Abstract

A novel spectral beam combining (SBC) approach based on off-axis feedback in a V-shaped external cavity (VSBC) was proposed and demonstrated. A highly reflecting mirror was used to supply the optical feedback by partial overlapping the beam. The advantages of simple setup, output coupler free, tunable beam quality and emission power over traditional SBC were presented. The beam quality exceeds single emitter with the similar energy conversion efficiency to the traditional SBC. The M2 factors of 2.31 × 3.76 in fast and slow axes and a brightness of 122 MWcm−2sr−1 were realized at 30 A based on a commercial broad-area diode laser array.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

L. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Zhong, and B. Zhang, “Effect of crosstalk on combined beam characteristics in spectral beam combining systems,” Opt. Commun. 384, 30–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

H. Meng, T. Sun, H. Tan, J. Yu, W. Du, F. Tian, J. Li, S. Gao, X. Wang, and D. Wu, “High-brightness spectral beam combining of diode laser array stack in an external cavity,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21819–21824 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

2014 (1)

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “Near-diffraction-limited segmented broad area diode laser based on off-axis spectral beam combining,” Appl. Phys. B 83(2), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Jechow, V. Raab, and R. Menzel, “High cw power using an external cavity for spectral beam combining of diode laser-bar emission,” Appl. Opt. 45(15), 3545–3547 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1993 (1)

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Andersen, P. E.

A. Müller, D. Vijayakumar, O. B. Jensen, K. H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “16 W output power by high-efficient spectral beam combining of DBR-tapered diode lasers,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1228–1235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “Near-diffraction-limited segmented broad area diode laser based on off-axis spectral beam combining,” Appl. Phys. B 83(2), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burgess, J.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

Cao, J. D.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. S.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chann, B.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

J. T. Gopinath, B. Chann, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “1450-nm high-brightness wavelength-beam combined diode laser array,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9405–9410 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Choi, H. K.

Cook, C. C.

Cook, R.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

Cruz, M.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

Daneu, V.

Donnelly, J. P.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

Du, W.

Dugmore, D.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

Eberhardt, R.

Erbert, G.

Fan, T. Y.

Fu, X. H.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

Gopinath, J. T.

Gowin, M.

Goyal, A. K.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Harris, C. T.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hasler, K. H.

He, B.

Hou, G. Y.

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Hu, M.

Huang, R. K.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jechow, A.

Jensen, O. B.

Jung, M.

Laliberte, B. M.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, L.

L. Li, “The advances and characteristics of high-power diode laser materials processing,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34(4-6), 231–253 (2000).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Liu, G.

Liu, K.

Liu, Y.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lochman, B.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

Ludewigt, K.

Meng, H.

Menzel, R.

Minns, R. A.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Missaggia, L. J.

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Müller, A.

Ning, Y. Q.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ostendorf, R.

Peng, H. Y.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Petersen, P. M.

A. Müller, D. Vijayakumar, O. B. Jensen, K. H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “16 W output power by high-efficient spectral beam combining of DBR-tapered diode lasers,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1228–1235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. B. Jensen, B. Thestrup, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “Near-diffraction-limited segmented broad area diode laser based on off-axis spectral beam combining,” Appl. Phys. B 83(2), 225–228 (2006).
[Crossref]

Po, H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Qin, L.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

Raab, V.

Robinson, R. F.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rockney, B. H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, A.

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Daneu, A. Sanchez, T. Y. Fan, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, and C. C. Cook, “Spectral beam combining of a broad-stripe diode laser array in an external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 405–407 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Rubio, A.

J. T. Gopinath, B. Chann, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “1450-nm high-brightness wavelength-beam combined diode laser array,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9405–9410 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Shan, X. N.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shattuck, J.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

Shu, S. L.

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Sumpf, B.

Sun, F. Y.

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Sun, T.

Tan, H.

Tayebati, P.

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, J. Burgess, B. Lochman, W. Zhou, M. Cruz, R. Cook, D. Dugmore, J. Shattuck, and P. Tayebati, “TeraDiode’s high brightness semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9730, 97300C (2015).

ten Have, E.

Thestrup, B.

Tian, F.

Tian, S. C.

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Tong, C. Z.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Tricca, R. R.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Rockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, “High power neodymium-doped single transverse mode fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 29(17), 1500–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tsybin, I.

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, G. W.

L. J. Missaggia, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, C. T. Harris, J. P. Donnelly, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Turner, “High-power, slab-coupled optical waveguide laser array packaging for beam combining,” Proc. SPIE 6478, 647806 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Huang, B. Chann, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, G. W. Turner, A. K. Goyal, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “High-brightness wavelength beam combined semiconductor laser diode arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(4), 209–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Daneu, A. Sanchez, T. Y. Fan, H. K. Choi, G. W. Turner, and C. C. Cook, “Spectral beam combining of a broad-stripe diode laser array in an external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 405–407 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vijayakumar, D.

Wang, J.

Wang, L. J.

J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

F. Y. Sun, S. L. Shu, G. Y. Hou, L. J. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, S. C. Tian, C. Z. Tong, and L. J. Wang, “Efficiency and threshold characteristics of high-power diode lasers by spectral beam combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Wang, X.

Westphalen, T.

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L. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Zhong, and B. Zhang, “Effect of crosstalk on combined beam characteristics in spectral beam combining systems,” Opt. Commun. 384, 30–35 (2017).
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J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
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L. Yang, Z. Wu, Z. Zhong, and B. Zhang, “Effect of crosstalk on combined beam characteristics in spectral beam combining systems,” Opt. Commun. 384, 30–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J. Zhang, H. Y. Peng, Y. Liu, L. Qin, J. S. Cao, X. N. Shan, Y. G. Zeng, X. H. Fu, C. Z. Tong, Y. Q. Ning, and L. J. Wang, “Hundred-watt diode laser source by spectral beam combining,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(12), 125803 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of a VSBC setup, (b) simplified schematic of the V-shaped feedback in VSBC, (c) partial reflection by HR mirror before combining, (d) adjust the overlapping between HR mirror and the far-field spots to realize beam combining. TL: transform lens, BTS: beam transformation system, SAC: slow axis collimation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Output power of diode array combined by VSBC (triangles) and SBC with OC’s reflectivity of 33% (circles) as a function of driving current. The squares represent the power of free running. The curve of upper triangles is the VSBC with the similar power as SBC (circles) for the purpose of beam quality comparing. The curve of downward triangles is the maximum power realizable by adjusting the position of HR mirror in VSBC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Energy conversion efficiencies of VSBC, SBC and free-running.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Far field patterns of VSBC at driving currents of (a) 8 A and (b) 20 A, (c) and (d) are the far field patterns of SBC at 8 A and 20 A, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Current dependent M2 factors in (a) fast-axis and (b) slow-axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Lasing spectra of lasers combined by SBC and VSBC.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dependences of (a) M2 factors and (b) power of VSBC on the overlapping size l1 at 30 A.

Equations (1)

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B= P λ 2 M x 2 M y 2 .