Abstract

Absorption cross section (Cabs), scattering cross section (Csca) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) of soot particles in different atmospheric aging status were investigated under fixed equivalent volume radius (RV) using the numerically exact multiple-sphere T-matrix method. The radiative properties of soot particles would be largely diverse in different aging status even RV is fixed. However, there are many insensitive parameters under different aging status. The Cabs and ASY is insensitive to monomers number (Ns) when Ns is larger than a threshold value. For bare and thinly coated soot aggregates, Cabs is insensitive to fractal dimension (Df) when the RV is small, where the relative errors of Cabs for different Df are within 2.5%. However, the effects of Df is obvious for large soot due to the shielding effects of large monomers, and the relative errors for different Df can reach to 18% for bare soot. For thinly coated soot, the changes of ASY with soot volume fraction (fsoot) is small due to the little changes of the fractal structure when the RV is fixed. In addition, for thickly coated soot, ASY is insensitive to Ns due to the unchanged overall spherical structure. Our results give a further understanding of the influences of morphology on radiative properties. It may be helpful for model selection and model simplification.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

J. Luo, Y. M. Zhang, and Q. X. Zhang, “A model study of aggregates composed of spherical soot monomers with an acentric carbon shell,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 205, 184–195 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. I. Mishchenko and M. A. Yurkin, “On the concept of random orientation in far-field electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 494–497 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhang, M. Mao, Y. Yin, and B. Wang, “Absorption enhancement of aged black carbon aerosols affected by their microphysics: A numerical investigation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 202, 90–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. T. Liu, J. Whitehead, M. R. Alfarra, E. Reyes-Villegas, D. V. Spracklen, C. L. Reddington, S. F. Kong, P. I. Williams, Y. C. Ting, S. Haslett, J. W. Taylor, M. J. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, G. McFiggans, H. Coe, and J. D. Allan, “Black-carbon absorption enhancement in the atmosphere determined by particle mixing state,” Nat. Geosci. 10(3), 184–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Z. Y. Wu, C. L. Song, G. Lv, S. Z. Pan, and H. Li, “Morphology, fractal dimension, size and nanostructure of exhaust particles from a spark-ignition direct-injection engine operating at different air-fuel ratios,” Fuel 185, 709–717 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, T. H. Cheng, L. J. Zheng, and H. Chen, “Models for the optical simulations of fractal aggregated soot particles thinly coated with non-absorbing aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 182, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Dong, J. M. Zhao, and L. H. Liu, “Morphological effects on the radiative properties of soot aerosols in different internally mixing states with sulfate,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 165, 43–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. China, B. Scarnato, R. C. Owen, B. Zhang, M. T. Ampadu, S. Kumar, K. Dzepina, M. P. Dziobak, P. Fialho, J. A. Perlinger, J. Hueber, D. Helmig, L. R. Mazzoleni, and C. Mazzoleni, “Morphology and mixing state of aged soot particles at a remote marine free troposphere site: Implications for optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 42(4), 1243–1250 (2015).

T. H. Cheng, Y. Wu, X. F. Gu, and H. Chen, “Effects of mixing states on the multiple-scattering properties of soot aerosols,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10808–10821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. He, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, R. Zhang, M. L. Zamora, P. Yang, Q. Li, and L. R. Leung, “Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11967–11980 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

K. Skorupski, J. Mroczka, T. Wriedt, and N. Riefler, “A fast and accurate implementation of tunable algorithms used for generation of fractal-like aggregate models,” Physica A 404, 106–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, T. H. Cheng, X. F. Gu, L. J. Zheng, H. Chen, and H. Xu, “The single scattering properties of soot aggregates with concentric core-shell spherical monomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 135, 9–19 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. H. Cheng, Y. Wu, and H. Chen, “Effects of morphology on the radiative properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with different aging status,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15904–15917 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on ’radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon’,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Jacobson, “Comment on ’radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon’,” Science 339(6118), 3932013.

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and H. Lindqvist, “Models for integrated and differential scattering optical properties of encapsulated light absorbing carbon aggregates,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7974–7993 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).

2012 (4)

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, and M. Ebert, “Optical properties of light absorbing carbon aggregates mixed with sulfate: assessment of different model geometries for climate forcing calculations,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10042–100582012.
[PubMed]

C. Liu, R. L. Panetta, and P. Yang, “The influence of water coating on the optical scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(1), 31–43 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wozniak, F. R. A. Onofri, S. Barbosa, J. Yon, and J. Mroczka, “Comparison of methods to derive morphological parameters of multi-fractal samples of particle aggregates from tem images,” J. Aerosol Sci. 47, 12–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, and P. Yang, “Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: Application to black carbon and snow grains,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(10), 1581–1594 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tritscher, Z. Juranyi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prevot, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6(3), 034026 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, “A multiple sphere T-matrix fortran code for use on parallel computer clusters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(13), 2182–2192 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmuller, L. W. A. Chen, K. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(13), 6363–6370 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Kahnert, “On the discrepancy between modeled and measured mass absorption cross sections of light absorbing carbon aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44(6), 453–460 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. A. Lack and C. D. Cappa, “Impact of brown and clear carbon on light absorption enhancement, single scatter albedo and absorption wavelength dependence of black carbon,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4207–4220 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. F. Khalizov, H. X. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Y. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon soot aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(6), 1066–1074 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition t-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Q. Y. Xie, H. P. Zhang, Y. T. Wan, Y. M. Zhang, and L. F. Qiao, “Characteristics of light scattering by smoke particles based on spheroid models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 107(1), 72–82 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, J. L. Mauderly, D. L. Costa, R. E. Wyzga, S. Vedal, G. M. Hidy, S. L. Altshuler, D. Marrack, J. M. Heuss, G. T. Wolff, C. A. Pope, and D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56(10), 1368–1380 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

T. C. Bond and H. L. Sun, “Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?” Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(16), 5921–5926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Andreae, C. D. Jones, and P. M. Cox, “Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future,” Nature 435(7046), 1187–1190 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(D11), 211 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1–3), 357–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, “Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1–3), 139–147 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, R. Knutti, O. Boucher, H. Rodhe, and J. Heintzenberg, “Climate forcing by aerosols - a hazy picture,” Science 300(5622), 1103–1104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419(6903), 215–223 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chung and J. H. Seinfeld, “Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D19), 4407 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. H. Jensen, A. Levermann, J. Mathiesen, and I. Procaccia, “Multifractal structure of the harmonic measure of diffusion-limited aggregates,” Phys. Rev. E 65(4), 046109 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. V. Filippov, M. Zurita, and D. E. Rosner, “Fractal-like aggregates: Relation between morphology and physical properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 229(1), 261–273 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, and R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during polaris and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D21), 26753–26766 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. P. Menguc and S. Manickavasagam, “Characterization of size and structure of agglomerates and inhomogeneous particles via polarized light,” Int. J. Eng. Sci 36(12), 1569–1593 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

S. Aggarwal and V. Motevalli, “Investigation of an approach to fuel identification for non-flaming sources using light-scattering and ionization smoke detector response,” Fire Saf. J. 29(2–3), 99–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Manickavasagam and M. P. Menguc, “Scattering matrix elements of fractal-like soot agglomerates,” Appl. Opt. 36(6), 1337–1351 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Luck, “Remarks on the state of the art in automatic fire detection,” Fire Saf. J. 29(2–3), 77–85 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

U. O. Koylu, G. M. Faeth, T. L. Farias, and M. G. Carvalho, “Fractal and projected structure properties of soot aggregates,” Combust. Flame 100(4), 621–633 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Thouy and R. Jullien, “A cluster-cluster aggregation model with tunable fractal dimension,” J. Phys. A-Math. Gen. 27(9), 2953–2963 (1994).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. G. E. Hentschel, “Fractal dimension of generalized diffusion-limited aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52(3), 212–215 (1984).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur optik trüber medien, speziell kolloidaler metallösungen,” Ann. Phys.-Berlin 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, S.

S. Aggarwal and V. Motevalli, “Investigation of an approach to fuel identification for non-flaming sources using light-scattering and ionization smoke detector response,” Fire Saf. J. 29(2–3), 99–112 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aiken, A. C.

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfarra, M. R.

D. T. Liu, J. Whitehead, M. R. Alfarra, E. Reyes-Villegas, D. V. Spracklen, C. L. Reddington, S. F. Kong, P. I. Williams, Y. C. Ting, S. Haslett, J. W. Taylor, M. J. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, G. McFiggans, H. Coe, and J. D. Allan, “Black-carbon absorption enhancement in the atmosphere determined by particle mixing state,” Nat. Geosci. 10(3), 184–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allan, J. D.

D. T. Liu, J. Whitehead, M. R. Alfarra, E. Reyes-Villegas, D. V. Spracklen, C. L. Reddington, S. F. Kong, P. I. Williams, Y. C. Ting, S. Haslett, J. W. Taylor, M. J. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, G. McFiggans, H. Coe, and J. D. Allan, “Black-carbon absorption enhancement in the atmosphere determined by particle mixing state,” Nat. Geosci. 10(3), 184–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

Altshuler, S. L.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, J. L. Mauderly, D. L. Costa, R. E. Wyzga, S. Vedal, G. M. Hidy, S. L. Altshuler, D. Marrack, J. M. Heuss, G. T. Wolff, C. A. Pope, and D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56(10), 1368–1380 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ampadu, M. T.

S. China, B. Scarnato, R. C. Owen, B. Zhang, M. T. Ampadu, S. Kumar, K. Dzepina, M. P. Dziobak, P. Fialho, J. A. Perlinger, J. Hueber, D. Helmig, L. R. Mazzoleni, and C. Mazzoleni, “Morphology and mixing state of aged soot particles at a remote marine free troposphere site: Implications for optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 42(4), 1243–1250 (2015).

Anderson, T. L.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, R. Knutti, O. Boucher, H. Rodhe, and J. Heintzenberg, “Climate forcing by aerosols - a hazy picture,” Science 300(5622), 1103–1104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreae, M. O.

M. O. Andreae, C. D. Jones, and P. M. Cox, “Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future,” Nature 435(7046), 1187–1190 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnott, W. P.

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmuller, L. W. A. Chen, K. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(13), 6363–6370 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition t-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babenko, V. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1–3), 357–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baltensperger, U.

T. Tritscher, Z. Juranyi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prevot, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6(3), 034026 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, S.

M. Wozniak, F. R. A. Onofri, S. Barbosa, J. Yon, and J. Mroczka, “Comparison of methods to derive morphological parameters of multi-fractal samples of particle aggregates from tem images,” J. Aerosol Sci. 47, 12–26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bates, T. S.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on ’radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon’,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baynard, T.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bellouin, N.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).

Bergstrom, R. W.

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berntsen, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).

Bond, T. C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bond and H. L. Sun, “Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?” Environ. Sci. Technol. 39(16), 5921–5926 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucher, O.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, R. Knutti, O. Boucher, H. Rodhe, and J. Heintzenberg, “Climate forcing by aerosols - a hazy picture,” Science 300(5622), 1103–1104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419(6903), 215–223 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bui, P. T.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, and R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during polaris and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D21), 26753–26766 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cappa, C. D.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on ’radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon’,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Lack and C. D. Cappa, “Impact of brown and clear carbon on light absorption enhancement, single scatter albedo and absorption wavelength dependence of black carbon,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4207–4220 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, M. G.

U. O. Koylu, G. M. Faeth, T. L. Farias, and M. G. Carvalho, “Fractal and projected structure properties of soot aggregates,” Combust. Flame 100(4), 621–633 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarty, R. K.

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmuller, L. W. A. Chen, K. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(13), 6363–6370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Charlson, R. J.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, R. Knutti, O. Boucher, H. Rodhe, and J. Heintzenberg, “Climate forcing by aerosols - a hazy picture,” Science 300(5622), 1103–1104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Y. Wu, T. H. Cheng, L. J. Zheng, and H. Chen, “Models for the optical simulations of fractal aggregated soot particles thinly coated with non-absorbing aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 182, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Cheng, Y. Wu, X. F. Gu, and H. Chen, “Effects of mixing states on the multiple-scattering properties of soot aerosols,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10808–10821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Cheng, Y. Wu, and H. Chen, “Effects of morphology on the radiative properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with different aging status,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15904–15917 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, T. H. Cheng, X. F. Gu, L. J. Zheng, H. Chen, and H. Xu, “The single scattering properties of soot aggregates with concentric core-shell spherical monomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 135, 9–19 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. W. A.

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmuller, L. W. A. Chen, K. Lewis, W. P. Arnott, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, C. E. Wold, W. M. Hao, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(13), 6363–6370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T. H.

Y. Wu, T. H. Cheng, L. J. Zheng, and H. Chen, “Models for the optical simulations of fractal aggregated soot particles thinly coated with non-absorbing aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 182, 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Cheng, Y. Wu, X. F. Gu, and H. Chen, “Effects of mixing states on the multiple-scattering properties of soot aerosols,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10808–10821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Cheng, Y. Wu, and H. Chen, “Effects of morphology on the radiative properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with different aging status,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15904–15917 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, T. H. Cheng, X. F. Gu, L. J. Zheng, H. Chen, and H. Xu, “The single scattering properties of soot aggregates with concentric core-shell spherical monomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 135, 9–19 (2014).
[Crossref]

China, S.

S. China, B. Scarnato, R. C. Owen, B. Zhang, M. T. Ampadu, S. Kumar, K. Dzepina, M. P. Dziobak, P. Fialho, J. A. Perlinger, J. Hueber, D. Helmig, L. R. Mazzoleni, and C. Mazzoleni, “Morphology and mixing state of aged soot particles at a remote marine free troposphere site: Implications for optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 42(4), 1243–1250 (2015).

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chirico, R.

T. Tritscher, Z. Juranyi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prevot, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6(3), 034026 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chow, J. C.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, J. L. Mauderly, D. L. Costa, R. E. Wyzga, S. Vedal, G. M. Hidy, S. L. Altshuler, D. Marrack, J. M. Heuss, G. T. Wolff, C. A. Pope, and D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56(10), 1368–1380 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, S. H.

S. H. Chung and J. H. Seinfeld, “Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D19), 4407 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coe, H.

D. T. Liu, J. Whitehead, M. R. Alfarra, E. Reyes-Villegas, D. V. Spracklen, C. L. Reddington, S. F. Kong, P. I. Williams, Y. C. Ting, S. Haslett, J. W. Taylor, M. J. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, G. McFiggans, H. Coe, and J. D. Allan, “Black-carbon absorption enhancement in the atmosphere determined by particle mixing state,” Nat. Geosci. 10(3), 184–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, and R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during polaris and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D21), 26753–26766 (1999).
[Crossref]

Costa, D. L.

J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, J. L. Mauderly, D. L. Costa, R. E. Wyzga, S. Vedal, G. M. Hidy, S. L. Altshuler, D. Marrack, J. M. Heuss, G. T. Wolff, C. A. Pope, and D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56(10), 1368–1380 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, P. M.

M. O. Andreae, C. D. Jones, and P. M. Cox, “Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future,” Nature 435(7046), 1187–1190 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cross, E. S.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on ’radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon’,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davidovits, P.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on ’radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon’,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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Gorkowski, K.

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
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T. Tritscher, Z. Juranyi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prevot, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6(3), 034026 (2011).
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J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, J. L. Mauderly, D. L. Costa, R. E. Wyzga, S. Vedal, G. M. Hidy, S. L. Altshuler, D. Marrack, J. M. Heuss, G. T. Wolff, C. A. Pope, and D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56(10), 1368–1380 (2006).
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J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, J. L. Mauderly, D. L. Costa, R. E. Wyzga, S. Vedal, G. M. Hidy, S. L. Altshuler, D. Marrack, J. M. Heuss, G. T. Wolff, C. A. Pope, and D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56(10), 1368–1380 (2006).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).

Howard, S. D.

A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, and R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during polaris and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D21), 26753–26766 (1999).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on ’radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon’,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petaja, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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A. W. Strawa, K. Drdla, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, R. F. Pueschel, M. Yasuda, R. J. Salawitch, R. S. Gao, S. D. Howard, P. T. Bui, M. Loewenstein, J. W. Elkins, K. K. Perkins, and R. Cohen, “Carbonaceous aerosol (soot) measured in the lower stratosphere during polaris and its role in stratospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D21), 26753–26766 (1999).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).

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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Karcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).

Schwartz, S. E.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, R. Knutti, O. Boucher, H. Rodhe, and J. Heintzenberg, “Climate forcing by aerosols - a hazy picture,” Science 300(5622), 1103–1104 (2003).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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K. Skorupski, J. Mroczka, T. Wriedt, and N. Riefler, “A fast and accurate implementation of tunable algorithms used for generation of fractal-like aggregate models,” Physica A 404, 106–117 (2014).
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J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, J. L. Mauderly, D. L. Costa, R. E. Wyzga, S. Vedal, G. M. Hidy, S. L. Altshuler, D. Marrack, J. M. Heuss, G. T. Wolff, C. A. Pope, and D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect,” J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56(10), 1368–1380 (2006).
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C. He, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, R. Zhang, M. L. Zamora, P. Yang, Q. Li, and L. R. Leung, “Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11967–11980 (2015).
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X. L. Zhang, M. Mao, Y. Yin, and B. Wang, “Absorption enhancement of aged black carbon aerosols affected by their microphysics: A numerical investigation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 202, 90–97 (2017).
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Zamora, M. L.

C. He, K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, R. Zhang, M. L. Zamora, P. Yang, Q. Li, and L. R. Leung, “Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11967–11980 (2015).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Morphologies considered in this study.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The way to generate different morphologies for the fixed RV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Radiative properties of bare soot particles under fixed RV.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Radiative properties of thinly coated soot particles under fixed RV, fsoot = 0.4.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The variation of radiative properties of thinly soot particles with soot volume fractions under fixed RV, Ns = 200.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The variation of radiative properties of thinly soot particles with soot volume fraction under fixed RV, λ = 0.55um, Df = 2.2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The effects of primary particles number on the radiative properties of thickly coated soot particles under fixed RV, Df = 2.5.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Relative errors of radiative properties computed with bare aggregates for different Df.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Relative errors of radiative properties computed with thinly coated aggregates for different Df, fsoot = 0.4.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Relative errors of radiative properties computed with bare and thinly coated aggregates for different Ns, Df = 2.2.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Relative errors of radiative properties computed with thinly coated aggregates for different fsoot, Df = 2.2.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Relative errors of radiative properties computed with thickly coated aggregates for different fsoot, Df = 2.5.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Morphological parameters of soot particles

Equations (4)

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N s = k 0 ( R g a ) D f
R g 2 = 1 N s i = 1 N s l i 2
a s o o t _ b a r e = R V N s 3
a s o o t _ c o a t e d = f s o o t R V N s 3

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