Abstract

We propose a novel triple-clad photonic lanterns for mode scaling. This novel structure alleviates the adiabatic tapering requirement for the fabrication of large photonic lanterns. A 10-mode photonic lantern with insertion losses ranging from 0.6 to 2.0 dB across all the modes and a record-low pairwise 4-dB mode-dependent loss at C-band was demonstrated.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  4. G. Labroille, B. Denolle, P. Jian, P. Genevaux, N. Treps, and J.-F. Morizur, “Efficient and mode selective spatial mode multiplexer based on multi-plane light conversion,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15599–15607 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. Huang, C. Xia, G. Matz, N. Bai, and G. Li, “Structured directional coupler pair for multiplexing of degenerate modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JW2A.25.
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Wu and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode multiplexers based on three-dimensional asymmetric waveguide branches,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 407–410 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, G. Lopez-Galmiche, P. Sillard, D. Van Ras, C. Okonkwo, H. Chen, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling the fabrication of higher order photonic lanterns using microstructured preforms,” in ECOC 2015 (2015), pp. 1–3.
  17. B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.5.
    [Crossref]
  18. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, B. Guan, X. Palou, S. Randel, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “Characterization of Space-Division Multiplexing Systems using a Swept-Wavelength Interferometer,” in OFC 2013 (2013), paper OW1K.2.
  19. B. Huang, H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, C. Jin, K. Shang, R. Ryf, R.-J. Essiambre, Y. Massaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and G. Li, “Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Gain Characterization of Space-Division Multiplexing Amplifiers With Coherent Swept-Wavelength Reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 741–747 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

Alvarado, J. C.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Astruc, M.

Bai, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bigo, S.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Boutin, A.

Brindel, P.

Cerou, F.

Chang, S. H.

Charlet, G.

Chen, H.

Chiang, K. S.

Denolle, B.

Ercan, B.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

Genevaux, P.

Goto, R.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Guan, B.

Hernández-Cordero, J.

Huang, B.

Jian, P.

Jin, C.

Kim, K.

Koebele, C.

Labroille, G.

LaRochelle, S.

Lee, J. K.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, G.

Lingle, R.

Lopez-Galmiche, G.

Mardoyan, H.

Massaddeq, Y.

Matsuo, S.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Moon, S. R.

Morizur, J.-F.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nishimoto, S.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Okonkwo, C. M.

Omichi, K.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Park, K. J.

Provost, L.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Saitoh, K.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Salsi, M.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J.

Sasaki, Y.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Shang, K.

Shubochkin, R.

Sillard, P.

Sperti, D.

Sun, Y.

Takenaga, K.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Tran, P.

Treps, N.

Uematsu, T.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Uemura, H.

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

Velazquez-Benitez, A. M.

Verluise, F.

Wu, Y.

Xia, C.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yerolatsitis, S.

Zhao, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

S. H. Chang, S. R. Moon, H. Chen, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, K. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. K. Lee, “All-fiber 6-mode multiplexers based on fiber mode selective couplers,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5734–5741 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Labroille, B. Denolle, P. Jian, P. Genevaux, N. Treps, and J.-F. Morizur, “Efficient and mode selective spatial mode multiplexer based on multi-plane light conversion,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15599–15607 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16593–16600 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (7)

K. Takenaga, H. Uemura, Y. Sasaki, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fibre-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for three-mode operation of LP01, LP11a, and LP11b,” in 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), pp. 1–3.

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, G. Lopez-Galmiche, P. Sillard, D. Van Ras, C. Okonkwo, H. Chen, R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling the fabrication of higher order photonic lanterns using microstructured preforms,” in ECOC 2015 (2015), pp. 1–3.

B. Huang, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “10-Mode Photonic Lanterns Using Low-Index Micro-Structured Drilling Preforms,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu3J.5.
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, B. Guan, X. Palou, S. Randel, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “Characterization of Space-Division Multiplexing Systems using a Swept-Wavelength Interferometer,” in OFC 2013 (2013), paper OW1K.2.

B. Guan, B. Ercan, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Mode-group-selective photonic lantern based on integrated 3D devices fabricated by ultrafast laser inscription,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.16.
[Crossref]

B. Huang, C. Xia, G. Matz, N. Bai, and G. Li, “Structured directional coupler pair for multiplexing of degenerate modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JW2A.25.
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, H. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. Antonio-Lopez, J. C. Alvarado, Z. S. Eznaveh, C. Jin, B. Huang, S. H. Chang, B. Ercan, C. Gonnet, M. Bigot-Astruc, D. Molin, F. Achten, P. Sillard, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “10-Mode Mode-Multiplexed Transmission with Inline Amplification,” in 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2016), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Micro-structured preform with (a) double-clad PL (b) triple clad PL
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of simplified double-clad (a) and triple-clad (b) structures, and the mode field diameters of the fundamental mode of the structures in (a) and (b) vs the taper ratio.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the photonic lantern fabrication process.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Output intensity profiles of photonic lantern corresponding to the 10 input fibers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Output intensity profiles of photonic lantern corresponding to the 10 input fibers after being spliced to a 10 mode GI fiber.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup for the transfer matrix measurement.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 MDL vs frequency

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