Abstract

An inexpensive, compact instrument for sensitive measurement of nocturnal nitrogen oxides NO3 and N2O5 in ambient air at high time resolution has been described. The instrument measures NO3 and N2O5 which is converted into the NO3 radical through thermal decomposition by optical extinction using a diode laser at 662.08 nm in two separate detection channels. The minimum detection limits (1σ) for the NO3 radical and N2O5 are estimated to be 2.3 pptv and 3.1 pptv in an average time of 2.5 s, with the accessible effective absorption path length generally exceeding 30 km, which is sufficient for quantifying NO3 radical and N2O5 concentrations under moderately polluted conditions. The total uncertainties of the NO3 and N2O5 measurements are 8% and 15% respectively, which are mainly dominated by the uncertainty of NO3 across section calculated for 353 K in this system. In addition, the dependence of the instrument’s sensitivity and accuracy on a variety of conditions was presented in winter of 2016 and in summer of 2017 during two China-UK joint campaigns. Distinct N2O5 vertical profiles were observed at night in winter. The equilibrium among observed NO2, NO3 and N2O5 based on the equilibrium constants during summer time also provides confirmation of the measurement accuracy of the instrument.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

Z. Li, R. Hu, P. Xie, H. Wang, K. Lu, and D. Wang, “Intercomparison of in situ CRDS and CEAS for measurements of atmospheric N2O5in Beijing, China,” Sci. Total Environ. 613-614, 131–139 (2018).
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2017 (5)

H. Yi, T. Wu, A. Lauraguais, V. Semenov, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, E. Fertein, X. Gao, and W. Chen, “High-accuracy and high-sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(24), 4638–4646 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Ng, S. S. Brown, A. T. Archibald, E. Atlas, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, D. A. Day, N. M. Donahue, J. L. Fry, H. Fuchs, R. J. Griffin, M. I. Guzman, H. Herrmann, A. Hodzic, Y. Iinuma, J. L. Jimenez, A. Kiendler-Scharr, B. H. Lee, D. J. Luecken, J. Mao, R. McLaren, A. Mutzel, H. D. Osthoff, B. Ouyang, B. Picquet-Varrault, U. Platt, H. O. T. Pye, Y. Rudich, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, A. Tilgner, B. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 2103–2162 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, H. An, M. Lee, J.-H. Park, S.-D. Lee, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, W. P. Dubé, N. L. Wagner, and K.-E. Min, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015,” Faraday Discuss. 200, 529–557 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, J. Chen, and K. Lu, “Development of a portable cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for the measurement of ambient NO3 and N2O5: experimental setup, lab characterizations, and field applications in a polluted urban environment,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(4), 1465–1479 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, K. Lu, X. Chen, Q. Zhu, Q. Chen, S. Guo, M. Jiang, X. Li, D. Shang, Z. Tan, Y. Wu, Z. Wu, Q. Zou, Y. Zheng, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “High N2O5 Concentrations Observed in Urban Beijing: Implications of a Large Nitrate Formation Pathway,” Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 4(10), 416–420 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

Y. J. Tham, Z. Wang, Q. Li, H. Yun, W. Wang, X. Wang, L. Xue, K. Lu, N. Ma, B. Bohn, X. Li, S. Kecorius, J. Größ, M. Shao, A. Wiedensohler, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride sustained in the morning: investigations of the causes and impacts on ozone production in a polluted region of northern China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 14959–14977 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Xue, R. Gu, T. Wang, X. Wang, S. Saunders, D. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, I. Simpson, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Lee, A. Mellouki, and W. Wang, “Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(15), 9891–9903 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, Y. J. Tham, L. Xue, Q. Li, Q. Zha, Z. Wang, S. C. N. Poon, W. P. Dubé, D. R. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, W. Tsui, and S. S. Brown, “Nighttime chemistry at a high altitude site above Hong Kong,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121(5), 2457–2475 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pohler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Chemical and meteorological influences on the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site during PARADE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 4867–4883 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, D. Wang, P. Xie, H. Chen, and L. Ling, “Diode Laser Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy for Atmospheric NO2 Measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 36(2), 0230006 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. J. Phillips, J. Thieser, M. Tang, N. Sobanski, G. Schuster, J. Fachinger, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, H. Bingemer, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(20), 13231–13249 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. Wang, R. Z. Hu, P. H. Xie, J. G. Liu, W. Q. Liu, M. Qin, L. Y. Ling, Y. Zeng, H. Chen, X. B. Xing, G. L. Zhu, J. Wu, J. Duan, X. Lu, and L. L. Shen, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for in situ measurement of NO3 radical in ambient air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 166, 23–29 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. Hu, D. Wang, P. Xie, M. Qin, C. Li, and J. Liu, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for atmospheric NO3 radical measurement,” Wuli Xuebao 63(11), 110707 (2014).

X. Wang, T. Wang, C. Yan, Y. J. Tham, L. Xue, Z. Xu, and Q. Zha, “Large daytime signals of N2O5 and NO3 inferred at 62 amu in a TD-CIMS: chemical interference or a real atmospheric phenomenon?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(1), 1–12 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Tsai, C. Wong, S. Hurlock, O. Pikelnaya, L. H. Mielke, H. D. Osthoff, J. H. Flynn, C. Haman, B. Lefer, J. Gilman, J. deGouw, and J. Stutz, “Nocturnal loss of NOx during the 2010 CalNex-LA study in the Los Angeles Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(22), 13004–13025 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Biogenic VOC oxidation and organic aerosol formation in an urban nocturnal boundary layer: aircraft vertical profiles in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(22), 11317–11337 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, C. Shi, B. Zhou, H. Zhao, Z. Wang, S. Yang, and L. Chen, “Observation of NO3 radicals over Shanghai, China,” Atmos. Environ. 70, 401–409 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. L. Wagner, T. P. Riedel, C. J. Young, R. Bahreini, C. A. Brock, W. P. Dubé, S. Kim, A. M. Middlebrook, F. Ozturk, J. M. Roberts, R. Russo, B. Sive, R. Swarthout, J. A. Thornton, T. C. VandenBoer, Y. Zhou, and S. S. Brown, “N2O5 uptake coefficients and nocturnal NO2 removal rates determined from ambient wintertime measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(16), 9331–9350 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. S. Brown and J. Stutz, “Nighttime radical observations and chemistry,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 41(19), 6405–6447 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fuchs, W. R. Simpson, R. L. Apodaca, T. Brauers, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, H. P. Dorn, W. P. Dubé, J. L. Fry, R. Haseler, Y. Kajii, A. K. -Scharr, I. Labazan, J. Matsumoto, T. F. Mentel, Y. Nakashima, F. Rohrer, A. W. Rollins, G. Schuster, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, P. J. Wooldridge, and S. S. Brown, “Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2763–2777 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (8)

O. Abida, L. H. Mielke, and H. D. Osthoff, “Observation of gas-phase peroxynitrous and peroxynitric acid during the photolysis of nitrate in acidified frozen solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 511(4–6), 187–192 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. A. Washenfelder, N. L. Wagner, W. P. Dubé, and S. S. Brown, “Measurement of Atmospheric Ozone by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(7), 2938–2944 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Odame-Ankrah and H. D. Osthoff, “A compact diode laser cavity ring-down spectrometer for atmospheric measurements of NO3 and N2O5 with automated zeroing and calibration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 65(11), 1260–1268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Wagner, W. P. Dube, R. A. Washenfelder, C. J. Young, I. B. Pollack, T. B. Ryerson, and S. S. Brown, “Diode laser-based cavity ring-down instrument for NO3, N2O5, NO, NO2 and O3 from aircraft,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(6), 1227–1240 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. J. Kennedy, B. Ouyang, J. M. Langridge, M. J. S. Daniels, S. Bauguitte, R. Freshwater, M. W. McLeod, C. Ironmonger, J. Sendall, O. Norris, R. Nightingale, S. M. Ball, and R. L. Jones, “An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(9), 1759–1776 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chang, P. V. Bhave, S. S. Brown, N. Riemer, J. Stutz, and D. Dabdub, “Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry, Ambient Measurements, and Model Calculations of N2O5: A Review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(6), 665–695 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. N. Crowley, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, G. Schuster, H. Bozem, Z. H. Beygi, H. Fischer, J. M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, W. Song, N. Yassaa, J. Williams, D. Pöhler, U. Platt, and J. Lelieveld, “Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(21), 10853–10870 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. Atlas, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, S. L. Hekkert, C. A. Brock, F. Flocke, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Feshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Budgets for nocturnal VOC oxidation by nitrate radicals aloft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D24), D24305 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Stutz, K. W. Wong, L. Lawrence, L. Ziemba, J. H. Flynn, B. Rappenglück, and B. Lefer, “Nocturnal NO3 radical chemistry in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Environ. 44(33), 4099–4106 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. K. Benton, J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, W. J. Bloss, M. Dall’Osto, E. Nemitz, R. M. Harrison, and R. L. Jones, “Night-time chemistry above London: measurements of NO3 and N2O5 from the BT Tower,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(20), 9781–9795 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. N. Crowley, G. Schuster, N. Pouvesle, U. Parchatka, H. Fischer, B. Bonn, H. Bingemer, and J. Lelieveld, “Nocturnal nitrogen oxides at a rural mountain-site in south-western Germany,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 2795–2812 (2010).
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R. McLaren, P. Wojtal, D. Majonis, J. McCourt, J. D. Halla, and J. Brook, “NO3 radical measurements in a polluted marine environment: links to ozone formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4187–4206 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

. L. Fry, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. W. Rollins, P. J. Wooldridge, S. S. Brown, H. Fuchs, W. Dubé, A. Mensah, M. dal Maso, R. Tillmann, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, and R. C. Cohen, “Organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from NO3 oxidation of beta-pinene evaluated using a gas-phase kinetics/aerosol partitioning model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(4), 1431–1449 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, J. A. Degouw, C. Warneke, T. B. Ryerson, W. P. Dubé, E. Atlas, R. J. Weber, R. E. Peltier, J. A. Neuman, J. M. Roberts, A. Swanson, F. Flocke, S. A. McKeen, J. Brioude, R. Sommariva, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nocturnal isoprene oxidation over the Northeast United States in summer and its impact on reactive nitrogen partitioning and secondary organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(9), 3027–3042 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. M. Emmerson and N. Carslaw, “Night-time radical chemistry during the TORCH campaign,” Atmos. Environ. 43(20), 3220–3226 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Schuster, I. Labazan, and J. N. Crowley, “A cavity ring down/cavity enhanced absorption device for measurement of ambient NO3 and N2O5,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(1), 1–13 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kercher, T. P. Riedel, and J. A. Thornton, “Chlorine activation by N2O5: simultaneous, in situ detection of ClNO2 and N2O5 by chemical ionization mass spectrometry,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(1), 193–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Asaf, D. Pedersen, V. Matveev, M. Peleg, C. Kern, J. Zingler, U. Platt, and M. Luria, “Long-Term Measurements of NO3 Radical at a Semiarid Urban Site: 1. Extreme Concentration Events and Their Oxidation Capacity,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(24), 9117–9123 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, A. J. L. Shillings, and R. L. Jones, “A broadband absorption spectrometer using light emitting diodes for ultrasensitive, in situ trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(12), 123110 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fuchs, W. P. Dubé, S. J. Ciciora, and S. S. Brown, “Determination of inlet transmission and conversion efficiencies for in situ measurements of the nocturnal nitrogen oxides, NO3, N2O5 and NO2, via pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(15), 6010–6017 (2008).
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T. Nakayama, T. Ide, F. Taketani, M. Kawai, K. Takahashi, and Y. Matsumi, “Nighttime measurements of ambient N2O5, NO2, NO and O3 in a sub-urban area, Toyokawa, Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 42(9), 1995–2006 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. C. Sullivan, S. A. Guazzotti, D. A. Sodeman, and K. A. Prather, “Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1213–1236 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. D. Osthoff, M. J. Pilling, A. R. Ravishankara, and S. S. Brown, “Temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption cross-section above 298 K and determination of the equilibrium constant for NO3 + NO2 <-> N2O5 at atmospherically relevant conditions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9(43), 5785–5793 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

W. P. Dubé, S. S. Brown, H. D. Osthoff, M. R. Nunley, S. J. Ciciora, M. W. Paris, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aircraft instrument for simultaneous, in situ measurement of NO3 and N2O5 via pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(3), 034101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ayers and W. R. Simpson, “Measurements of N2O5 near Fairbanks, Alaska,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D14), D14309 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Matsumoto, K. Imagawa, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, M. Ideguchi, S. Kato, and Y. Kajii, “Nocturnal sink of NOx via NO3 and N2O5 in the outflow from a source area in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40(33), 6294–6302 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Matsumoto, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, and Y. Kajii, “In situ measurement of N2O5 in the urban atmosphere by thermal decomposition/laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 39(36), 6802–6811 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

D. L. Slusher, L. G. Huey, D. J. Tanner, F. M. Flocke, and J. M. Roberts, “A thermal dissociation–chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS) technique for the simultaneous measurement of peroxyacyl nitrates and dinitrogen pentoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19315 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. McLaren, R. A. Salmon, J. Liggio, K. L. Hayden, K. G. Anlauf, and W. R. Leaitch, “Nighttime chemistry at a rural site in the Lower Fraser Valley,” Atmos. Environ. 38(34), 5837–5848 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Applicability of the steady state approximation to the interpretation of atmospheric observations of NO3 and N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D17), 4539 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, D. K. Nicks, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nitrogen oxides in the nocturnal boundary layer: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO3, N2O5, NO2, NO, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D9), 11 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. C. Wood, P. J. Wooldridge, J. H. Freese, T. Albrecht, and R. C. Cohen, “Prototype for in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via laser-induced fluorescence,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(24), 5732–5738 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Atkinson and J. Arey, “Atmospheric Degradation of Volatile Organic Compounds,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 4605–4638 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, and J. P. Burrows, “The temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 250–800 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 149(1–3), 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

P.-F. Coheura, S. Fallya, M. Carleera, C. Clerbauxa, R. Colina, A. Jenouvrierb, M.-F. Merienneb, C. Hermansc, and A. C. Vandaelec, “New water vapor line parameters in the 26000–13000 cm−1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74, 493–510 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(9), 3291–3301 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(4), 565–607 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption-measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 102(7), 2708–2717 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

J. B. Burkholder and R. K. Talukdar, “Temperature dependence of the ozone absorption spectrum over the wavelength range 410 to 760 nm,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21(7), 581–584 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. J. Yokelson, J. B. Burkholder, R. W. Fox, R. K. Talukdar, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Temprature dependence of the NO3 absorption-spectrum,” J. Phys. Chem. 98(50), 13144–13150 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

F. J. Dentener and P. J. Crutzen, “reaction of N2O5 on tropospheric aerosols-impact on the global distributions of NOx, O3 and OH,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98(D4), 7149–7163 (1993).
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1991 (1)

R. P. Wayne, I. Barnes, P. Biggs, J. P. Burrows, C. E. Canosamas, J. Hjorth, G. Lebras, G. K. Moortgat, D. Perner, G. Poulet, G. Restelli, and H. Sidebottom, “The nitrate radical: Physics, chemistry, and the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 25(1), 1–203 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption-measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59(12), 2544–2551 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abida, O.

O. Abida, L. H. Mielke, and H. D. Osthoff, “Observation of gas-phase peroxynitrous and peroxynitric acid during the photolysis of nitrate in acidified frozen solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 511(4–6), 187–192 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, T.

E. C. Wood, P. J. Wooldridge, J. H. Freese, T. Albrecht, and R. C. Cohen, “Prototype for in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via laser-induced fluorescence,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(24), 5732–5738 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aldener, M.

S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
[Crossref]

Allen, H. M.

B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
[Crossref]

An, H.

S. S. Brown, H. An, M. Lee, J.-H. Park, S.-D. Lee, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, W. P. Dubé, N. L. Wagner, and K.-E. Min, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015,” Faraday Discuss. 200, 529–557 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angevine, W. M.

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
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N. L. Ng, S. S. Brown, A. T. Archibald, E. Atlas, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, D. A. Day, N. M. Donahue, J. L. Fry, H. Fuchs, R. J. Griffin, M. I. Guzman, H. Herrmann, A. Hodzic, Y. Iinuma, J. L. Jimenez, A. Kiendler-Scharr, B. H. Lee, D. J. Luecken, J. Mao, R. McLaren, A. Mutzel, H. D. Osthoff, B. Ouyang, B. Picquet-Varrault, U. Platt, H. O. T. Pye, Y. Rudich, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, A. Tilgner, B. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 2103–2162 (2017).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Biogenic VOC oxidation and organic aerosol formation in an urban nocturnal boundary layer: aircraft vertical profiles in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(22), 11317–11337 (2013).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. Atlas, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, S. L. Hekkert, C. A. Brock, F. Flocke, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Feshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Budgets for nocturnal VOC oxidation by nitrate radicals aloft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D24), D24305 (2011).
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S. S. Brown, J. A. Degouw, C. Warneke, T. B. Ryerson, W. P. Dubé, E. Atlas, R. J. Weber, R. E. Peltier, J. A. Neuman, J. M. Roberts, A. Swanson, F. Flocke, S. A. McKeen, J. Brioude, R. Sommariva, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nocturnal isoprene oxidation over the Northeast United States in summer and its impact on reactive nitrogen partitioning and secondary organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(9), 3027–3042 (2009).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
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B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
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Bahreini, R.

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Biogenic VOC oxidation and organic aerosol formation in an urban nocturnal boundary layer: aircraft vertical profiles in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(22), 11317–11337 (2013).
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N. L. Wagner, T. P. Riedel, C. J. Young, R. Bahreini, C. A. Brock, W. P. Dubé, S. Kim, A. M. Middlebrook, F. Ozturk, J. M. Roberts, R. Russo, B. Sive, R. Swarthout, J. A. Thornton, T. C. VandenBoer, Y. Zhou, and S. S. Brown, “N2O5 uptake coefficients and nocturnal NO2 removal rates determined from ambient wintertime measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(16), 9331–9350 (2013).
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Ball, S. M.

O. J. Kennedy, B. Ouyang, J. M. Langridge, M. J. S. Daniels, S. Bauguitte, R. Freshwater, M. W. McLeod, C. Ironmonger, J. Sendall, O. Norris, R. Nightingale, S. M. Ball, and R. L. Jones, “An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(9), 1759–1776 (2011).
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A. K. Benton, J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, W. J. Bloss, M. Dall’Osto, E. Nemitz, R. M. Harrison, and R. L. Jones, “Night-time chemistry above London: measurements of NO3 and N2O5 from the BT Tower,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(20), 9781–9795 (2010).
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J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, A. J. L. Shillings, and R. L. Jones, “A broadband absorption spectrometer using light emitting diodes for ultrasensitive, in situ trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(12), 123110 (2008).
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S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
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O. J. Kennedy, B. Ouyang, J. M. Langridge, M. J. S. Daniels, S. Bauguitte, R. Freshwater, M. W. McLeod, C. Ironmonger, J. Sendall, O. Norris, R. Nightingale, S. M. Ball, and R. L. Jones, “An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(9), 1759–1776 (2011).
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B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
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A. K. Benton, J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, W. J. Bloss, M. Dall’Osto, E. Nemitz, R. M. Harrison, and R. L. Jones, “Night-time chemistry above London: measurements of NO3 and N2O5 from the BT Tower,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(20), 9781–9795 (2010).
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N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pohler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Chemical and meteorological influences on the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site during PARADE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 4867–4883 (2016).
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J. N. Crowley, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, G. Schuster, H. Bozem, Z. H. Beygi, H. Fischer, J. M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, W. Song, N. Yassaa, J. Williams, D. Pöhler, U. Platt, and J. Lelieveld, “Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(21), 10853–10870 (2011).
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R. P. Wayne, I. Barnes, P. Biggs, J. P. Burrows, C. E. Canosamas, J. Hjorth, G. Lebras, G. K. Moortgat, D. Perner, G. Poulet, G. Restelli, and H. Sidebottom, “The nitrate radical: Physics, chemistry, and the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 25(1), 1–203 (1991).
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Bingemer, H.

G. J. Phillips, J. Thieser, M. Tang, N. Sobanski, G. Schuster, J. Fachinger, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, H. Bingemer, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(20), 13231–13249 (2016).
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J. N. Crowley, G. Schuster, N. Pouvesle, U. Parchatka, H. Fischer, B. Bonn, H. Bingemer, and J. Lelieveld, “Nocturnal nitrogen oxides at a rural mountain-site in south-western Germany,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 2795–2812 (2010).
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T. Wang, Y. J. Tham, L. Xue, Q. Li, Q. Zha, Z. Wang, S. C. N. Poon, W. P. Dubé, D. R. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, W. Tsui, and S. S. Brown, “Nighttime chemistry at a high altitude site above Hong Kong,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121(5), 2457–2475 (2016).
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Bloss, W. J.

A. K. Benton, J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, W. J. Bloss, M. Dall’Osto, E. Nemitz, R. M. Harrison, and R. L. Jones, “Night-time chemistry above London: measurements of NO3 and N2O5 from the BT Tower,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(20), 9781–9795 (2010).
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Y. J. Tham, Z. Wang, Q. Li, H. Yun, W. Wang, X. Wang, L. Xue, K. Lu, N. Ma, B. Bohn, X. Li, S. Kecorius, J. Größ, M. Shao, A. Wiedensohler, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride sustained in the morning: investigations of the causes and impacts on ozone production in a polluted region of northern China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 14959–14977 (2016).
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J. N. Crowley, G. Schuster, N. Pouvesle, U. Parchatka, H. Fischer, B. Bonn, H. Bingemer, and J. Lelieveld, “Nocturnal nitrogen oxides at a rural mountain-site in south-western Germany,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 2795–2812 (2010).
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Borrmann, S.

G. J. Phillips, J. Thieser, M. Tang, N. Sobanski, G. Schuster, J. Fachinger, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, H. Bingemer, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(20), 13231–13249 (2016).
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J. N. Crowley, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, G. Schuster, H. Bozem, Z. H. Beygi, H. Fischer, J. M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, W. Song, N. Yassaa, J. Williams, D. Pöhler, U. Platt, and J. Lelieveld, “Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(21), 10853–10870 (2011).
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Bozem, H.

J. N. Crowley, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, G. Schuster, H. Bozem, Z. H. Beygi, H. Fischer, J. M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, W. Song, N. Yassaa, J. Williams, D. Pöhler, U. Platt, and J. Lelieveld, “Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(21), 10853–10870 (2011).
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Brauers, T.

H. Fuchs, W. R. Simpson, R. L. Apodaca, T. Brauers, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, H. P. Dorn, W. P. Dubé, J. L. Fry, R. Haseler, Y. Kajii, A. K. -Scharr, I. Labazan, J. Matsumoto, T. F. Mentel, Y. Nakashima, F. Rohrer, A. W. Rollins, G. Schuster, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, P. J. Wooldridge, and S. S. Brown, “Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2763–2777 (2012).
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. L. Fry, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. W. Rollins, P. J. Wooldridge, S. S. Brown, H. Fuchs, W. Dubé, A. Mensah, M. dal Maso, R. Tillmann, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, and R. C. Cohen, “Organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from NO3 oxidation of beta-pinene evaluated using a gas-phase kinetics/aerosol partitioning model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(4), 1431–1449 (2009).
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Brioude, J.

S. S. Brown, J. A. Degouw, C. Warneke, T. B. Ryerson, W. P. Dubé, E. Atlas, R. J. Weber, R. E. Peltier, J. A. Neuman, J. M. Roberts, A. Swanson, F. Flocke, S. A. McKeen, J. Brioude, R. Sommariva, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nocturnal isoprene oxidation over the Northeast United States in summer and its impact on reactive nitrogen partitioning and secondary organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(9), 3027–3042 (2009).
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Brock, C. A.

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Biogenic VOC oxidation and organic aerosol formation in an urban nocturnal boundary layer: aircraft vertical profiles in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(22), 11317–11337 (2013).
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N. L. Wagner, T. P. Riedel, C. J. Young, R. Bahreini, C. A. Brock, W. P. Dubé, S. Kim, A. M. Middlebrook, F. Ozturk, J. M. Roberts, R. Russo, B. Sive, R. Swarthout, J. A. Thornton, T. C. VandenBoer, Y. Zhou, and S. S. Brown, “N2O5 uptake coefficients and nocturnal NO2 removal rates determined from ambient wintertime measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(16), 9331–9350 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. Atlas, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, S. L. Hekkert, C. A. Brock, F. Flocke, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Feshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Budgets for nocturnal VOC oxidation by nitrate radicals aloft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D24), D24305 (2011).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
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Brook, J.

R. McLaren, P. Wojtal, D. Majonis, J. McCourt, J. D. Halla, and J. Brook, “NO3 radical measurements in a polluted marine environment: links to ozone formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4187–4206 (2010).
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Brown, S. S.

N. L. Ng, S. S. Brown, A. T. Archibald, E. Atlas, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, D. A. Day, N. M. Donahue, J. L. Fry, H. Fuchs, R. J. Griffin, M. I. Guzman, H. Herrmann, A. Hodzic, Y. Iinuma, J. L. Jimenez, A. Kiendler-Scharr, B. H. Lee, D. J. Luecken, J. Mao, R. McLaren, A. Mutzel, H. D. Osthoff, B. Ouyang, B. Picquet-Varrault, U. Platt, H. O. T. Pye, Y. Rudich, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, A. Tilgner, B. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 2103–2162 (2017).
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S. S. Brown, H. An, M. Lee, J.-H. Park, S.-D. Lee, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, W. P. Dubé, N. L. Wagner, and K.-E. Min, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015,” Faraday Discuss. 200, 529–557 (2017).
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T. Wang, Y. J. Tham, L. Xue, Q. Li, Q. Zha, Z. Wang, S. C. N. Poon, W. P. Dubé, D. R. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, W. Tsui, and S. S. Brown, “Nighttime chemistry at a high altitude site above Hong Kong,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121(5), 2457–2475 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
[Crossref]

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P.-F. Coheura, S. Fallya, M. Carleera, C. Clerbauxa, R. Colina, A. Jenouvrierb, M.-F. Merienneb, C. Hermansc, and A. C. Vandaelec, “New water vapor line parameters in the 26000–13000 cm−1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74, 493–510 (2002).
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P.-F. Coheura, S. Fallya, M. Carleera, C. Clerbauxa, R. Colina, A. Jenouvrierb, M.-F. Merienneb, C. Hermansc, and A. C. Vandaelec, “New water vapor line parameters in the 26000–13000 cm−1 region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 74, 493–510 (2002).
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Crowley, J. N.

N. L. Ng, S. S. Brown, A. T. Archibald, E. Atlas, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, D. A. Day, N. M. Donahue, J. L. Fry, H. Fuchs, R. J. Griffin, M. I. Guzman, H. Herrmann, A. Hodzic, Y. Iinuma, J. L. Jimenez, A. Kiendler-Scharr, B. H. Lee, D. J. Luecken, J. Mao, R. McLaren, A. Mutzel, H. D. Osthoff, B. Ouyang, B. Picquet-Varrault, U. Platt, H. O. T. Pye, Y. Rudich, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, A. Tilgner, B. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 2103–2162 (2017).
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N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pohler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Chemical and meteorological influences on the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site during PARADE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 4867–4883 (2016).
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G. J. Phillips, J. Thieser, M. Tang, N. Sobanski, G. Schuster, J. Fachinger, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, H. Bingemer, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(20), 13231–13249 (2016).
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H. Fuchs, W. R. Simpson, R. L. Apodaca, T. Brauers, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, H. P. Dorn, W. P. Dubé, J. L. Fry, R. Haseler, Y. Kajii, A. K. -Scharr, I. Labazan, J. Matsumoto, T. F. Mentel, Y. Nakashima, F. Rohrer, A. W. Rollins, G. Schuster, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, P. J. Wooldridge, and S. S. Brown, “Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2763–2777 (2012).
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. L. Fry, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. W. Rollins, P. J. Wooldridge, S. S. Brown, H. Fuchs, W. Dubé, A. Mensah, M. dal Maso, R. Tillmann, H.-P. Dorn, T. Brauers, and R. C. Cohen, “Organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from NO3 oxidation of beta-pinene evaluated using a gas-phase kinetics/aerosol partitioning model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(4), 1431–1449 (2009).
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J. N. Crowley, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, G. Schuster, H. Bozem, Z. H. Beygi, H. Fischer, J. M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, W. Song, N. Yassaa, J. Williams, D. Pöhler, U. Platt, and J. Lelieveld, “Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(21), 10853–10870 (2011).
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S. S. Brown, H. An, M. Lee, J.-H. Park, S.-D. Lee, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, W. P. Dubé, N. L. Wagner, and K.-E. Min, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015,” Faraday Discuss. 200, 529–557 (2017).
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H. Fuchs, W. R. Simpson, R. L. Apodaca, T. Brauers, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, H. P. Dorn, W. P. Dubé, J. L. Fry, R. Haseler, Y. Kajii, A. K. -Scharr, I. Labazan, J. Matsumoto, T. F. Mentel, Y. Nakashima, F. Rohrer, A. W. Rollins, G. Schuster, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, P. J. Wooldridge, and S. S. Brown, “Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2763–2777 (2012).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. Atlas, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, S. L. Hekkert, C. A. Brock, F. Flocke, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Feshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Budgets for nocturnal VOC oxidation by nitrate radicals aloft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D24), D24305 (2011).
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H. Fuchs, W. P. Dubé, S. J. Ciciora, and S. S. Brown, “Determination of inlet transmission and conversion efficiencies for in situ measurements of the nocturnal nitrogen oxides, NO3, N2O5 and NO2, via pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 80(15), 6010–6017 (2008).
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W. P. Dubé, S. S. Brown, H. D. Osthoff, M. R. Nunley, S. J. Ciciora, M. W. Paris, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aircraft instrument for simultaneous, in situ measurement of NO3 and N2O5 via pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(3), 034101 (2006).
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B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
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G. J. Phillips, J. Thieser, M. Tang, N. Sobanski, G. Schuster, J. Fachinger, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, H. Bingemer, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(20), 13231–13249 (2016).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
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S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
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S. S. Brown, H. Stark, T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, D. K. Nicks, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nitrogen oxides in the nocturnal boundary layer: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO3, N2O5, NO2, NO, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D9), 11 (2003).
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Fehshenfeld, F. C.

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Biogenic VOC oxidation and organic aerosol formation in an urban nocturnal boundary layer: aircraft vertical profiles in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(22), 11317–11337 (2013).
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Fertein, E.

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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. Atlas, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, S. L. Hekkert, C. A. Brock, F. Flocke, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Feshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Budgets for nocturnal VOC oxidation by nitrate radicals aloft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D24), D24305 (2011).
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Fibiger, D. L.

S. S. Brown, H. An, M. Lee, J.-H. Park, S.-D. Lee, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, W. P. Dubé, N. L. Wagner, and K.-E. Min, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015,” Faraday Discuss. 200, 529–557 (2017).
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Fischer, H.

N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pohler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Chemical and meteorological influences on the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site during PARADE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 4867–4883 (2016).
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J. N. Crowley, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, G. Schuster, H. Bozem, Z. H. Beygi, H. Fischer, J. M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, W. Song, N. Yassaa, J. Williams, D. Pöhler, U. Platt, and J. Lelieveld, “Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(21), 10853–10870 (2011).
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J. N. Crowley, G. Schuster, N. Pouvesle, U. Parchatka, H. Fischer, B. Bonn, H. Bingemer, and J. Lelieveld, “Nocturnal nitrogen oxides at a rural mountain-site in south-western Germany,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 2795–2812 (2010).
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Flocke, F.

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. Atlas, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, S. L. Hekkert, C. A. Brock, F. Flocke, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Feshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Budgets for nocturnal VOC oxidation by nitrate radicals aloft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D24), D24305 (2011).
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S. S. Brown, J. A. Degouw, C. Warneke, T. B. Ryerson, W. P. Dubé, E. Atlas, R. J. Weber, R. E. Peltier, J. A. Neuman, J. M. Roberts, A. Swanson, F. Flocke, S. A. McKeen, J. Brioude, R. Sommariva, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nocturnal isoprene oxidation over the Northeast United States in summer and its impact on reactive nitrogen partitioning and secondary organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(9), 3027–3042 (2009).
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Flocke, F. M.

D. L. Slusher, L. G. Huey, D. J. Tanner, F. M. Flocke, and J. M. Roberts, “A thermal dissociation–chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS) technique for the simultaneous measurement of peroxyacyl nitrates and dinitrogen pentoxide,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19315 (2004).
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Flynn, J. H.

C. Tsai, C. Wong, S. Hurlock, O. Pikelnaya, L. H. Mielke, H. D. Osthoff, J. H. Flynn, C. Haman, B. Lefer, J. Gilman, J. deGouw, and J. Stutz, “Nocturnal loss of NOx during the 2010 CalNex-LA study in the Los Angeles Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(22), 13004–13025 (2014).
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N. L. Ng, S. S. Brown, A. T. Archibald, E. Atlas, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, D. A. Day, N. M. Donahue, J. L. Fry, H. Fuchs, R. J. Griffin, M. I. Guzman, H. Herrmann, A. Hodzic, Y. Iinuma, J. L. Jimenez, A. Kiendler-Scharr, B. H. Lee, D. J. Luecken, J. Mao, R. McLaren, A. Mutzel, H. D. Osthoff, B. Ouyang, B. Picquet-Varrault, U. Platt, H. O. T. Pye, Y. Rudich, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, A. Tilgner, B. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 2103–2162 (2017).
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O. J. Kennedy, B. Ouyang, J. M. Langridge, M. J. S. Daniels, S. Bauguitte, R. Freshwater, M. W. McLeod, C. Ironmonger, J. Sendall, O. Norris, R. Nightingale, S. M. Ball, and R. L. Jones, “An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(9), 1759–1776 (2011).
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A. K. Benton, J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, W. J. Bloss, M. Dall’Osto, E. Nemitz, R. M. Harrison, and R. L. Jones, “Night-time chemistry above London: measurements of NO3 and N2O5 from the BT Tower,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(20), 9781–9795 (2010).
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J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, A. J. L. Shillings, and R. L. Jones, “A broadband absorption spectrometer using light emitting diodes for ultrasensitive, in situ trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(12), 123110 (2008).
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H. Fuchs, W. R. Simpson, R. L. Apodaca, T. Brauers, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, H. P. Dorn, W. P. Dubé, J. L. Fry, R. Haseler, Y. Kajii, A. K. -Scharr, I. Labazan, J. Matsumoto, T. F. Mentel, Y. Nakashima, F. Rohrer, A. W. Rollins, G. Schuster, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, P. J. Wooldridge, and S. S. Brown, “Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2763–2777 (2012).
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J. Matsumoto, K. Imagawa, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, M. Ideguchi, S. Kato, and Y. Kajii, “Nocturnal sink of NOx via NO3 and N2O5 in the outflow from a source area in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40(33), 6294–6302 (2006).
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J. Matsumoto, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, and Y. Kajii, “In situ measurement of N2O5 in the urban atmosphere by thermal decomposition/laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 39(36), 6802–6811 (2005).
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J. Matsumoto, K. Imagawa, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, M. Ideguchi, S. Kato, and Y. Kajii, “Nocturnal sink of NOx via NO3 and N2O5 in the outflow from a source area in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40(33), 6294–6302 (2006).
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Y. J. Tham, Z. Wang, Q. Li, H. Yun, W. Wang, X. Wang, L. Xue, K. Lu, N. Ma, B. Bohn, X. Li, S. Kecorius, J. Größ, M. Shao, A. Wiedensohler, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride sustained in the morning: investigations of the causes and impacts on ozone production in a polluted region of northern China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 14959–14977 (2016).
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O. J. Kennedy, B. Ouyang, J. M. Langridge, M. J. S. Daniels, S. Bauguitte, R. Freshwater, M. W. McLeod, C. Ironmonger, J. Sendall, O. Norris, R. Nightingale, S. M. Ball, and R. L. Jones, “An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(9), 1759–1776 (2011).
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J. P. Kercher, T. P. Riedel, and J. A. Thornton, “Chlorine activation by N2O5: simultaneous, in situ detection of ClNO2 and N2O5 by chemical ionization mass spectrometry,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(1), 193–204 (2009).
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N. L. Wagner, T. P. Riedel, C. J. Young, R. Bahreini, C. A. Brock, W. P. Dubé, S. Kim, A. M. Middlebrook, F. Ozturk, J. M. Roberts, R. Russo, B. Sive, R. Swarthout, J. A. Thornton, T. C. VandenBoer, Y. Zhou, and S. S. Brown, “N2O5 uptake coefficients and nocturnal NO2 removal rates determined from ambient wintertime measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(16), 9331–9350 (2013).
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B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
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Kosugi, N.

J. Matsumoto, K. Imagawa, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, M. Ideguchi, S. Kato, and Y. Kajii, “Nocturnal sink of NOx via NO3 and N2O5 in the outflow from a source area in Japan,” Atmos. Environ. 40(33), 6294–6302 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Matsumoto, H. Imai, N. Kosugi, and Y. Kajii, “In situ measurement of N2O5 in the urban atmosphere by thermal decomposition/laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 39(36), 6802–6811 (2005).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
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Labazan, I.

H. Fuchs, W. R. Simpson, R. L. Apodaca, T. Brauers, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, H. P. Dorn, W. P. Dubé, J. L. Fry, R. Haseler, Y. Kajii, A. K. -Scharr, I. Labazan, J. Matsumoto, T. F. Mentel, Y. Nakashima, F. Rohrer, A. W. Rollins, G. Schuster, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, P. J. Wooldridge, and S. S. Brown, “Comparison of N2O5 mixing ratios during NO3Comp 2007 in SAPHIR,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(11), 2763–2777 (2012).
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G. Schuster, I. Labazan, and J. N. Crowley, “A cavity ring down/cavity enhanced absorption device for measurement of ambient NO3 and N2O5,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 2(1), 1–13 (2009).
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O. J. Kennedy, B. Ouyang, J. M. Langridge, M. J. S. Daniels, S. Bauguitte, R. Freshwater, M. W. McLeod, C. Ironmonger, J. Sendall, O. Norris, R. Nightingale, S. M. Ball, and R. L. Jones, “An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(9), 1759–1776 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. K. Benton, J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, W. J. Bloss, M. Dall’Osto, E. Nemitz, R. M. Harrison, and R. L. Jones, “Night-time chemistry above London: measurements of NO3 and N2O5 from the BT Tower,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(20), 9781–9795 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Langridge, S. M. Ball, A. J. L. Shillings, and R. L. Jones, “A broadband absorption spectrometer using light emitting diodes for ultrasensitive, in situ trace gas detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(12), 123110 (2008).
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H. Yi, T. Wu, A. Lauraguais, V. Semenov, C. Coeur, A. Cassez, E. Fertein, X. Gao, and W. Chen, “High-accuracy and high-sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a quantum cascade laser,” Analyst (Lond.) 142(24), 4638–4646 (2017).
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J. Stutz, K. W. Wong, L. Lawrence, L. Ziemba, J. H. Flynn, B. Rappenglück, and B. Lefer, “Nocturnal NO3 radical chemistry in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Environ. 44(33), 4099–4106 (2010).
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R. McLaren, R. A. Salmon, J. Liggio, K. L. Hayden, K. G. Anlauf, and W. R. Leaitch, “Nighttime chemistry at a rural site in the Lower Fraser Valley,” Atmos. Environ. 38(34), 5837–5848 (2004).
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R. P. Wayne, I. Barnes, P. Biggs, J. P. Burrows, C. E. Canosamas, J. Hjorth, G. Lebras, G. K. Moortgat, D. Perner, G. Poulet, G. Restelli, and H. Sidebottom, “The nitrate radical: Physics, chemistry, and the atmosphere,” Atmos. Environ. 25(1), 1–203 (1991).
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Lee, B. H.

N. L. Ng, S. S. Brown, A. T. Archibald, E. Atlas, R. C. Cohen, J. N. Crowley, D. A. Day, N. M. Donahue, J. L. Fry, H. Fuchs, R. J. Griffin, M. I. Guzman, H. Herrmann, A. Hodzic, Y. Iinuma, J. L. Jimenez, A. Kiendler-Scharr, B. H. Lee, D. J. Luecken, J. Mao, R. McLaren, A. Mutzel, H. D. Osthoff, B. Ouyang, B. Picquet-Varrault, U. Platt, H. O. T. Pye, Y. Rudich, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, A. Tilgner, B. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 2103–2162 (2017).
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B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. C. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry, “Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3+ biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13377–13392 (2015).
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Lee, M.

S. S. Brown, H. An, M. Lee, J.-H. Park, S.-D. Lee, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, W. P. Dubé, N. L. Wagner, and K.-E. Min, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015,” Faraday Discuss. 200, 529–557 (2017).
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Lee, S.

L. Xue, R. Gu, T. Wang, X. Wang, S. Saunders, D. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, I. Simpson, Z. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Gao, S. Lee, A. Mellouki, and W. Wang, “Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(15), 9891–9903 (2016).
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Lee, S.-D.

S. S. Brown, H. An, M. Lee, J.-H. Park, S.-D. Lee, D. L. Fibiger, E. E. McDuffie, W. P. Dubé, N. L. Wagner, and K.-E. Min, “Cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurement of nitrogen oxides in the Anthropocene: results from the Seoul tower during MAPS 2015,” Faraday Discuss. 200, 529–557 (2017).
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Lefer, B.

C. Tsai, C. Wong, S. Hurlock, O. Pikelnaya, L. H. Mielke, H. D. Osthoff, J. H. Flynn, C. Haman, B. Lefer, J. Gilman, J. deGouw, and J. Stutz, “Nocturnal loss of NOx during the 2010 CalNex-LA study in the Los Angeles Basin,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(22), 13004–13025 (2014).
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J. Stutz, K. W. Wong, L. Lawrence, L. Ziemba, J. H. Flynn, B. Rappenglück, and B. Lefer, “Nocturnal NO3 radical chemistry in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Environ. 44(33), 4099–4106 (2010).
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Lelieveld, J.

G. J. Phillips, J. Thieser, M. Tang, N. Sobanski, G. Schuster, J. Fachinger, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, H. Bingemer, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Estimating N2O5 uptake coefficients using ambient measurements of NO3, N2O5, ClNO2 and particle-phase nitrate,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(20), 13231–13249 (2016).
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N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pohler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Chemical and meteorological influences on the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site during PARADE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 4867–4883 (2016).
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J. N. Crowley, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, G. Schuster, H. Bozem, Z. H. Beygi, H. Fischer, J. M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, S. Borrmann, W. Song, N. Yassaa, J. Williams, D. Pöhler, U. Platt, and J. Lelieveld, “Variable lifetimes and loss mechanisms for NO3 and N2O5 during the DOMINO campaign: contrasts between marine, urban and continental air,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(21), 10853–10870 (2011).
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J. N. Crowley, G. Schuster, N. Pouvesle, U. Parchatka, H. Fischer, B. Bonn, H. Bingemer, and J. Lelieveld, “Nocturnal nitrogen oxides at a rural mountain-site in south-western Germany,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 2795–2812 (2010).
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S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
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S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
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Li, C.

R. Hu, D. Wang, P. Xie, M. Qin, C. Li, and J. Liu, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for atmospheric NO3 radical measurement,” Wuli Xuebao 63(11), 110707 (2014).

Li, Q.

Y. J. Tham, Z. Wang, Q. Li, H. Yun, W. Wang, X. Wang, L. Xue, K. Lu, N. Ma, B. Bohn, X. Li, S. Kecorius, J. Größ, M. Shao, A. Wiedensohler, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride sustained in the morning: investigations of the causes and impacts on ozone production in a polluted region of northern China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 14959–14977 (2016).
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T. Wang, Y. J. Tham, L. Xue, Q. Li, Q. Zha, Z. Wang, S. C. N. Poon, W. P. Dubé, D. R. Blake, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, W. Tsui, and S. S. Brown, “Nighttime chemistry at a high altitude site above Hong Kong,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121(5), 2457–2475 (2016).
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Li, X.

H. Wang, K. Lu, X. Chen, Q. Zhu, Q. Chen, S. Guo, M. Jiang, X. Li, D. Shang, Z. Tan, Y. Wu, Z. Wu, Q. Zou, Y. Zheng, L. Zeng, T. Zhu, M. Hu, and Y. Zhang, “High N2O5 Concentrations Observed in Urban Beijing: Implications of a Large Nitrate Formation Pathway,” Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 4(10), 416–420 (2017).
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Y. J. Tham, Z. Wang, Q. Li, H. Yun, W. Wang, X. Wang, L. Xue, K. Lu, N. Ma, B. Bohn, X. Li, S. Kecorius, J. Größ, M. Shao, A. Wiedensohler, Y. Zhang, and T. Wang, “Significant concentrations of nitryl chloride sustained in the morning: investigations of the causes and impacts on ozone production in a polluted region of northern China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(23), 14959–14977 (2016).
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Li, Z.

Z. Li, R. Hu, P. Xie, H. Wang, K. Lu, and D. Wang, “Intercomparison of in situ CRDS and CEAS for measurements of atmospheric N2O5in Beijing, China,” Sci. Total Environ. 613-614, 131–139 (2018).
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Liggio, J.

R. McLaren, R. A. Salmon, J. Liggio, K. L. Hayden, K. G. Anlauf, and W. R. Leaitch, “Nighttime chemistry at a rural site in the Lower Fraser Valley,” Atmos. Environ. 38(34), 5837–5848 (2004).
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Ling, L.

R. Hu, D. Wang, P. Xie, H. Chen, and L. Ling, “Diode Laser Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy for Atmospheric NO2 Measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 36(2), 0230006 (2016).
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Ling, L. Y.

D. Wang, R. Z. Hu, P. H. Xie, J. G. Liu, W. Q. Liu, M. Qin, L. Y. Ling, Y. Zeng, H. Chen, X. B. Xing, G. L. Zhu, J. Wu, J. Duan, X. Lu, and L. L. Shen, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for in situ measurement of NO3 radical in ambient air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 166, 23–29 (2015).
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Liu, J.

R. Hu, D. Wang, P. Xie, M. Qin, C. Li, and J. Liu, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for atmospheric NO3 radical measurement,” Wuli Xuebao 63(11), 110707 (2014).

Liu, J. G.

D. Wang, R. Z. Hu, P. H. Xie, J. G. Liu, W. Q. Liu, M. Qin, L. Y. Ling, Y. Zeng, H. Chen, X. B. Xing, G. L. Zhu, J. Wu, J. Duan, X. Lu, and L. L. Shen, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for in situ measurement of NO3 radical in ambient air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 166, 23–29 (2015).
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Liu, W. Q.

D. Wang, R. Z. Hu, P. H. Xie, J. G. Liu, W. Q. Liu, M. Qin, L. Y. Ling, Y. Zeng, H. Chen, X. B. Xing, G. L. Zhu, J. Wu, J. Duan, X. Lu, and L. L. Shen, “Diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy for in situ measurement of NO3 radical in ambient air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 166, 23–29 (2015).
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J. N. Crowley, G. Schuster, N. Pouvesle, U. Parchatka, H. Fischer, B. Bonn, H. Bingemer, and J. Lelieveld, “Nocturnal nitrogen oxides at a rural mountain-site in south-western Germany,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 2795–2812 (2010).
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S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
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[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. Atlas, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, S. L. Hekkert, C. A. Brock, F. Flocke, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Feshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Budgets for nocturnal VOC oxidation by nitrate radicals aloft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D24), D24305 (2011).
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S. S. Brown, J. A. Degouw, C. Warneke, T. B. Ryerson, W. P. Dubé, E. Atlas, R. J. Weber, R. E. Peltier, J. A. Neuman, J. M. Roberts, A. Swanson, F. Flocke, S. A. McKeen, J. Brioude, R. Sommariva, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nocturnal isoprene oxidation over the Northeast United States in summer and its impact on reactive nitrogen partitioning and secondary organic aerosol,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(9), 3027–3042 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, H. D. Osthoff, J. Stutz, T. B. Ryerson, A. G. Wollny, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. De Gouw, E. Atlas, J. A. Neuman, J. S. Holloway, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, W. M. Angevine, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Vertical profiles in NO3 and N2O5 measured from an aircraft: Results from the NOAA P-3 and surface platforms during the New England Air Quality Study 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22304 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. D. Osthoff, M. J. Pilling, A. R. Ravishankara, and S. S. Brown, “Temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption cross-section above 298 K and determination of the equilibrium constant for NO3 + NO2 <-> N2O5 at atmospherically relevant conditions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9(43), 5785–5793 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Dubé, S. S. Brown, H. D. Osthoff, M. R. Nunley, S. J. Ciciora, M. W. Paris, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Aircraft instrument for simultaneous, in situ measurement of NO3 and N2O5 via pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(3), 034101 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
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S. S. Brown, H. Stark, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Applicability of the steady state approximation to the interpretation of atmospheric observations of NO3 and N2O5,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D17), 4539 (2003).
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S. S. Brown, H. Stark, T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, D. K. Nicks, M. Trainer, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nitrogen oxides in the nocturnal boundary layer: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO3, N2O5, NO2, NO, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108(D9), 11 (2003).
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S. S. Brown, H. Stark, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Simultaneous in situ detection of atmospheric NO3 and N2O5 via cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(9), 3291–3301 (2002).
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R. J. Yokelson, J. B. Burkholder, R. W. Fox, R. K. Talukdar, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Temprature dependence of the NO3 absorption-spectrum,” J. Phys. Chem. 98(50), 13144–13150 (1994).
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N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pohler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley, “Chemical and meteorological influences on the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site during PARADE,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 4867–4883 (2016).
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Spackman, R.

S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. deGouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Biogenic VOC oxidation and organic aerosol formation in an urban nocturnal boundary layer: aircraft vertical profiles in Houston, TX,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(22), 11317–11337 (2013).
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S. S. Brown, J. E. Dibb, H. Stark, M. Aldener, M. Vozella, S. Whitlow, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, R. Jakoubek, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. DeGouw, C. Warneke, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, W. M. Angevine, D. T. Sueper, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, J. F. Meagher, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Nighttime removal of NOx in the summer marine boundary layer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(7), 1–5 (2004).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic of the two channel CRDS instrument for the detection of NO3 and N2O5.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An example of cavity ring-down signal and the fitting result. The lower panel is the fitting residual trace.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effective absorption cross section of NO3 radical at 298K and 353K, cross section of NO2, O3, H2O and diode laser spectrum.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The undissociated N2O5 ratio depend on different temperature, the different color represent different NO2 concentration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Allan variance plot for the NO3 radical measurements in ambient channel and heated channel when sampling ambient air. The instrument has 1σ precision about 2.3 pptv and 3.2 pptv in ambient channel and heated channel for a 2.5 s integration time.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 N2O5 vertical profile at the night of 11 December, 2016. Data below 80m are not shown in the figure.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 NO3 and N2O5 time series from 2 June to 22 June, 2017.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 O3、NO2、NO3、N2O5 and temperature time series from 19:00 on 12 June, 2017 to 03:00 13 June, 2017. NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios are observed by the CRDS instrument. NO2 mixing ratios are measured by a CEAS instrument. O3 mixing ratios are measured by an ozone analyzer (Thermo Fisher 49i). All data are averaged to 1min.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Scatter plots for the calculated NO3 from the equilibrium between NO2 and N2O5 and measured NO3. The red line illustrates the linear regression.

Equations (12)

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NO 2 +O 3 NO 3 +O 2
NO 3 +NO 2 +M N 2 O 5 +M
NO 3 +hυNO+O(90%)
NO 3 +hυ NO+O 2 (10%)
NO 3 +NO 2NO 2
NO 3 +VOCproducts
N 2 O 5 +aerosolnitrate
N 2 O 5 +H 2 O 2HNO 3
[A]= R L ( 1 τ - 1 τ 0 )
[NO 3 ] amb = R L Te(NO 3 ) amb ambient ( 1 τ ambient - 1 τ 0,ambient )
[N 2 O 5 ] amb = R L hot ( 1 τ hot - 1 τ 0,hot ) Te(N 2 O 5 ) -[NO 3 ] amb
[ X ] min = 2 R L Δτ τ 0 2

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