Abstract

We have developed a randomized grating condenser zone plate (GCZP) that provides a µm-scale probe for use in x-ray ptychography. This delivers a significantly better x-ray throughput than probes defined by pinhole apertures, while providing a clearly-defined level of phase diversity to the illumination on the sample, and helping to reduce the dynamic range of the detected signal by spreading the zero-order light over an extended area of the detector. The first use of this novel x-ray optical element has been demonstrated successfully for both amplitude and phase contrast imaging using soft x-rays on the TwinMic beamline at the Elettra synchrotron.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2018 (2)

2017 (1)

C. Jacobsen, J. Deng, and Y. Nashed, “Strategies for high-throughput focused-beam ptychography,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1078–1081 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

S. Marchesini, Y.-C. Tu, and H.-T. Wu, “Alternating projection, ptychographic imaging and phase synchronization,” Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 41, 815–851 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Suzuki, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, N. Burdet, and Y. Takahashi, “Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35060 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase Retrieval by Coherent Modulation Imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gianoncelli, G. Kourousias, L. Merolle, M. Altissimo, and A. Bianco, “Current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra: a soft X-ray transmission and emission microscopy station,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 1526–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

N. Burdet, G. R. Morrison, X. Huang, X. Shi, J. N. Clark, F. Zhang, M. Civita, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Observations of artefacts in the x-ray ptychography method,” Opt. Express 22, 10294–10303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22, 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

Y.-S. Shi, Y.-L. Wang, and S.-G. Zhang, “Generalized Ptychography with Diverse Probes,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Fannjiang and W. Liao, “Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask,” Inverse Probl. 29, 125001 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. N. Wilke, M. Vassholz, and T. Salditt, “Semi-transparent central stop in high-resolution X-ray ptychography using Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 69, 490–497 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H.-T. Wu, and F. Maia, “Augmented projections for ptychographic imaging,” Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Z. Xu, X. Zhang, Y. Wu, Z. Guo, and R. Tai, “Effects of missing low-frequency information on ptychographic and plane-wave coherent diffraction imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2416–2427 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jones, B. Abbey, A. Gianoncelli, E. Balaur, C. Millet, M. B. Luu, H. D. Coughlan, A. J. Carroll, A. G. Peele, L. Tilley, and G. A. van Riessen, “Phase-diverse Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging of malaria parasite-infected red blood cells in the water window,” Opt. Express 21, 32151–32159 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. Fannjiang and W. Liao, “Phase retrieval with random phase illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 1847–1859 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy. 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2585–2587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Suzuki, “Zernike phase-contrast x-ray microscope with pseudo-Kohler illumination generated by sectored (polygon) condenser plate,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 186, 012020 (2009).

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy. 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science. 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy. 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval of arbitrary complex-valued fields through aperture-plane modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043805 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a configurable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251117 (2006).
[Crossref]

U. Vogt, M. Lindblom, P. Charalambous, B. Kaulich, and T. Wilhein, “Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1465–1467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Prob. 21, 37–50 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, “Charge-coupled device area x-ray detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815–2842 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

Abbey, B.

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altissimo, M.

A. Gianoncelli, G. Kourousias, L. Merolle, M. Altissimo, and A. Bianco, “Current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra: a soft X-ray transmission and emission microscopy station,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 1526–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bacescu, D.

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a configurable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251117 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Balaur, E.

Batey, D. J.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

Beckers, M.

Berenguer, F.

Berndt, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Besedin, I.

Bianco, A.

A. Gianoncelli, G. Kourousias, L. Merolle, M. Altissimo, and A. Bianco, “Current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra: a soft X-ray transmission and emission microscopy station,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 1526–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science. 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy. 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burdet, N.

A. Suzuki, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, N. Burdet, and Y. Takahashi, “Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35060 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Burdet, G. R. Morrison, X. Huang, X. Shi, J. N. Clark, F. Zhang, M. Civita, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Observations of artefacts in the x-ray ptychography method,” Opt. Express 22, 10294–10303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Businaro, L.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cabana, J.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cabrini, S.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, “Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 11, 2278–2288 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Carpentiero, A.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carroll, A. J.

Celestre, R.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chao, W.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

Charalambous, P.

Charalambous, P. S.

P. S. Charalambous, ZonePlates Ltd, London, UK, (personal communication, 2018).

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Chen, B.

Chen, P.

P. Chen and A. Fannjiang, “Coded aperture ptychography: uniqueness and reconstruction,” Inverse Prob. 34, 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

Civita, M.

Clark, J. N.

Cocco, D.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Cojoc, D.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, “Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 11, 2278–2288 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Coughlan, H. D.

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

da Silva, J. C.

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science. 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

David, K. L.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Davis, J.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

C. Jacobsen, J. Deng, and Y. Nashed, “Strategies for high-throughput focused-beam ptychography,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1078–1081 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhez, O.

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

di Fabrizio, E.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Diaz, A.

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, M.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science. 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy. 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dzhigaev, D.

Edo, T. B.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eikenberry, E. F.

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, “Charge-coupled device area x-ray detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815–2842 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fabrizio, E. Di

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, “Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 11, 2278–2288 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Facci, P.

Fannjiang, A.

P. Chen and A. Fannjiang, “Coded aperture ptychography: uniqueness and reconstruction,” Inverse Prob. 34, 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Fannjiang and W. Liao, “Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask,” Inverse Probl. 29, 125001 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Fannjiang and W. Liao, “Phase retrieval with random phase illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 1847–1859 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gianoncelli, A.

A. Gianoncelli, G. Kourousias, L. Merolle, M. Altissimo, and A. Bianco, “Current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra: a soft X-ray transmission and emission microscopy station,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 1526–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jones, B. Abbey, A. Gianoncelli, E. Balaur, C. Millet, M. B. Luu, H. D. Coughlan, A. J. Carroll, A. G. Peele, L. Tilley, and G. A. van Riessen, “Phase-diverse Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging of malaria parasite-infected red blood cells in the water window,” Opt. Express 21, 32151–32159 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a configurable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251117 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Giewekemeyer, K.

Gorniak, T.

Gruner, S. M.

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, “Charge-coupled device area x-ray detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815–2842 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grunze, M.

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase Retrieval by Coherent Modulation Imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Harder, R.

Harm, S.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henke, B.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hirose, M.

A. Suzuki, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, N. Burdet, and Y. Takahashi, “Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35060 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holler, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Humphry, M. J.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy. 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2585–2587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, A. C.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hwu, Y.

Jacobsen, C.

C. Jacobsen, J. Deng, and Y. Nashed, “Strategies for high-throughput focused-beam ptychography,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1078–1081 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johnson, I.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy. 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johnson, R. L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, M. W.

Kaulich, B.

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a configurable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251117 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

U. Vogt, M. Lindblom, P. Charalambous, B. Kaulich, and T. Wilhein, “Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1465–1467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, “Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 11, 2278–2288 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
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L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
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B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

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A. Gianoncelli, G. Kourousias, L. Merolle, M. Altissimo, and A. Bianco, “Current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra: a soft X-ray transmission and emission microscopy station,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 1526–1527 (2016).
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A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a configurable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251117 (2006).
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A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy. 120, 64–72 (2012).
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S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H.-T. Wu, and F. Maia, “Augmented projections for ptychographic imaging,” Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013).
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T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
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A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
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A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy. 120, 64–72 (2012).
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A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2585–2587 (2010).
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A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy. 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
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S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H.-T. Wu, and F. Maia, “Augmented projections for ptychographic imaging,” Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013).
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T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
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Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
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O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy. 108, 481–487 (2008).
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Rau, C.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
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Rodenburg, J. M.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
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T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy. 120, 64–72 (2012).
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A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2585–2587 (2010).
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A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy. 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Sarahan, M. C.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy. 120, 64–72 (2012).
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S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H.-T. Wu, and F. Maia, “Augmented projections for ptychographic imaging,” Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013).
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Schlichting, I.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
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L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
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Suzuki, A.

A. Suzuki, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, N. Burdet, and Y. Takahashi, “Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35060 (2016).
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A. Suzuki, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, N. Burdet, and Y. Takahashi, “Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35060 (2016).
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Tilley, L.

Tu, Y.-C.

S. Marchesini, Y.-C. Tu, and H.-T. Wu, “Alternating projection, ptychographic imaging and phase synchronization,” Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 41, 815–851 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tyliszczak, T.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Uesugi, K.

A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Suzuki, “Zernike phase-contrast x-ray microscope with pseudo-Kohler illumination generated by sectored (polygon) condenser plate,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 186, 012020 (2009).

van Riessen, G. A.

Vartanyants, I. A.

Vassholz, M.

R. N. Wilke, M. Vassholz, and T. Salditt, “Semi-transparent central stop in high-resolution X-ray ptychography using Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 69, 490–497 (2013).
[Crossref]

Viefhaus, J.

Vila Comamala, J.

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase Retrieval by Coherent Modulation Imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vila-Comamala, J.

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vogt, U.

U. Vogt, M. Lindblom, P. Charalambous, B. Kaulich, and T. Wilhein, “Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1465–1467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

von Gundlach, A. R.

Von Koenig, K.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wagner, U.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waigh, T. A.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-L.

Y.-S. Shi, Y.-L. Wang, and S.-G. Zhang, “Generalized Ptychography with Diverse Probes,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Warwick, T.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weitkamp, T.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Wilhein, T.

U. Vogt, M. Lindblom, P. Charalambous, B. Kaulich, and T. Wilhein, “Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1465–1467 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, “Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 11, 2278–2288 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Wilke, R. N.

R. N. Wilke, M. Vassholz, and T. Salditt, “Semi-transparent central stop in high-resolution X-ray ptychography using Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 69, 490–497 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.-T.

S. Marchesini, Y.-C. Tu, and H.-T. Wu, “Alternating projection, ptychographic imaging and phase synchronization,” Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 41, 815–851 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H.-T. Wu, and F. Maia, “Augmented projections for ptychographic imaging,” Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xu, Z.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yan, H.

Yang, C.

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H.-T. Wu, and F. Maia, “Augmented projections for ptychographic imaging,” Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, L. L.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yaroslavsky, L. P.

Yu, Y.-S.

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zacchigna, M.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Zangrando, M.

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, S.-G.

Y.-S. Shi, Y.-L. Wang, and S.-G. Zhang, “Generalized Ptychography with Diverse Probes,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A (1)

R. N. Wilke, M. Vassholz, and T. Salditt, “Semi-transparent central stop in high-resolution X-ray ptychography using Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 69, 490–497 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. (1)

S. Marchesini, Y.-C. Tu, and H.-T. Wu, “Alternating projection, ptychographic imaging and phase synchronization,” Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 41, 815–851 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Gianoncelli, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, and J. Kovac, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a configurable detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atom. Data Nucl. Data (1)

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” Atom. Data Nucl. Data 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y.-S. Shi, Y.-L. Wang, and S.-G. Zhang, “Generalized Ptychography with Diverse Probes,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30, 054203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Inverse Prob. (2)

P. Chen and A. Fannjiang, “Coded aperture ptychography: uniqueness and reconstruction,” Inverse Prob. 34, 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Prob. 21, 37–50 (2005).
[Crossref]

Inverse Probl. (2)

A. Fannjiang and W. Liao, “Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask,” Inverse Probl. 29, 125001 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, A. Schirotzek, C. Yang, H.-T. Wu, and F. Maia, “Augmented projections for ptychographic imaging,” Inverse Probl. 29, 115009 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, M. Altissimo, B. Kaulich, T. Wilhein, J. Susini, and O. Dhez, “Phase and intensity control through diffractive optical elements in X-ray microscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 957–961 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, and Y. Suzuki, “Zernike phase-contrast x-ray microscope with pseudo-Kohler illumination generated by sectored (polygon) condenser plate,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 186, 012020 (2009).

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

A. Gianoncelli, G. Kourousias, L. Merolle, M. Altissimo, and A. Bianco, “Current status of the TwinMic beamline at Elettra: a soft X-ray transmission and emission microscopy station,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 1526–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacobsen, J. Deng, and Y. Nashed, “Strategies for high-throughput focused-beam ptychography,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24, 1078–1081 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, “X-ray vortices with high topological charge,” Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360–1363 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase Retrieval by Coherent Modulation Imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (2)

D. A. Shapiro, Y.-S. Yu, T. Tyliszczak, J. Cabana, R. Celestre, W. Chao, K. Kaznatcheev, K. L. David, F. Maia, S. Marchesini, Y. S. Meng, T. Warwick, L. L. Yang, and H. A. Padmore, “Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy,” Nat. Photon. 8, 765–769 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature.  414, 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. Von Koenig, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys. 12, 035017 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

N. Burdet, G. R. Morrison, X. Huang, X. Shi, J. N. Clark, F. Zhang, M. Civita, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Observations of artefacts in the x-ray ptychography method,” Opt. Express 22, 10294–10303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. da Silva and A. Menzel, “Elementary signals in ptychography,” Opt. Express 23, 33812–33821 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19, 1037–1050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rose, T. Senkbeil, A. R. von Gundlach, S. Stuhr, C. Rumancev, D. Dzhigaev, I. Besedin, P. Skopintsev, L. Loetgering, J. Viefhaus, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Quantitative ptychographic bio-imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 26, 1237–1254 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22, 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, “Diffractive optical elements for differential interference contrast x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 11, 2278–2288 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jones, B. Abbey, A. Gianoncelli, E. Balaur, C. Millet, M. B. Luu, H. D. Coughlan, A. J. Carroll, A. G. Peele, L. Tilley, and G. A. van Riessen, “Phase-diverse Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging of malaria parasite-infected red blood cells in the water window,” Opt. Express 21, 32151–32159 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval of arbitrary complex-valued fields through aperture-plane modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043805 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, M. Holler, A. Diaz, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “Role of the illumination spatial-frequency spectrum for ptychography,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 100103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. M. Gruner, M. W. Tate, and E. F. Eikenberry, “Charge-coupled device area x-ray detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2815–2842 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Suzuki, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, N. Burdet, and Y. Takahashi, “Dark-field X-ray ptychography: Towards high-resolution imaging of thick and unstained biological specimens,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35060 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science. (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science. 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy. (3)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy. 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, M. C. Sarahan, B. Kraus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “An annealing algorithm to correct positioning errors in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy. 120, 64–72 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy. 108, 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

B. Kaulich, D. Bacescu, J. Susini, C. David, E. di Fabrizio, G. R. Morrison, P. S. Charalambous, J. Thieme, T. Wilhein, J. Kovac, D. Cocco, M. Salomé, O. Dhez, T. Weitkamp, S. Cabrini, D. Cojoc, A. Gianoncelli, U. Vogt, M. Podnar, M. Zangrando, M. Zacchigna, and M. Kiskinova, “TwinMic – a European twin x-ray microscopy station commissioned at ELETTRA,” in “Proc. 8th Int. Conf. X-ray Microscopy,” S. Aoki, Y. Kagoshima, and Y. Suzuki, eds., vol. 7 of IPAP Conf. Ser. (IPAP, Tokyo, 2006), pp. 22–25.

P. S. Charalambous, ZonePlates Ltd, London, UK, (personal communication, 2018).

P. S. Charalambous, ZonePlates Ltd, London, UK, www.zoneplates.com . Accessed 25-Apr-2018.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams showing a) a conventional Fresnel zone plate with the two innermost zones blanked, b) a grating condenser zone plate with inner and outer radii that are the same as for the Fresnel zone plate in (a), and c) a similar grating condenser zone plate to that shown in (b), but with randomized grating positions. In all three parts of the figure, black denotes areas that are transparent, and white shows areas that are opaque.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A schematic diagram of the setup used for ptychographic imaging on the TwinMic beamline at Elettra. The source pinhole was 50µm in diameter and located about 2 m upstream of the GCZP, the TXM camera was located about 685 mm downstream of the sample plane. The GCZP had a 60 µm diameter central stop on its upstream side, and an order-selecting aperture (OSA) of 20 µm diameter was placed on the optical axis about 6 mm downstream of the GCZP to ensure that only the convergent first-order diffracted beams could reach the sample plane. The sample was a further 2 mm downstream of the OSA. The GCZP produced a focal spot ∼ 6 µm diameter on the sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) A schematic showing the design of the randomized GCZP fabricated by Zoneplates.com. b) The signal distribution produced by the GCZP on the TwinMic CCD detector at a photon energy of 650 eV, in the absence of a sample. c) Ptychographic reconstruction of the probe amplitude distribution and (d) the probe phase distribution in the plane of the sample. e) A plot showing the average amplitude profile across the probe for the 25 rows of pixels within the dashed lines marked on (c). f) The amplitude distribution in the plane of the GCZP, obtained by back-propagating the complex probe upstream from the sample plane.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) A schematic of the test pattern design that was etched into a 150 nm-thick tungsten film on a 100 nm-thick silicon nitride support film. Ptychographic reconstructions show b) the phase and c) the amplitude of the sample transmittance for the test pattern at an x-ray energy of ∼ 650 eV, with the blue line on (c) marking where line profiles were taken along an open spoke. The overall exposure time for each position in the ptychography scan was 3 s. d) A close-up view of the region highlighted by the yellow square in (b), with the red line marking where line profiles have been taken from the amplitude and phase reconstructions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Line profiles showing a) the amplitude transmission and (b) the phase taken radially inwards along the blue line shown in Fig. 4(c). The dashed lines show the mean values of the signal in the high and low regions of these profiles. c) A plot showing the amplitude (blue stars) and phase signals (red circles) sampled along the red line shown in Fig. 4(d). The solid lines are quartic spline curves fitted to the sampled data, and are intended only as a guide to the eye.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Ptychographic reconstructions at a photon energy of ∼ 500 eV of a) the logarithmically-scaled amplitude and b) the phase of the transmission function for an assembly of polystyrene spheres that are 1.09 µm in diameter, supported on a thin holey carbon film. The exposure time for each position in the ptychography scan was 4 s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A comparison of measured and expected transmission values at 650 eV for the test pattern shown in Fig. 4. Expected values are based on tabulated values of soft x-ray optical constants [41].

Metrics