Abstract

We propose, design, fabricate and demonstrate nanophotonic all-dielectric metasurfaces enabling the generation, detection and (de)multiplexing of twisted light having helical phase structure and carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). The designed metasurfaces are based on dielectric elliptical resonators on standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. One can achieve full-phase control of 0-2π and flexible amplitude adjustment by properly changing the geometric dimensions (long axis, short axis) and orientation of dielectric elliptical resonator based on the Mie resonance effect. Using the designed and fabricated all-dielectric metasurfaces, we demonstrate the generation and detection of OAM beams with topological charge number from l = −4 to 4. The crosstalk matrix of generated OAM beams is also characterized showing −16 dB crosstalk. We further demonstrate the (de)multiplexing of two OAM beams (OAM+1 & OAM+4 or OAM+2 & OAM+3) each carrying a binary image (“A” & “B” or “HUST” & “WNLO”). The obtained results show error-free data information transfer with favorable performance. The presented alternative approach of all-dielectric metasurfaces shows distinct features of easy fabrication process and easy chip-scale integration facilitating ultrathin optical applications. The demonstrations may open a door to find more interesting applications in all-dielectric metasurfaces enabled spatial light manipulation and optical communications and interconnects.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[PubMed]

2017 (10)

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, D. Wintz, S. L. Oscurato, A. Y. Zhu, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, P. Maddalena, and F. Capasso, “Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25(1), 377–393 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).

Z. Yang, D. F. Kuang, and F. Cheng, “Vector vortex beam generation with dolphin-shaped cell meta-surface,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22780–22788 (2017).
[PubMed]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Chip-scale optical vortex lattice generator on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 5054–5057 (2017).
[PubMed]

L. Fang, M. J. Padgett, and J. Wang, “Sharing a common origin between the rotational and linear Doppler effects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(6), 1700183 (2017).

H. Yang and Y. Deng, “Broadband and high efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for wavefront steering with easily obtained phase shift,” Opt. Commun. 405, 39–42 (2017).

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, and T. F. Krauss, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).

R. Fickler, M. Ginoya, and R. W. Boyd, “Custom-tailored spatial mode sorting by controlled random scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 95(16), 161108 (2017).

2016 (3)

2015 (6)

J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Ke, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, Y. Liu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Photonic spin filter with dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33079–33086 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9662 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

Z. Zhao, J. Wang, S. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Metamaterials-based broadband generation of orbital angular momentum carrying vector beams,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 932–934 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (5)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064001 (2011).

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).

2010 (1)

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, F. Zhang, and D. Lippens, “Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(12), 60–69 (2009).

2008 (2)

B. I. Popa and S. A. Cummer, “Compact dielectric particles as a building block for low-loss magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207401 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. Franke‐Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).

2007 (2)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band-gap effects and magnetic activity in dielectric composites,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(15), 4035–4044 (2002).

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[PubMed]

Allen, L.

S. Franke‐Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

Ambrosio, A.

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, D. Wintz, S. L. Oscurato, A. Y. Zhu, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, P. Maddalena, and F. Capasso, “Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25(1), 377–393 (2017).
[PubMed]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[PubMed]

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bao, C.

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R. Fickler, M. Ginoya, and R. W. Boyd, “Custom-tailored spatial mode sorting by controlled random scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 95(16), 161108 (2017).

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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
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Capasso, F.

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

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R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
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R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, D. Wintz, S. L. Oscurato, A. Y. Zhu, M. Khorasaninejad, J. Oh, P. Maddalena, and F. Capasso, “Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25(1), 377–393 (2017).
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K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).

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Du, J.

Dudley, A.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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R. Fickler, M. Ginoya, and R. W. Boyd, “Custom-tailored spatial mode sorting by controlled random scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 95(16), 161108 (2017).

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A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
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M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
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J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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R. Fickler, M. Ginoya, and R. W. Boyd, “Custom-tailored spatial mode sorting by controlled random scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 95(16), 161108 (2017).

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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).

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L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Huang, L.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
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Jha, A. K.

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
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Jin, G.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064001 (2011).

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Ke, Y.

Khorasaninejad, M.

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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Kong, J. A.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Experimental observation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 157403 (2007).
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Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, and T. F. Krauss, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).

Kravchenko, I. I.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Kuester, E. F.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

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J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, and T. F. Krauss, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).

Li, K.

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, and T. F. Krauss, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Li, S.

Lin, D.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296(5570), 1101–1103 (2002).
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Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064001 (2011).

Maurer, C.

McLaren, M.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

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Moitra, P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Mueller, J. P. B.

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
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Mühlenbernd, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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Nagali, E.

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ACS Photonics (1)

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, and T. F. Krauss, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (3)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).

J. Opt. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of designed all-dielectric metasurface based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. (b) Simulated amplitude and phase responses of reflected lights polarized along long and short axis of dielectirc elliptical resonator. Here, b = 50 nm. (c) Concept of OAM beam generation using all-dielectric metasurface array. (d) Concept of generation, detection and (de)multiplexing of data-carrying OAM beams using all-dielectric metasurfaces for data information transfer in optical communications and interconnects.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Amplitude and (b) phase responses of the cross-polarized reflected light for different resonator geometries. The polarization of incident light is 45° (x-polarization) with respect to the symmetry axis of the resonator. (c) Schematic of eight resonators chosen to provide a phase shift from 0 to 2π and have nearly constant amplitude. The dimensions of resonators 1−4 are chosen as: (1) a = 86 nm, b = 53 nm; (2) a = 106 nm, b = 50 nm; (3) a = 122 nm, b = 53 nm; (4) a = 142 nm, b = 57 nm. Resonators 5−8 are mirror structures by rotating 90 degree the resonators 1−4. (d) Design process of metasurfaces to generate/detect OAM beams.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of top view of a fabricated all-dielectric metasurface array of l = −1. (b) Experimental setup for the generation and detection of OAM beams. NDF: neutral density filter; Pol.: polarizer; HWP: half-wave plate; QWP: quarter-wave plate; BS: beam splitter.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)(b) Simulated intensity and phase distributions of generated OAM beams, respectively. (c) Measured intensity profiles of OAM beams generated by fabricated all-dielectric metasurfaces. (d) Measured interferograms of generated OAM beams interfering with a reference Gaussian beam (l = 0).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured intensity profiles of OAM beams after detection by all-dielectric metasurface arrays from l = −1 to −4. (b) Measured topological charge number spectrum of OAM beams generated by all-dielectric metasurface arrays. (c) Measured crosstalk matrix of 4 OAM beams.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Experimental setup for (de)multiplexing of OAM beams. M: modulator. (b) Measured intensity profiles of OAM beams of l = 1, 4 after multiplexing and demultiplexing. (c) Measured intensity profiles of OAM beams of l = 2, 3 after multiplexing and demultiplexing.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured topological charge number spectrum of multiplexed OAM beams with l = 1 and 4. (b) Binary images before (Tx) and after (Rx) OAM (de)multiplexing system with l = 1 carrying “A” and l = 4 carrying “B”. (c) Measured topological charge number spectrum of multiplexed OAM beams with l = 2 and 3. (d) Binary images before (Tx) and after (Rx) OAM (de)multiplexing system with l = 2 carrying “HUST” and l = 3 carrying “WNLO”.

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