Abstract

Optically tunable, strong polarization-dependent transmission of terahertz pulses through aligned Ag nanowires on a Si substrate is demonstrated. Terahertz pulses primarily pass through the Ag nanowires and the transmittance is weakly dependent on the angle between the direction of polarization of the terahertz pulse and the direction of nanowire alignment. However, the transmission of a terahertz pulse through optically excited materials strongly depends on the polarization direction. The extinction ratio increases as the power of the pumping laser increases. The enhanced polarization dependency is explained by the redistribution of photocarriers, which accelerates the sintering effect along the direction of alignment of the Ag nanowires. The photocarrier redistribution effect is examined by the enhancement of terahertz emission from the sample. Oblique metal nanowires on Si could be utilized for designing optically tunable terahertz polarization modulators.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (7)

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Ma, K. Nallapan, H. Guerboukha, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analog signal processing in the terahertz communication links using waveguide Bragg gratings: example of dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11009–11026 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Yu, N.-C. Chi, H.-C. Tsai, S.-Y. Wang, C.-W. Luo, and K.-N. Chen, “Robust terahertz polarizers with high transmittance at selected frequencies through Si wafer bonding technologies,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4917–4920 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-T. Xu, F.-T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S.-J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, S. Wang, Y. Yu, Y. Chen, and L. Feng, “High performance metamaterials-high electron mobility transistors integrated terahertz modulator,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17832–17840 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Ge, W. Hu, M. Nakajima, and Y. Lu, “Tunable reflective liquid crystal terahertz waveplates,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 2023–2029 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Baig, J. L. Boland, D. A. Damry, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, H. J. Joyce, and M. B. Johnston, “An ultrafast switchable terahertz polarization modulator based on III–V semiconductor nanowires,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2603–2610 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

Y. Wang, J.-H. Yin, Q. Wu, and Y. Tong, “Anisotropic Properties of Ultra-Thin Freestanding Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Film for Terahertz Polarizer Application,” IEEE Trans. Sci. Tech. 6(2), 278–283 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Thouti, S. Kumar, and V. K. Komarala, “Enhancement of minority carrier lifetimes in n-and p-type silicon wafers using silver nanoparticle layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(1), 015302 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. T. Nouman, H.-W. Kim, J. M. Woo, J. H. Hwang, D. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Terahertz modulator based on metamaterials integrated with metal-semiconductor-metal varactors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26452 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y. M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

K. Shiraishi and K. Muraki, “Metal-film subwavelength-grating polarizer with low insertion losses and high extinction ratios in the terahertz region,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16676–16681 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-K. Oh, Y.-S. Shin, C.-L. Lee, R. De, H. Kang, N. E. Yu, B. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, and J.-K. Yang, “Morphological and SERS properties of silver nanorod array films fabricated by oblique thermal evaporation at various substrate temperatures,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 962 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Shi, B. Zeng, H. L. Han, X. Hong, H. Z. Tsai, H. S. Jung, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, and F. Wang, “Optimizing broadband terahertz modulation with hybrid graphene/metasurface structures,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 372–377 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5708 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Docherty, S. D. Stranks, S. N. Habisreutinger, H. J. Joyce, L. M. Herz, R. J. Nicholas, and M. B. Johnston, “An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(20), 203108 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. Matsui, R. Takagi, K. Takano, and M. Hangyo, “Mechanism of optical terahertz-transmission modulation in an organic/inorganic semiconductor interface and its application to active metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4632–4635 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1766 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, J. W. Lee, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Transmittance of terahertz pulses through organic copper phthalocyanine films on Si under optical carrier excitation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780–787 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Lee, J.-K. Yang, I.-B. Sohn, H.-K. Choi, C. Kang, and C.-S. Kee, “Relationship between the order of rotation symmetry in perforated apertures and terahertz transmission characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 119002 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Li, Z. Yang, J. Wang, and M. Zhao, “Broadband terahertz circular polarizers with single- and double-helical array metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(1), 19–23 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kyoung, E. Y. Jang, M. D. Lima, H. R. Park, R. O. Robles, X. Lepró, Y. H. Kim, R. H. Baughman, and D.-S. Kim, “A reel-wound carbon nanotube polarizer for terahertz frequencies,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4227–4231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

L. Ren, C. L. Pint, L. G. Booshehri, W. D. Rice, X. Wang, D. J. Hilton, K. Takeya, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, R. H. Hauge, and J. Kono, “Carbon nanotube terahertz polarizer,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2610–2613 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Yamada, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, M. Saito, and W. Watanabe, “Terahertz wire-grid polarizers with micrometer-pitch Al gratings,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 274–276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093707 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G. Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, “Optical control over surface-plasmon-polariton-assisted THz transmission through a slit aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 123901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-F. Hsieh, Y.-C. Lai, R.-P. Pan, and C.-L. Pan, “Polarizing terahertz waves with nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1174–1176 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active Metamaterial Devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2000 (1)

R. Kersting, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, “Terahertz phase modulator,” Electron. Lett. 36(13), 1156 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Ajayan, P. M.

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Averitt, R. D.

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Gensch, M.

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S. F. Shi, B. Zeng, H. L. Han, X. Hong, H. Z. Tsai, H. S. Jung, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, and F. Wang, “Optimizing broadband terahertz modulation with hybrid graphene/metasurface structures,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 372–377 (2015).
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Hashemi, M. R.

M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5708 (2015).
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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093707 (2009).
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M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5708 (2015).
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S. A. Baig, J. L. Boland, D. A. Damry, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, H. J. Joyce, and M. B. Johnston, “An ultrafast switchable terahertz polarization modulator based on III–V semiconductor nanowires,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2603–2610 (2017).
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S. F. Shi, B. Zeng, H. L. Han, X. Hong, H. Z. Tsai, H. S. Jung, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, and F. Wang, “Optimizing broadband terahertz modulation with hybrid graphene/metasurface structures,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 372–377 (2015).
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M. T. Nouman, H.-W. Kim, J. M. Woo, J. H. Hwang, D. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Terahertz modulator based on metamaterials integrated with metal-semiconductor-metal varactors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26452 (2016).
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T. Kleine-Ostmann, K. Pierz, G. Hein, P. Dawson, M. Marso, and M. Koch, “Spatially resolved measurements of depletion properties of large gate two-dimensional electron gas semiconductor terahertz modulators,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093707 (2009).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wen, Q.

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wen, T.

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Woo, J. M.

M. T. Nouman, H.-W. Kim, J. M. Woo, J. H. Hwang, D. Kim, and J.-H. Jang, “Terahertz modulator based on metamaterials integrated with metal-semiconductor-metal varactors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26452 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Yin, Q. Wu, and Y. Tong, “Anisotropic Properties of Ultra-Thin Freestanding Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Film for Terahertz Polarizer Application,” IEEE Trans. Sci. Tech. 6(2), 278–283 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780–787 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.-T.

S.-T. Xu, F.-T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S.-J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamada, I.

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780–787 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-K.

M.-K. Oh, Y.-S. Shin, C.-L. Lee, R. De, H. Kang, N. E. Yu, B. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, and J.-K. Yang, “Morphological and SERS properties of silver nanorod array films fabricated by oblique thermal evaporation at various substrate temperatures,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 962 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Lee, J.-K. Yang, I.-B. Sohn, H.-K. Choi, C. Kang, and C.-S. Kee, “Relationship between the order of rotation symmetry in perforated apertures and terahertz transmission characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 119002 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. H.

M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5708 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

Yin, J.-H.

Y. Wang, J.-H. Yin, Q. Wu, and Y. Tong, “Anisotropic Properties of Ultra-Thin Freestanding Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Film for Terahertz Polarizer Application,” IEEE Trans. Sci. Tech. 6(2), 278–283 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, H. K.

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, J. W. Lee, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Transmittance of terahertz pulses through organic copper phthalocyanine films on Si under optical carrier excitation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072402 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y.

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, J. W. Lee, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Transmittance of terahertz pulses through organic copper phthalocyanine films on Si under optical carrier excitation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072402 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, N. E.

M.-K. Oh, Y.-S. Shin, C.-L. Lee, R. De, H. Kang, N. E. Yu, B. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, and J.-K. Yang, “Morphological and SERS properties of silver nanorod array films fabricated by oblique thermal evaporation at various substrate temperatures,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 962 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, T.-Y.

Yu, Y.

Zang, M.

Zeng, B.

S. F. Shi, B. Zeng, H. L. Han, X. Hong, H. Z. Tsai, H. S. Jung, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, and F. Wang, “Optimizing broadband terahertz modulation with hybrid graphene/metasurface structures,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 372–377 (2015).
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Zettl, A.

S. F. Shi, B. Zeng, H. L. Han, X. Hong, H. Z. Tsai, H. S. Jung, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, and F. Wang, “Optimizing broadband terahertz modulation with hybrid graphene/metasurface structures,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 372–377 (2015).
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Zhang, B.

Zhang, C.

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. L.

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1766 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, M.

Zhao, Y. P.

W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1766 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Z.

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
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Zhou, Z.

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active Metamaterial Devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

T. Wen, D. Zhang, Q. Wen, Y. Liao, C. Zhang, J. Li, W. Tian, Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Yang, and Z. Zhong, “Enhanced optical modulation depth of terahertz waves by self-assembled monolayer of plasmonic gold nanoparticles,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1974–1980 (2016).
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Ann. Phys. (Berlin) (1)

S.-T. Xu, F.-T. Hu, M. Chen, F. Fan, and S.-J. Chang, “Broadband terahertz polarization converter and asymmetric transmission based on coupled dielectric-metal grating,” Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 529(10), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, J. W. Lee, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Transmittance of terahertz pulses through organic copper phthalocyanine films on Si under optical carrier excitation,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072402 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
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Y. Wang, J.-H. Yin, Q. Wu, and Y. Tong, “Anisotropic Properties of Ultra-Thin Freestanding Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Film for Terahertz Polarizer Application,” IEEE Trans. Sci. Tech. 6(2), 278–283 (2016).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. J. Docherty, S. D. Stranks, S. N. Habisreutinger, H. J. Joyce, L. M. Herz, R. J. Nicholas, and M. B. Johnston, “An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(20), 203108 (2014).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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E. Thouti, S. Kumar, and V. K. Komarala, “Enhancement of minority carrier lifetimes in n-and p-type silicon wafers using silver nanoparticle layers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(1), 015302 (2016).
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S. A. Baig, J. L. Boland, D. A. Damry, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, H. J. Joyce, and M. B. Johnston, “An ultrafast switchable terahertz polarization modulator based on III–V semiconductor nanowires,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2603–2610 (2017).
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J. Kyoung, E. Y. Jang, M. D. Lima, H. R. Park, R. O. Robles, X. Lepró, Y. H. Kim, R. H. Baughman, and D.-S. Kim, “A reel-wound carbon nanotube polarizer for terahertz frequencies,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4227–4231 (2011).
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S. F. Shi, B. Zeng, H. L. Han, X. Hong, H. Z. Tsai, H. S. Jung, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, and F. Wang, “Optimizing broadband terahertz modulation with hybrid graphene/metasurface structures,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 372–377 (2015).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, K. Reichel, D. V. Nickel, X. He, G. Shi, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, D. M. Mittleman, and Q. Xu, “High-contrast terahertz wave modulation by gated graphene enhanced by extraordinary transmission through ring apertures,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1242–1248 (2014).
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Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

M.-K. Oh, Y.-S. Shin, C.-L. Lee, R. De, H. Kang, N. E. Yu, B. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, and J.-K. Yang, “Morphological and SERS properties of silver nanorod array films fabricated by oblique thermal evaporation at various substrate temperatures,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 962 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780–787 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
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Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active Metamaterial Devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

J.-W. Lee, J.-K. Yang, I.-B. Sohn, H.-K. Choi, C. Kang, and C.-S. Kee, “Relationship between the order of rotation symmetry in perforated apertures and terahertz transmission characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 119002 (2012).
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W. Cao, C. Y. Song, T. E. Lanier, R. Singh, J. F. O’Hara, W. M. Dennis, Y. P. Zhao, and W. L. Zhang, “Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1766 (2013).
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M. Unlu, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, S. Li, S. H. Yang, and M. Jarrahi, “Switchable scattering meta-surfaces for broadband terahertz modulation,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5708 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the optical excitation and polarization-dependent THz transmission through aligned Ag nanowires on a Si substrate. (b) Schematic side view of the sample. (c) SEM image (side view) of Ag nanowires deposited by oblique angle deposition technique on Si substrate. Wire length ~500 nm, wire diameter ~50 nm, wire tilt angle ~70°.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Features of THz pulses transmitted through the Ag nanowire/Si sample without and with illumination. The amplitudes of the transmitted THz pulse were normalized to the peak amplitude of that through a bare Si substrate. (a) and (d) Variation of signal amplitude as a function of time. (b) and (e) Variation of signal amplitude as a function of frequency. Azimuthal angle (θ) is varied from 0 to 90° at intervals of 15°. (c) and (f) Dependence of the transmission (T) at the peak frequency on θ (open circles).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dependence of T on θ and the fitted curves from θ = −15 to 210° at an interval of 15° when the power of the optical pumping changes from 0 to 100 mW at an interval of 25 mW. The parameters of the curves are summarized in Table 1. The dotted lines indicate T of a bare Si substrate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Extinction ratio as a function of the pumping power.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 THz pulses emitted from the sample. (a) and (c) Variation of signal amplitude as a function of time. (b) and (d) Variation of signal amplitude as a function of frequency. (e) Dependence of the peak amplitude P of THz pulses on θ (circles The black dotted line indicates the peak amplitude of THz pulses emitted from a bare Si substrate. (f) Dependence of the reflectance, R, of the laser beam with a center wavelength of 800 nm from the sample on θ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 T and T// for the fitting curve of T(θ) = 0.5[(T + T//) - (T - T//) cos(πθ/90)] as a function of the pumping power.

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