Abstract

The effects of non-nadir viewing geometry in above-water radiometry data were investigated using field measurements and two different correction approaches: one centered on chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) developed for Case-1 waters, and the other relying on seawater inherent optical properties (IOP) proposed for any water type. With specific reference to data from the Ocean Color component of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET-OC), the study focused on the assessment of the uncertainties affecting corrections for non-nadir view of data collected with 40° in-air viewing angle and with 90° relative azimuth between viewing direction and sun. The study analyzed AERONET-OC water-leaving radiance data from different European seas to determine differences between corrections performed with the Chla- and the IOP-based approaches. Additionally, data collected in waters characterized by different optical complexity and comprising water-leaving radiances measured at nadir and with 28.6° in-water viewing angle (corresponding to 40° in-air) and 90° relative azimuth, were used to investigate the uncertainties of the two correction approaches. Results from the analysis of data from AERONET-OC sites characterized by a variety of optically complex waters, indicate corrections with uncertainties between 20% and 35% from 412 nm to 667 nm for the IOP-based approach. Conversely, uncertainties for the Chla-based one largely vary with wavelength and water type, with values of approximately 55% at 412 nm, 20–40% between 490 nm and 551 nm, and exceeding 60% at 667 nm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (1)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, and M. Talone, “In situ autonomous radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea,” Ocean Science 11, 275–286 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LW N uncertainties,” Metrologia 51, 40–47, (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167, (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, and D. D’Alimonte, “Cross-site consistent in-situ measurements for satellite ocean-color applications: The BiOMaP radiometric dataset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 2104–2115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140, (2005).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44 (2), 241–248 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sensing. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

H. Losiel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858, (1998).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500, (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. D. Mobley, “A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind-roughned surfaces,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1473–1483, (1989).
[Crossref]

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Ansko, I.

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306, (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, R.

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167, (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, “The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface,” in Optical Aspects of OceanographyN. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974).

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140, (2005).
[Crossref]

Banks, A. C.

Bardey, P.

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, and M. Talone, “In situ autonomous radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea,” Ocean Science 11, 275–286 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, and D. D’Alimonte, “Cross-site consistent in-situ measurements for satellite ocean-color applications: The BiOMaP radiometric dataset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 2104–2115 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sensing. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

Broenkow, W.

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Carder, K.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Chatenet, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Clark, D.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, and D. D’Alimonte, “Cross-site consistent in-situ measurements for satellite ocean-color applications: The BiOMaP radiometric dataset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 2104–2115 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davis, C.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Deste, J. F.

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500, (1992).
[Crossref]

Du, K.

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fabbri, B. E.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fargion, G. S.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Feng, H.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

Frouin, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Ge, Y.

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

Gentili, B.

Gergely, M.

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LW N uncertainties,” Metrologia 51, 40–47, (2014).
[Crossref]

Giles, D.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gleason, A. C. R.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44 (2), 241–248 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500, (1992).
[Crossref]

Gueval, P.

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

Guislan, B.

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

Halthore, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Holben, B.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hooker, S. B.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaitala, S.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karnieli, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Kuusk, J.

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lavenue, F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167, (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Losiel, H.

H. Losiel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858, (1998).
[Crossref]

Louis, F.

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

Lubac, B.

Markham, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

McLean, S.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Mélin, F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, and M. Talone, “In situ autonomous radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea,” Ocean Science 11, 275–286 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, and D. D’Alimonte, “Cross-site consistent in-situ measurements for satellite ocean-color applications: The BiOMaP radiometric dataset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 2104–2115 (2011).
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G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, J.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(36), 7442–7455 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, “A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind-roughned surfaces,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1473–1483, (1989).
[Crossref]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306, (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Losiel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858, (1998).
[Crossref]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Newcomb, W. W.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, N. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Pietras, C.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Pinker, R. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Porter, J.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schafer, J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Schuster, G.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scott, A.

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

Seppala, J.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slutsker, I.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Steward, R. G.

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Sullivan, J.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

Talone, M.

M. Talone, G. Zibordi, I. Ansko, A. C. Banks, and J. Kuusk, “Stray light effects in above-water remote-sensing reflectance from hyper-spectral radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 55(15), 3966–3977 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, and M. Talone, “In situ autonomous radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea,” Ocean Science 11, 275–286 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Trees, C.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

Vande Castle, J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Vandemark, D.

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Voss, K. J.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167, (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi and K. J. Voss, “In situ optical radiometry in the visible and near infrared,” in Optical radiometry for ocean climate measurements: Experimental methods in the physical sciences, G. Zibordi, C. Donlon, and A. Parr, eds. (ElsevierAcademic, 2014).

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

Weidemann, A.

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167, (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140, (2005).
[Crossref]

Zibordi, G.

M. Talone, G. Zibordi, I. Ansko, A. C. Banks, and J. Kuusk, “Stray light effects in above-water remote-sensing reflectance from hyper-spectral radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 55(15), 3966–3977 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, and M. Talone, “In situ autonomous radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea,” Ocean Science 11, 275–286 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LW N uncertainties,” Metrologia 51, 40–47, (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167, (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, and D. D’Alimonte, “Cross-site consistent in-situ measurements for satellite ocean-color applications: The BiOMaP radiometric dataset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 2104–2115 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sensing. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi and M. Ferrari, “Instrument self-shading in underwater optical measurements: experimental data,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2750–2754 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi and K. J. Voss, “In situ optical radiometry in the visible and near infrared,” in Optical radiometry for ocean climate measurements: Experimental methods in the physical sciences, G. Zibordi, C. Donlon, and A. Parr, eds. (ElsevierAcademic, 2014).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Int. J. Remote Sensing. (1)

J. F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, “Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea,” Int. J. Remote Sensing. 25(7–8), 1527–1532 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (2)

G. Zibordi, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: A network for validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Antoine, P. Gueval, J. F. Deste, B. Guislan, F. Louis, A. Scott, and P. Bardey, “The BOUSSOLE buoy a new transparent-to-swell taut mooring dedicated to marine optics: Design, tests, and performance at sea,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25, 968–989, (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

D. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217, (1997).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenue, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karnieli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. J. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097, (2001).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

H. Losiel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858, (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500, (1992).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, “A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind-roughned surfaces,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1473–1483, (1989).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC LW N uncertainties,” Metrologia 51, 40–47, (2014).
[Crossref]

Ocean Science (1)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, and M. Talone, “In situ autonomous radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea,” Ocean Science 11, 275–286 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

A. C. R. Gleason, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, M. Twardowski, J. Sullivan, C. Trees, A. Weidemann, J. F. Berthon, D. Clark, and Z. Lee, “Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case I and Case II waters,” Opt. Express, 7,7630–7645, (2012).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (4)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140, (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, and D. D’Alimonte, “Cross-site consistent in-situ measurements for satellite ocean-color applications: The BiOMaP radiometric dataset,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 2104–2115 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, J. F. Berthon, F. Mélin, D. D’Alimonte, and S. Kaitala, “Validation of satellite ocean color primary products at optically complex coastal sites: northern Adriatic Sea, northern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2574–2591 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. W. Austin, “The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface,” in Optical Aspects of OceanographyN. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974).

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM), “Evaluation of measurement Data - Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement JCGM 100:2008,” Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Paris, France (2008).

J. L. Mueller, A. Morel, R. Frouin, C. Davis, R. Arnone, K. Carder, Z. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. B. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, B. Holben, J. Miller, C. Pietras, K. D. Knobelspiesse, G. S. Fargion, J. Porter, and K. J. Voss, “Radiometric measurements and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Volume III, Revision 4, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2003).

G. Zibordi and K. J. Voss, “In situ optical radiometry in the visible and near infrared,” in Optical radiometry for ocean climate measurements: Experimental methods in the physical sciences, G. Zibordi, C. Donlon, and A. Parr, eds. (ElsevierAcademic, 2014).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 AERONET-OC sun-photometer performing autonomous above-water radiometric measurements.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Average spectra of Lw for the Adriatic Sea (blue), the Baltic Sea (green), and the Black Sea (red). Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation (spectra are shifted to increase redeability).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Occurrence distributions of Chla [panels (a), (c), (e)] and sun zenith [panels (b), (d), (f)] for the AERONET-OC data included in this study. Panels (a) and (b) refer to the Adriatic Sea, while (c) and (d) to the Baltic Sea, and finally (e) and (f) to the Black Sea sites.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectral percent corrections determined with the Chla- [panels (a), (c), and (e)] and IOP-based [panels (b), (d), and (f)] approaches for AERONET-OC data acquired in the northern Adriatic Sea (top row), the Baltic Sea (middle row), and the Black Sea (bottom row). Average values (circles) and standard deviations (error bars) are displayed in each plot.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectral differences (a) and percent relative differences (b) between corrections for non-nadir view, determined with the IOP- and Chla-based approaches for AERONET-OC data from the nortern Adriatic Sea (blue), the Baltic Sea (green), and the Black Sea (red) sites. Solid lines and error bars indicate averages and standard deviations, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical Floating System (OFS). The RAMSES-ARC radiometers producing Lw data with nadir and non-nadir view are located in the middle of the main arm. Conversely, the tilt/compass unit is located on its rightmost end.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Geographic location (a) and Rrs spectra (b) from OFS measurements. Rrs at relevant center-wavelengths for Case-1, -2a, and -2b waters are displayed in blue, green, and orange, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Occurrence distributions of Chla (a) and sun zenith (b) for the measurements performed with OFS. Values related to Case-1, -2a, and -2b waters are displayed in blue, green and orange, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectral percent corrections ε determined from OFS measurements (εe, black) or obtained from the IOP-based (εIOP, red) and Chla-based (εChla, blue) approaches for Case-1 (top), Case-2a (middle), and Case-2b (bottom) waters [panels (a), (c), and (e), respectively]. The corresponding differences Δ between theoretical and experimental corrections are also displayed [panels (b), (d), and (f), respectively]. Error bars represent the standard deviations. Dashed areas indicate the estimated precision of the mean εe. N is the number data points available for each independent comparison.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Spectral relative uncertainties affecting corrections for the non-nadir viewing geometry applied to OFS data as a result of systematic ( u r s , *, solid lines) and random ( u r r , *, dashed lines) effects, for the Chla- (a) and IOP-based (b) approaches. The combined relative uncertainties u r * are displayed with dash-dot lines in panel (c) for the Chla-based approach and in panel (d) for the IOP-based one. Case-1, Case-2a, and Case-2b waters are in blue, green, and orange. Spectra are shifted to increase readability.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Site-specific spectral relative uncertainties affecting the correction for the non-nadir viewing geometry applied to AERONET data with the Chla- (a) and IOP-based (b) approaches. Values for the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea, and the Baltic Sea are in blue, green, and red, respectively. Spectra are shifted to increase readability.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Site-specific spectral absolute uncertainties u ^ a * for the Chla- (a) or IOP-based (b) approaches applied to the Adriatic Sea (blue), the Baltic Sea (green), and the Black Sea (red).
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Measurement geometry for nadir view. The cases of direct and diffuse incident light are shown in panels (a) and (b), respectively.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Measurement geometry for non-nadir view. The cases of direct and diffuse incident light are shown in panels (a) and (b), respectively.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Sample self-shading correction coefficients for nadir (continuous lines) and non-nadir (dashed lines) observations. Blue and red lines indicate values determined at λ = 412 nm and λ = 667 nm, respectively. The case of direct incident light is illustrated in panel (a), while the case of the diffuse one is displayed in panel (b).

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L w ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ ) = t w a ( θ w , Δ ϕ , W , λ ) n w 2 ( λ ) L u ( θ w , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ ) .
L w C h l a ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 , λ ) = L w ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ ) ( 0 , W ) ( θ a , W ) Q ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ , τ a , C h l a ) Q ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 , λ , τ a , C h l a )
R r s I O P ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ ) = [ G 0 w ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 ) + G 1 w ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 ) b b w ( λ ) k ( λ ) ] × b b w ( λ ) k ( λ ) + [ G 0 p ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 ) + G 1 p ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 ) b b p ( λ ) k ( λ ) ] × b b p ( λ ) k ( λ ) ,
R r s I O P ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 , λ ) = [ G 0 w ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 ) + G 1 w ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 ) × b b w ( λ ) k ( λ ) ] × b b w ( λ ) k ( λ ) + [ G 0 p ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 ) + G 1 p ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 ) × b b p ( λ ) k ( λ ) ] × b b p ( λ ) k ( λ ) ,
L w I O P ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 , λ ) = R r s I O P ( 0 , 0 , θ 0 , λ ) × E d ( 0 + , θ 0 , λ ) ,
L w ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ ) = L ¯ T ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ ) ρ ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ , W ) × L ¯ i ( θ a , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ ) ,
ε * = 100 × [ ( L w 0 L w θ ) * 1 ]
Δ = ε I O P ε C h l a ,
δ = 100 × Δ ( ε I O P + ε C h l a ) / 2 .
L u ( θ w , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ , t ) = L u ( θ w , Δ ϕ , θ 0 , λ , t ) × E d ( 0 + , θ 0 , λ , t 0 ) E d ( 0 + , θ 0 , λ , t ) ,
L u c = L u × 1 1 ϵ
σ A ( ε e ) = 1 N 1 / 2 { 1 N N [ s t d ( ε e ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 = 1 N { N [ s t d ( ε e ) ] 2 } 1 / 2
u r s , * = 1 N N δ * ,
u r r , * = { [ s t d ( δ * ) ] 2 + [ σ A ( ε e ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,
u r * = [ ( u r s , * ) 2 + ( u r r , * ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
u a * = L w θ ε * 100 u r * 100
ϵ = ϵ D + ϵ d r 1 + r
ϵ D = 1 exp [ ( 2.07 + 0.056 θ 0 t a n ( θ 0 w ) ) a R ]
ϵ d = 1 exp ( 4.61 a R ) ,
ϵ D = 1 exp { [ ( 1 g ) ( 2.07 + 0.056 θ 0 ) + g ( 1.59 + 0.063 θ 0 ) t a n ( θ 0 w ) ] a R }
ϵ d = 1 exp [ ( 4.61 0.87 g ) a R ]
ϵ D = 1 exp { [ ( 1 g ) ( 2.07 + 0.056 θ 0 ) + g ( 1.59 + 0.063 θ 0 ) ] a τ D }
ϵ d = 1 exp [ ( 4.61 0.87 g ) t a n ( θ 0 w M ) a τ d ] .
τ D = { [ R t a n ( θ 0 w ) c o s ( θ w ) ] 2 + [ R c o s ( θ w ) s i n ( θ w ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,
τ d = { [ R c o s ( θ w ) t a n ( θ 0 w ) c o s ( θ w ) ] 2 + [ R c o s ( θ w ) s i n ( θ w ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 .

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