Abstract

Lithium niobate (LN) exhibits outstanding material properties with great potential for many applications. Recent advance in LN integrated photonics on chip-scale platforms has shown significant advantages in device engineering and functionality innovation. Precise engineering of group-velocity dispersion (GVD) is crucial for many important nonlinear photonic applications. In this paper, we demonstrate high-Q LN microring resonators, with optical Q above 1 million, whose GVD can be flexibly controlled in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes, with a value between −0.128 ps2/m and 0.043 ps2/m in the telecom band, by controlling the device cross section and by utilizing the birefringence. We are able to achieve a small anomalous GVD of −0.015 ps2/m that is even smaller than that of a silica optical fiber. The flexible engineering of GVD paves a critical step towards broad nonlinear photonic applications in high-Q LN microring resonators.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (12)

L. Chang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, N. Volet, M. Zervas, J. D. Peters, C. L. Manganelli, E. J. Stanton, Y. Li, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 42, 803–806 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25, 6963–6973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, H. Liang, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Self-referenced temperature sensing with a lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42, 1281–1284 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, H. Liang, R. Luo, W. C. Jiang, X.-C. Zhang, and Q. Lin, “Nonlinear optical oscillation dynamics in high-Q lithium niobate microresonators,” Opt. Express 25, 13504–13516 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and braodband parametric down-conversion in a lithim niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25, 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liang, R. Luo, Y. He, H. Jiang, and Q. Lin, “High-quality lithium niobate photonic crystal nanocavities,” Optica 4, 1251–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings,” Opt. Express 25, 29927–29933 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4, 1536–1537 (2017)
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
[Crossref]

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, X. Xiong, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, “Metasurface-assisted phase-matching-free second harmonic generation in lithium niobate waveguides,” Nature Communications 8, 2098 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave circuits in lithium niobate through hybrid waveguides with silicon photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip LiNbO3 Microresonator,” Physical Review Applied 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Jiang and Q. Lin, “Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36920 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3, 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Wang, J.-Y. He, C.-A. Lee, and H. Niu, “High-quality LiNbO3 microdisk resonators by undercut etching and surface tension reshaping,” Opt. Express 20, 28119–28124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nature Photon. 1, 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Andrade, N.

Apiratikul, P.

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arrangoiz-Arriola, P.

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46313 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atikian, H. A.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Beha, K.

K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bo, F.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mat. 27, 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Brasch, V.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, I. Mirgorodskiy, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breunig, I.

Burek, M. J.

Buse, K.

Byer, R. L.

Cai, L.

Camacho-González, G. F.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, R.

Cheng, Y.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in an On-Chip LiNbO3 Microresonator,” Physical Review Applied 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiles, J.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1, 350–355 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 25573–25581 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D.-Y.

Chu, W.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 5, 124–129 (2017)
[Crossref]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cole, D. C.

K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mat. 27, 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nature Photon. 1, 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

K. Y. Yang, K. Beha, D. C. Cole, X. Yi, P. Del’Haye, H. Lee, J. Li, D. Y. Oh, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. J. Vahala, “Broadband dispersion-engineered microresonator on a chip,” Nature Photon. 10, 316–320 (2016).
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DeRose, C. T.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of a LN microring resonator with a radius of 60 μm, waveguide thickness of 490 nm, and waveguide width of 1.2 μm. (b) SEM image of the cross section of a waveguide. That of the microring is similar except with a larger waveguide width.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup. The inset shows an optical image of a device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized laser-scanned transmission spectrum of a LN microring resonator with a radius of 60 μm, thickness of 490 nm, and a width of 1.2 μm. The insets show the mode field profiles of mode (b) and (c), respectively. (b)–(d) Detailed transmission spectra of a fundamental, a second-order, and a third-order cavity mode, respectively, with the experimental data shown in black and the theoretical fitting shown in red.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Recorded frequency dispersion of the fundamental (a) and second-order (b) mode family as a function of relative mode number μ, respectively, for the 1.2 μm wide ring. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red lines are theoretical fittings. (a) μ = 0 is designated to be at around 1550 nm, and the scanned wavelength range is from 1480 nm to 1620 nm. (b) μ = 0 is around 1540 nm, and the scanned wavelength range is from 1480 nm to 1600 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The simulated dispersion curves obtained by varying the width (W) of the straight waveguide. Blue line: W = 1.2 μm. Red line: W = 1.4 μm. Yellow line: W = 2.0 μm. The inset shows schematic of the straight waveguide, where H = 490 nm, h1 = 210 nm, h2 = 110 nm, and θ = 23°. (b) Recorded frequency dispersion of the ring with the width of (b) 1.4 μm and (c) 2.0 μm. The data was recorded from 1500 nm to 1600 nm. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red lines are theoretical fittings.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Recorded frequency dispersion of the ring on the z-cut LN with the same structure as Fig. 3, scanned from 1490 nm to 1570 nm. The black dots are experimental data, and the solid red line is theoretical fitting, with D1/(2π) = 327.56 GHz, D2/(2π) = −4.08 MHz. (b) The dispersion is simulated for the second-order mode, based on a z-cut LN straight waveguide with the width of 1.2 μm.