Abstract

We numerically investigate the impact of nonlinear effects in mode-multiplexed transmission over a 50 µm graded-index multimode fiber. Such a fiber supports 36 spatial modes, well suited for a mode-multiplexed transmission. The number of mode groups used for transmission is subsequently increased to identify the nonlinear penalty occurring due to the Kerr-effect-based nonlinear interaction between the spatial modes. It is shown that the nonlinear penalty scales less than proportional with the number of modes and hence, is no obstacle for using such a fiber for a mode-multiplexed transmission. Consequently, we clarify the potential to upgrade the transmission capacity over time with such a fiber.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2006 (1)

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase-shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1131–1133 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive Multiplexing in Multimode Optical Fiber,” Science 289, 281–283 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

W. Hermann and D. Wiechert, “Refractive index of doped and undoped PCVD bulk silica,” Mat. Res. Bull. 24, 1083–1097 (1989).
[Crossref]

Achten, F.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “50µm Multimode Fibers for Mode Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1672–1677 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-Differential-Mode-Group-Delay 9-LP-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.
[Crossref]

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “DMGD-Compensated Links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.4.
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “50µm Multimode Fibers for Mode Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1672–1677 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “DMGD-Compensated Links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.4.
[Crossref]

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
[Crossref]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Antonelli, C.

Antonio-Lopez, E.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Bade, S.

S. Bade, B. Denolle, G. Trunet, N. Riguet, P. Jian, O. Pinel, and G. Labroille, “Fabrication and Characterization of a Mode-selective 45-Mode Spatial Multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.3.
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

Barré, N.

N. Barré, B. Denolle, P. Jian, J. Morizur, and G. Labroille, “Broadband, Mode-Selective 15-Mode Multiplexer Based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.7.
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

Ben-Ezra, S.

Benitez, A. V.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Bigot, M.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
[Crossref]

Bigot-Astruc, M.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “50µm Multimode Fibers for Mode Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1672–1677 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-Differential-Mode-Group-Delay 9-LP-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “DMGD-Compensated Links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.4.
[Crossref]

Bolle, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Brehler, M.

M. Brehler, M. Schirwon, D. Göddeke, and P. M. Krummrich, “A GPU-Accelerated Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta in the Interaction Picture Method for the Simulation of Nonlinear Signal Propagation in Multimode Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 3622–3628 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Brehler, D. Ronnenberg, and P. M. Krummrich, “Scaling of Nonlinear Effects in Multimode Fibers with the Number of Propagating Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4I.3.
[Crossref]

M. Brehler and P. M. Krummrich, “Comparison of Nonlinear Impairments in Graded-Index and Trench-Assisted Graded-Index Fibers for SDM Transmissions,” in), Proceedings of Photonic Networks; 18. ITG Symposium, (VDE2017), 77–79.

M. Brehler and P. M. Krummrich, “Impact of WDM Channel Count on Nonlinear Effects in MDM Transmission Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

Correa, R. Amezcua

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
[Crossref]

de Jongh, K.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “50µm Multimode Fibers for Mode Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1672–1677 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-Differential-Mode-Group-Delay 9-LP-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “DMGD-Compensated Links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.4.
[Crossref]

DeCusatis, C.

C. DeCusatis and I. Kaminow, The Optical Communications Reference (Academic, 2009).

Denolle, B.

S. Bade, B. Denolle, G. Trunet, N. Riguet, P. Jian, O. Pinel, and G. Labroille, “Fabrication and Characterization of a Mode-selective 45-Mode Spatial Multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.3.
[Crossref]

N. Barré, B. Denolle, P. Jian, J. Morizur, and G. Labroille, “Broadband, Mode-Selective 15-Mode Multiplexer Based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.7.
[Crossref]

Desgroseilliers, M.

Dreschmann, M.

Ercan, B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Y. Xiao, R.-J. Essiambre, M. Desgroseilliers, A. M. Tulino, R. Ryf, S. Mumtaz, and G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of intermodal four-wave mixing with random linear mode coupling in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 32039–32059 (2014).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Freude, W.

Gnauck, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Gnauck, A. H.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

Göddeke, D.

Golani, O.

Grüner-Nielsen, L. E.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Guan, B.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

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W. Hermann and D. Wiechert, “Refractive index of doped and undoped PCVD bulk silica,” Mat. Res. Bull. 24, 1083–1097 (1989).
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J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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N. Barré, B. Denolle, P. Jian, J. Morizur, and G. Labroille, “Broadband, Mode-Selective 15-Mode Multiplexer Based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.7.
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R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
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S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase-shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1131–1133 (2006).
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Kikuchi, K.

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase-shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1131–1133 (2006).
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Koonen, A. M. J.

Koonen, T.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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Koos, C.

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M. Brehler, M. Schirwon, D. Göddeke, and P. M. Krummrich, “A GPU-Accelerated Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta in the Interaction Picture Method for the Simulation of Nonlinear Signal Propagation in Multimode Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35, 3622–3628 (2017).
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M. Brehler, D. Ronnenberg, and P. M. Krummrich, “Scaling of Nonlinear Effects in Multimode Fibers with the Number of Propagating Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4I.3.
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M. Brehler and P. M. Krummrich, “Comparison of Nonlinear Impairments in Graded-Index and Trench-Assisted Graded-Index Fibers for SDM Transmissions,” in), Proceedings of Photonic Networks; 18. ITG Symposium, (VDE2017), 77–79.

M. Brehler and P. M. Krummrich, “Impact of WDM Channel Count on Nonlinear Effects in MDM Transmission Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.63.
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S. Bade, B. Denolle, G. Trunet, N. Riguet, P. Jian, O. Pinel, and G. Labroille, “Fabrication and Characterization of a Mode-selective 45-Mode Spatial Multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.3.
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N. Barré, B. Denolle, P. Jian, J. Morizur, and G. Labroille, “Broadband, Mode-Selective 15-Mode Multiplexer Based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.7.
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Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
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R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
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R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Ludwig, A.

McCurdy, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Mecozzi, A.

Mestre, M.A.

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
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Meyer, M.

Molin, D.

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P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-Differential-Mode-Group-Delay 9-LP-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.
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J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “DMGD-Compensated Links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.4.
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N. Barré, B. Denolle, P. Jian, J. Morizur, and G. Labroille, “Broadband, Mode-Selective 15-Mode Multiplexer Based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.7.
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Mumtaz, S.

Nebendahl, B.

Okonkwo, C. M.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Petermann, K.

Pinel, O.

S. Bade, B. Denolle, G. Trunet, N. Riguet, P. Jian, O. Pinel, and G. Labroille, “Fabrication and Characterization of a Mode-selective 45-Mode Spatial Multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.3.
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Randel, S.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
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R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Riguet, N.

S. Bade, B. Denolle, G. Trunet, N. Riguet, P. Jian, O. Pinel, and G. Labroille, “Fabrication and Characterization of a Mode-selective 45-Mode Spatial Multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.3.
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Ronnenberg, D.

M. Brehler, D. Ronnenberg, and P. M. Krummrich, “Scaling of Nonlinear Effects in Multimode Fibers with the Number of Propagating Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4I.3.
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Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
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Y. Xiao, R.-J. Essiambre, M. Desgroseilliers, A. M. Tulino, R. Ryf, S. Mumtaz, and G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of intermodal four-wave mixing with random linear mode coupling in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 32039–32059 (2014).
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R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Schirwon, M.

Schmogrow, R.

Scott, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

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C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shatif, “Scaling of inter-channel nonlinear interference noise and capacity with the number of strongly coupled modes in SDM systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4I.2.
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Shubochkin, R.

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P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “50µm Multimode Fibers for Mode Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1672–1677 (2016).
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P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-Differential-Mode-Group-Delay 9-LP-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.
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P. Sillard, “Few-Mode Fibers for Space Division Multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th1J.1.
[Crossref]

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “DMGD-Compensated Links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.4.
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H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive Multiplexing in Multimode Optical Fiber,” Science 289, 281–283 (2000).
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R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

Tkach, R.W.

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
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Trunet, G.

S. Bade, B. Denolle, G. Trunet, N. Riguet, P. Jian, O. Pinel, and G. Labroille, “Fabrication and Characterization of a Mode-selective 45-Mode Spatial Multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.3.
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Tsukamoto, S.

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase-shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1131–1133 (2006).
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Tulino, A. M.

Uden, R. G. H. v.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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van Weerdenburg, J.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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Velázquez-Benítez, A. M.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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Waardt, H. de

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
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Wiechert, D.

W. Hermann and D. Wiechert, “Refractive index of doped and undoped PCVD bulk silica,” Mat. Res. Bull. 24, 1083–1097 (1989).
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Winter, M.

Winzer, P.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, “Optical networking beyond WDM,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 647–651 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S.

Xiao, Y.

Yoo, S. J. B.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. J. Winzer, “Optical networking beyond WDM,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 647–651 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R.-J. Essiambre, M.A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R.W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental Investigation of Inter-Modal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 25, 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase-shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1131–1133 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Mat. Res. Bull. (1)

W. Hermann and D. Wiechert, “Refractive index of doped and undoped PCVD bulk silica,” Mat. Res. Bull. 24, 1083–1097 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Science (1)

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive Multiplexing in Multimode Optical Fiber,” Science 289, 281–283 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (13)

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-division multiplexing over 10 km of three-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30x30 MIMO Transmission over 15 Spatial Modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Post Deadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.

J. van Weerdenburg, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, R. G. H. v. Uden, E. Antonio-Lopez, P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot, A. Amezcua-Correa, F. Huijskens, F. Achten, H. de Waardt, T. Koonen, R. Amezcua Correa, and C. M. Okonkwo, “10 Spatial Mode Transmission over 40km 50µm Core Diameter Multimode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th4C.3.
[Crossref]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, A. Amezcua-Correa, K. de Jongh, and F. Achten, “DMGD-Compensated Links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.4.
[Crossref]

N. Barré, B. Denolle, P. Jian, J. Morizur, and G. Labroille, “Broadband, Mode-Selective 15-Mode Multiplexer Based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th2A.7.
[Crossref]

S. Bade, B. Denolle, G. Trunet, N. Riguet, P. Jian, O. Pinel, and G. Labroille, “Fabrication and Characterization of a Mode-selective 45-Mode Spatial Multiplexer based on Multi-Plane Light Conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmission set-up considered within the numerical simulations. The number of utilized MGs is varied in the simulations between 1 and 8, resulting in a minimum of a single and a maximum of 36 spatial modes used for transmission. The 60 wavelength channels per spatial mode are placed in a 50 GHz grid, and each wavelength channel carries a 32 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mean Q2-factor vs. average launch power per DP-QPSK channel. (a) Different number of MGs are used for signal transmission. (b) All MGs are used for signal transmission.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Mode specific mean Q2-factor (a) at the system OSNR of 21.44 dB and an average launch power of 0 dBm per DP-QPSK channel and (b) at the system OSNR of 20.44 dB and an average launch power of −1 dBm per DP-QPSK channel.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relative mean Q2-factor of the LP01 mode for an average launch power of 0 dBm per DP-QPSK channel (dashed) and 1 dBm per DP-QPSK channel (dotted) at (a) the system OSNR of 21.44 dB and 20.44 dB,−respectively, and (b) an OSNR of 14 dB.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Mode groups and number of spatial modes.

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Table 2 Effective areas of the LP modes in µm2.

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Table 3 DMGDs of the MGs in ps/km, similar to [7], and D in ps/(nm·km).

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Table 4 Calculated DMGDs of the MGs for maximal XGXPM and XGFWM in ps/km.

Equations (2)

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A a z = α 2 A a ( β 1 , a β 1 , LP 01 ) A a z i β 2 , a 2 2 A a t 2 + i γ ( κ a a | A a | 2 + b a κ a b | A b | 2 ) A a ,
OSNR dB = 58 NF + P channel L span 10 · log 10 N span

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