Abstract

Top-illuminated PIN and modified uni-traveling carrier (MUTC) photodiodes based on InGaAs/InAlAs/InP were epitaxially grown on Si templates. Photodiodes with 30-μm diameter have dark currents as low as 10 nA at 3 V corresponding to a dark current density of only 0.8 mA/cm2. The responsivity, 3-dB bandwidth, output power and third-order output intercept point (OIP3) were 0.79 A/W, 9 GHz, 2.6 dBm and 15 dBm, respectively.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Byrd, E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, C. V. Poulton, N. M. Fahrenkopf, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Mode-evolution-based coupler for high saturation power Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 851–854 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

B. Song, C. Stagarescu, S. Ristic, A. Behfar, and J. Klamkin, “3D integrated hybrid silicon laser,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10435–10444 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fard, G. Cowan, and O. Ladouceur, “Responsivity optimization of a high-speed germanium-on-silicon photodetector,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27738–27752 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, K. Li, Y. Fu, X. Xie, Z. Yang, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power flip-chip bonded photodiode with 110 GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2139–2144 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Sun and M. C. Gupta, “Pulse laser sulfur-hyperdoping of germanium and high quantum efficiency photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(5), 2200810 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Bao, K. Sun, N. Dhar, and M. C. Gupta, “Germanium p-n junctions by laser doping for photonics/microelectronics devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1422–1425 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Geng, S. Feng, A. Poon, and K. Lau, “High-speed InGaAs photodetectors by selective-area MOCVD toward optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801807 (2014).

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Spectral responsivity of fast Ge photodetectors on SOI,” Solid State Electron. 53(8), 909–911 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Jun, J. Jang, L. Adesida, and J. Song, “Improved efficiency-bandwidth product of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode structures using an undoped photo-absorption layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4B), 3475–3478 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2442–2444 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “A comparison of front- and backside-illuminated high-saturation power partially depleted absorber photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1321–1325 (2004).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano, and A. Kozen, “Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetectors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C(2), 214–221 (1993).

Absil, P.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adesida, L.

D. Jun, J. Jang, L. Adesida, and J. Song, “Improved efficiency-bandwidth product of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode structures using an undoped photo-absorption layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4B), 3475–3478 (2006).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, S.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, N.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, S. K.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bao, Y.

Y. Bao, K. Sun, N. Dhar, and M. C. Gupta, “Germanium p-n junctions by laser doping for photonics/microelectronics devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1422–1425 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beck, A. L.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Behfar, A.

Beling, A.

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Li, Y. Fu, X. Xie, Z. Yang, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power flip-chip bonded photodiode with 110 GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2139–2144 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, D. Jung, C. Shang, A. Liu, J. E. Bowers, and A. Beling, “Low-dark current III–V photodiodes grown on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Orlando, FL, USA, paper MA3.1 (2017).

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

B. Isaac, Y. Liu, B. Song, X. Xie, A. Beling, and J. Klamkin, “Hybrid integration of UTC-PDs on silicon photonics,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, USA, paper SM4O.1 (2017).

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

M. Piels and J. E. Bowers, “Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier photodetector,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7488–7495 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, D. Jung, C. Shang, A. Liu, J. E. Bowers, and A. Beling, “Low-dark current III–V photodiodes grown on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Orlando, FL, USA, paper MA3.1 (2017).

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

Byrd, M. J.

Campbell, J. C.

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Li, Y. Fu, X. Xie, Z. Yang, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power flip-chip bonded photodiode with 110 GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2139–2144 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “A comparison of front- and backside-illuminated high-saturation power partially depleted absorber photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1321–1325 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

Cannon, D. D.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

Cheng, B.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2442–2444 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cong, H.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coolbaugh, D. D.

Cowan, G.

De Coster, J.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

De Heyn, P.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[Crossref]

Demiguel, S.

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “A comparison of front- and backside-illuminated high-saturation power partially depleted absorber photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1321–1325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dhar, N.

Y. Bao, K. Sun, N. Dhar, and M. C. Gupta, “Germanium p-n junctions by laser doping for photonics/microelectronics devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1422–1425 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dosunmu, O.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2442–2444 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dosunmu, O. I.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[Crossref]

Draa, M. N.

Duan, N.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ebert, W.

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

Emsley, M. K.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fahrenkopf, N. M.

Fang, A.

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fard, M.

Feng, S.

Y. Geng, S. Feng, A. Poon, and K. Lau, “High-speed InGaAs photodetectors by selective-area MOCVD toward optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801807 (2014).

Fish, G.

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

Fu, Y.

Q. Li, K. Li, Y. Fu, X. Xie, Z. Yang, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power flip-chip bonded photodiode with 110 GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2139–2144 (2016).
[Crossref]

Geng, Y.

Y. Geng, S. Feng, A. Poon, and K. Lau, “High-speed InGaAs photodetectors by selective-area MOCVD toward optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801807 (2014).

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gupta, M. C.

K. Sun and M. C. Gupta, “Pulse laser sulfur-hyperdoping of germanium and high quantum efficiency photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(5), 2200810 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Bao, K. Sun, N. Dhar, and M. C. Gupta, “Germanium p-n junctions by laser doping for photonics/microelectronics devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1422–1425 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hastings, A. S.

Hata, S.

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano, and A. Kozen, “Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetectors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C(2), 214–221 (1993).

Hu, Z.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Isaac, B.

B. Isaac, Y. Liu, B. Song, X. Xie, A. Beling, and J. Klamkin, “Hybrid integration of UTC-PDs on silicon photonics,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, USA, paper SM4O.1 (2017).

Jacob-Mitos, M.

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

Jang, J.

D. Jun, J. Jang, L. Adesida, and J. Song, “Improved efficiency-bandwidth product of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode structures using an undoped photo-absorption layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4B), 3475–3478 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jones, R.

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jun, D.

D. Jun, J. Jang, L. Adesida, and J. Song, “Improved efficiency-bandwidth product of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode structures using an undoped photo-absorption layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4B), 3475–3478 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

K. Sun, D. Jung, C. Shang, A. Liu, J. E. Bowers, and A. Beling, “Low-dark current III–V photodiodes grown on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Orlando, FL, USA, paper MA3.1 (2017).

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kaschel, M.

M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Spectral responsivity of fast Ge photodetectors on SOI,” Solid State Electron. 53(8), 909–911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Spectral responsivity of fast Ge photodetectors on SOI,” Solid State Electron. 53(8), 909–911 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano, and A. Kozen, “Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetectors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C(2), 214–221 (1993).

Kawano, K.

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano, and A. Kozen, “Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetectors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C(2), 214–221 (1993).

Keyvaninia, S.

Kimerling, L. C.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kirfel, O.

M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Spectral responsivity of fast Ge photodetectors on SOI,” Solid State Electron. 53(8), 909–911 (2009).
[Crossref]

Klamkin, J.

B. Song, C. Stagarescu, S. Ristic, A. Behfar, and J. Klamkin, “3D integrated hybrid silicon laser,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10435–10444 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Isaac, Y. Liu, B. Song, X. Xie, A. Beling, and J. Klamkin, “Hybrid integration of UTC-PDs on silicon photonics,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, USA, paper SM4O.1 (2017).

Koch, B.

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kong, N.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kozen, A.

K. Kato, S. Hata, K. Kawano, and A. Kozen, “Design of ultrawide-band, high-sensitivity p-i-n photodetectors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E76-C(2), 214–221 (1993).

Kwong, D. L.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ladouceur, O.

Lau, K.

Y. Geng, S. Feng, A. Poon, and K. Lau, “High-speed InGaAs photodetectors by selective-area MOCVD toward optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801807 (2014).

Leake, G.

Lepage, G.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Li, Y. Fu, X. Xie, Z. Yang, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power flip-chip bonded photodiode with 110 GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2139–2144 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “A comparison of front- and backside-illuminated high-saturation power partially depleted absorber photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1321–1325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Li, Y. Fu, X. Xie, Z. Yang, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power flip-chip bonded photodiode with 110 GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2139–2144 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “A comparison of front- and backside-illuminated high-saturation power partially depleted absorber photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1321–1325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

K. Sun, D. Jung, C. Shang, A. Liu, J. E. Bowers, and A. Beling, “Low-dark current III–V photodiodes grown on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Orlando, FL, USA, paper MA3.1 (2017).

Liu, L.

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-bandwidth germanium-on-silicon photodiode using thin SiGe buffer layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

B. Isaac, Y. Liu, B. Song, X. Xie, A. Beling, and J. Klamkin, “Hybrid integration of UTC-PDs on silicon photonics,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, USA, paper SM4O.1 (2017).

Liu, Z.

C. Li, C. Xue, Z. Liu, H. Cong, B. Cheng, Z. Hu, X. Guo, and W. Liu, “High-reponsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27743 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Loh, T. H.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Loh, W. Y.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morii, K.

Morse, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2442–2444 (2006).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

murthy, R.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakano, Y.

Nguyen, H. S.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Norberg, E.

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

Oehme, M.

M. Kaschel, M. Oehme, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “Spectral responsivity of fast Ge photodetectors on SOI,” Solid State Electron. 53(8), 909–911 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[Crossref]

Piels, M.

Poon, A.

Y. Geng, S. Feng, A. Poon, and K. Lau, “High-speed InGaAs photodetectors by selective-area MOCVD toward optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3801807 (2014).

Poulton, C. V.

Ramaswamy, A.

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

Ristic, S.

Roelkens,

Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III–V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Keyvaninia, M. Muneeb, S. Stankovic, P. J. Van Veldhoven, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Ultra-thin DVS-BCB adhesive bonding of III–V wafers, dies and multiple dies to a patterned silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(1), 35–46 (2012).
[Crossref]

Runge, P.

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sarid, G.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, “Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2442–2444 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schaub, J. D.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shang, C.

K. Sun, D. Jung, C. Shang, A. Liu, J. E. Bowers, and A. Beling, “Low-dark current III–V photodiodes grown on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Orlando, FL, USA, paper MA3.1 (2017).

Song, B.

B. Song, C. Stagarescu, S. Ristic, A. Behfar, and J. Klamkin, “3D integrated hybrid silicon laser,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10435–10444 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Isaac, Y. Liu, B. Song, X. Xie, A. Beling, and J. Klamkin, “Hybrid integration of UTC-PDs on silicon photonics,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, USA, paper SM4O.1 (2017).

Song, J.

D. Jun, J. Jang, L. Adesida, and J. Song, “Improved efficiency-bandwidth product of modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode structures using an undoped photo-absorption layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4B), 3475–3478 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stagarescu, C.

Stankovic, S.

Su, Z.

Sugiyama, M.

Sun, K.

Q. Li, K. Sun, K. Li, Q. Yu, P. Runge, W. Ebert, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power evanescently coupled waveguide MUTC photodiode with > 105-GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 35(21), 4752–4757 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Sun and M. C. Gupta, “Pulse laser sulfur-hyperdoping of germanium and high quantum efficiency photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8(5), 2200810 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Bao, K. Sun, N. Dhar, and M. C. Gupta, “Germanium p-n junctions by laser doping for photonics/microelectronics devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1422–1425 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, D. Jung, C. Shang, A. Liu, J. E. Bowers, and A. Beling, “Low-dark current III–V photodiodes grown on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Orlando, FL, USA, paper MA3.1 (2017).

Takagi, S.

Takenaka, M.

Timurdogan, E.

Tulchinsky, D.

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “A comparison of front- and backside-illuminated high-saturation power partially depleted absorber photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1321–1325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Unlu, M. S.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Van Veldhoven, P. J.

Verheyen, P.

H. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, S. Balakrishnan, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “Dark current analysis in high-speed germanium p-i-n waveguide photodetectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119213105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Werner, J.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, and E. Kasper, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

M. N. Draa, A. S. Hastings, and K. J. Williams, “Comparison of photodiode nonlinearity measurement systems,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12635–12645 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, D. Tulchinsky, and K. J. Williams, “A comparison of front- and backside-illuminated high-saturation power partially depleted absorber photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1321–1325 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wohl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

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B. Isaac, Y. Liu, B. Song, X. Xie, A. Beling, and J. Klamkin, “Hybrid integration of UTC-PDs on silicon photonics,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, USA, paper SM4O.1 (2017).

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[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Li, Y. Fu, X. Xie, Z. Yang, A. Beling, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power flip-chip bonded photodiode with 110 GHz bandwidth,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2139–2144 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Other (3)

X. Xie, Q. Zhou, E. Norberg, M. Jacob-Mitos, Y. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, G. Fish, J. E. Bowers, J. C. Campbell, and A. Beling, “Heterogeneously integrated waveguide-coupled photodiodes on SOI with 12 dBm output power at 40 GHz,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, USA, post-deadline paper Th5B.7 (2015).

K. Sun, D. Jung, C. Shang, A. Liu, J. E. Bowers, and A. Beling, “Low-dark current III–V photodiodes grown on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), Orlando, FL, USA, paper MA3.1 (2017).

B. Isaac, Y. Liu, B. Song, X. Xie, A. Beling, and J. Klamkin, “Hybrid integration of UTC-PDs on silicon photonics,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, USA, paper SM4O.1 (2017).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Epi-layer designs for PIN and MUTC PDs. (b) PD structures that were grown and fabricated.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) XRD, (b) Optical image and AFM result of device C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) PD schematic. (b) Optical image of the PD.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dark I–V characteristics of PDs. The inset shows the dark current of device C at −1 V bias as a function of mesa diameter. The red dotted line is a quadratic fit of the dark current at −1 V bias.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Junction capacitance of PDs with different mesa area.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PD responsivity at 1550 nm wavelength.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured and fitted S11 parameters of 30–μm PDs. (b) Circuit model of PDs for S11 fitting.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Optical heterodyne bandwidth measurement setup. (b) Circuit model used for bandwidth simulation. (c) Measured and simulated 3-dB bandwidth of the PDs with 30 μm diameter.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 RF output power and RF power compression of the PDs with 40 μm diameter.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 OIP3 vs. frequency. The inset shows the 3-tone measurement setup.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Extracted circuit elements of the 30-μm PDs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Top-illuminated PDs on Si reported in the literature

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