) 0 π and (c) 1.5 π between ω and 3ω pulses. The gas pressure was set to 200 mbar (backing pressure of 375 mbar). (d)–(f) Time-frequency analysis of the single-atom harmonic emission (normalized) driven by the on-axis laser pulse at the exit of the gas medium, plotted in (a) – (c), respectively. It can be seen that the quantum trajectories in the two-color waveforms, even though drastically reshaped after macroscopic propagation in the gas medium, are governed by the relative phase delay between the ω and 3ω pulses.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Maximal enhancement factors of the integrated yield

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