Abstract

Birefringent metamaterial shows fantastic properties in controlling the propagation of electromagnetic wave. Based on the birefringent theory, a Ku-band birefringent metamaterial lens is proposed, which can radiate high gain TE wave with a TE wave feed and deflect incident TM wave. To realize bi-functional high gain radiation or deflection, the required permittivity distribution is analyzed first. Then, the unit cells of metamaterial lens are carefully designed based on effective permittivity equations to achieve the desired permittivity distribution. To demonstrate the present design, a cylindrical birefringent lens prototype is fabricated using 3D printing techniques. The experiments verify that, with a rectangular waveguide feeding on the lens surface or a horn antenna illuminated in the far field, the Ku-band birefringent metamaterial lens performs as a high-gain broadband radiator for the TE wave feed or a deflector for the incident TM wave.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  8. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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  25. M. Yin, X. Y. Tian, L. L. Wu, and D. C. Li, “All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 094101 (2014).
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, and T. J. Li, “High-performance transmissive meta-surface for C-/X-band lens antenna application,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(7), 3598–3606 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. W. Tang, and J. G. Liang, “Polarization-independent broadband meta-surface for bifunctional antenna,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22606–22615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li and Q. Zhu, “Luneburg lens with extended flat focal surface for electronic scan applications,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7201–7211 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, G. P. Piau, A. de Lustrac, and S. N. Burokur, “Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30661 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Yin, X. Y. Tian, L. L. Wu, and D. C. Li, “All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 094101 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg-fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(32), 4028–4034 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Šarbort and T. Tyc, “Spherical media and geodesic lenses in geometrical optics,” J. Opt. 14(7), 075705 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. Chen, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zou, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and high-directivity lens antenna made of metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044904 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1(8), 124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Terahertz form birefringence,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10137–10142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Z. L. Mei and T. J. Cui, “Experimental realization of a broadband bend structure using gradient index metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18354–18363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflections and transmission coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burokur, S. N.

J. Yi, G. P. Piau, A. de Lustrac, and S. N. Burokur, “Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30661 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, T.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, and T. J. Li, “High-performance transmissive meta-surface for C-/X-band lens antenna application,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(7), 3598–3606 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. W. Tang, and J. G. Liang, “Polarization-independent broadband meta-surface for bifunctional antenna,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22606–22615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, K.

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zou, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and high-directivity lens antenna made of metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044904 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg-fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(32), 4028–4034 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zou, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and high-directivity lens antenna made of metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044904 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1(8), 124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Mei and T. J. Cui, “Experimental realization of a broadband bend structure using gradient index metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18354–18363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lustrac, A.

J. Yi, G. P. Piau, A. de Lustrac, and S. N. Burokur, “Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30661 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emani, N. K.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gbele, K.

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gehm, M.

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, T. C.

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(32), 4028–4034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, T.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. X.

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(32), 4028–4034 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zou, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and high-directivity lens antenna made of metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044904 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jördens, C.

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

Kong, J. A.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D. C.

M. Yin, X. Y. Tian, L. L. Wu, and D. C. Li, “All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 094101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, T. J.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, and T. J. Li, “High-performance transmissive meta-surface for C-/X-band lens antenna application,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(7), 3598–3606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liang, J. G.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, and T. J. Li, “High-performance transmissive meta-surface for C-/X-band lens antenna application,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(7), 3598–3606 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. W. Tang, and J. G. Liang, “Polarization-independent broadband meta-surface for bifunctional antenna,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22606–22615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, M.

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg-fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, H. F.

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zou, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and high-directivity lens antenna made of metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044904 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1(8), 124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflections and transmission coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mei, Z. L.

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, W.

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, C.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piau, G. P.

J. Yi, G. P. Piau, A. de Lustrac, and S. N. Burokur, “Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30661 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C. W.

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(32), 4028–4034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ran, L.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Šarbort, M.

M. Šarbort and T. Tyc, “Spherical media and geodesic lenses in geometrical optics,” J. Opt. 14(7), 075705 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scheller, M.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflections and transmission coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaltout, A. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, X.

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg-fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflections and transmission coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflections and transmission coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Southwell, W. H.

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

Tang, S.

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

Tang, S. W.

Tian, X. Y.

M. Yin, X. Y. Tian, L. L. Wu, and D. C. Li, “All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 094101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tyc, T.

M. Šarbort and T. Tyc, “Spherical media and geodesic lenses in geometrical optics,” J. Opt. 14(7), 075705 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wan, X.

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg-fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

Wang, G. M.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, and T. J. Li, “High-performance transmissive meta-surface for C-/X-band lens antenna application,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(7), 3598–3606 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. W. Tang, and J. G. Liang, “Polarization-independent broadband meta-surface for bifunctional antenna,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22606–22615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G. Z.

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L. L.

M. Yin, X. Y. Tian, L. L. Wu, and D. C. Li, “All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 094101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xin, H.

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

Xu, H. X.

Yi, J.

J. Yi, G. P. Piau, A. de Lustrac, and S. N. Burokur, “Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30661 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, M.

M. Yin, X. Y. Tian, L. L. Wu, and D. C. Li, “All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 094101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(32), 4028–4034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Zhuang, Y. Q.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, and T. J. Li, “High-performance transmissive meta-surface for C-/X-band lens antenna application,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(7), 3598–3606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, X. Y.

X. Chen, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zou, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and high-directivity lens antenna made of metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044904 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. X. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, T. C. Han, S. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Creation of ghost illusions using wave dynamics in metamaterials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(32), 4028–4034 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

T. Cai, S. Tang, G. Wang, H. Xu, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1–8 (2016).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Yin, X. Y. Tian, L. L. Wu, and D. C. Li, “All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 094101 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (2)

M. Liang, W. Ng, K. Chang, K. Gbele, M. Gehm, and H. Xin, “A 3-D Luneburg lens antenna fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1799–1807 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, J. G. Liang, Y. Q. Zhuang, and T. J. Li, “High-performance transmissive meta-surface for C-/X-band lens antenna application,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(7), 3598–3606 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Chen, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zou, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and high-directivity lens antenna made of metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044904 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

M. Šarbort and T. Tyc, “Spherical media and geodesic lenses in geometrical optics,” J. Opt. 14(7), 075705 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

X. Wan, X. Shen, Y. Luo, and T. J. Cui, “Planar bifunctional Luneburg-fisheye lens made of an anisotropic metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 757–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband and broad-angle transformation-optics lens,” Nat. Commun. 1(8), 124 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflections and transmission coefficient,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hao, Y. Yuan, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. A. Kong, C. T. Chan, and L. Zhou, “Manipulating electromagnetic wave polarizations by anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063908 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

H. F. Ma, G. Z. Wang, W. X. Jiang, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, G. P. Piau, A. de Lustrac, and S. N. Burokur, “Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30661 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, Metamaterials: physics and engineering explorations (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

T. J. Cui, D. R. Smith, and R. P. Liu, Metamaterials (Springer, 2010).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics: electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

T. C. Choy, Effective medium theory: principles and applications (Oxford University Press, 2015).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 EM wave incident a birefringent material with optic axis in z-direction
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The permittivity distribution of the birefringent lens with F = R for TE wave and 30°-deflection for TM wave.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Focusing/deflection performance of the birefringent lens: (a) Simulated E-field with incident TE wave; (b) Simulated E-field with incident TM wave.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The proposed cubic unit cell and its sub-structures. (a, d) the proposed unit cell are divided into 4 types of sub-structures I ~IV; (b, e) sub-structures I ~IV form two sandwiched structures V and VI; (c, f) sandwiched structures V and VI form the proposed cubic unit cell.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The anisotropic permittivity components εxx, εyy and εzz versus different w1 and w2. (a) and (b) are obtained by Eq. (11); (c) and (d) are obtained with S-parameter retrieval method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The anisotropic factor Δε of the cubic unit cells with different w1 and w2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a, b, c) The unit cell internal sizes and permittivity distributions for different birefringent lenses; (d) Required Δε of birefringent lenses with different deflection angles θ compared with the available Δε range along the radius of birefringent lens.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The cylindrical birefringent lens model and its internal structures.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The metamaterial lens prototype: (a) top view; (b) side view.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) The lens prototype fed by a WR62 waveguide; (b) the schematic diagram.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) The measured radiation patterns of the lens prototype with a WR62 waveguide feed; (b) the gain of the lens prototype with a waveguide feed compared with the gain of a single waveguide at Ku band.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) The lens prototype illuminated by a horn antenna; (b) the schematic diagram.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a, c, e) The E-field distribution simulated with HFSS software in the test region; (b, d, f) The measured E-field distribution in the test region.

Equations (12)

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ε ¯ ¯ r =( ε xx 0 0 0 ε yy 0 0 0 ε zz ), μ ¯ ¯ r =( μ xx 0 0 0 μ yy 0 0 0 μ zz )=( 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 )
n= ε r μ r
n o = ε xx μ zz = ε yy μ zz , n e = ε zz μ xx = ε zz μ yy
ε xx = ε yy = n o 2 , ε zz = n e 2 ε xx = ε yy ε zz
n e 2 (r)=exp[ω(ρ,F)] ω(ρ,F)= 1 π ρ R sin 1 (r/F)dr r 2 ρ 2
ε zz = n e 2 (r)=2 (r/R) 2
(r/R) n o 2π/θ 2 n o π/θ1 +r/R=0
ε xx = ε yy = n o 2 (r)
Substructure I: ε y1 = ε z1 = ε a Substructure II: ε y2 = ε z2 = ε a w 2 + ε d (a w 2 ) a Substructure III: ε y3 = ε z3 = ε a w 1 + ε d (a w 1 ) a Substructure IV: { w 1 w 2 : ε y4 = ε z4 = ε d w 1 w 2 : { ε y4 = ε d w 1 + ε a ε d w 1 ε a ( w 1 w 2 )+ ε d w 2 (a w 1 ) a ε z4 = ε d w 1 + ε a w 2 + ε d ( w 1 w 2 ) w 1 (a w 1 ) a
Sandwiched Structure V: { ε y5 = ε a ε y2 a ε y2 (a w 1 )+ ε a w 1 ε z5 = ε z2 w 1 + ε a (a w 1 ) a Sandwiched Structure VI: { w 1 w 2 : { ε y6 = ε y3 ε d a ε y3 w 2 + ε d (a w 2 ) ε z6 = ε d w 2 + ε z3 (a w 2 ) a w 1 w 2 : { ε y6 = ε y3 ε y4 a ε y3 w 1 + ε y4 (a w 1 ) ε z6 = ε z4 w 1 + ε z3 (a w 1 ) a
ε xx = ε yy = ε y6 w 2 + ε y5 (a w 2 ) a ε zz = ε z5 ε z6 a ε z5 w 2 + ε z6 (a w 2 )
Δε= ε xx ε zz

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