Abstract

Ionization of atoms by an intense bicircular laser field is considered, which consists of two coplanar corotating or counterrotating circularly polarized field components with frequencies that are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency. Emphasis is on the effect of a reversal of the helicities of the two field components on the photoelectron spectra. The velocity maps of the liberated electrons are calculated using the direct strong-field approximation (SFA) and its improved version (ISFA), which takes into account rescattering off the parent ion. Under the SFA all symmetries of the driving field are preserved in the velocity map while the ISFA violates certain reflection symmetries. This allows one to assess the significance of rescattering in actual data obtained from an experiment or a numerical simulation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

D. B. Milošević, “Low-frequency approximation for high-order harmonic generation by a bicircular laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013416 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević and W. Becker, “Channel-closing effects in strong-field ionization by a bicircular field,” J. Phys. B 51, 054001 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

D. Pengel, S. Kerbstadt, D. Johannmeyer, L. Englert, T. Bayer, and M. Wollenhaupt, “Electron Vortices in Femtosecond Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 053003 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Odžak, E. Hasović, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Atomic processes in bicircular fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 64, 971 (2017).
[Crossref]

V.-H. Hoang, V.-H. Le, C. D. Lin, and A.-T. Le, “Retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced photoelectrons by few-cycle bicircular laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031402(R) (2017).
[Crossref]

C. A. Mancuso, K. M. Dorney, D. D. Hickstein, J. I. Chaloupka, X.-M. Tong, J. L. Ellis, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Observation of ionization enhancement in two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023402 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, “Spin-dependent effects in high-order above-threshold ionization: spin-orbit interaction and exchange effects,” J. Phys. B 50, 164003 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and D. B. Milošević, “Strong-field ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules by a bicircular laser field: Rotational and reflection symmetries,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033411 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

A. Hartung, F. Morales, M. Kunitski, K. Henrichs, A. Laucke, M. Richter, T. Jahnke, A. Kalinin, M. Schöffler, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and R. Dörner, “Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms,” Nat. Photonics 10, 526 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, “Possibility of introducing spin into attoscience with spin-polarized electrons produced by a bichromatic circularly polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 051402 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević and W. Becker, “Improved strong-field approximation and quantum-orbit theory: Application to ionization by a bicircular laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063418 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, K. M. Dorney, J. L. Ellis, E. Hasović, R. Knut, P. Grychtol, C. Gentry, M. Gopalakrishnan, D. Zusin, F. J. Dollar, X.-M. Tong, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Controlling electron-ion rescattering in two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 053406 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, and A. F. Starace, “Multistart spiral electron vortices in ionization by circularly polarized UV pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 013408 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Temporal and spatial manipulation of the recolliding wave packet in strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033406 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Hasović, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Electron rescattering in a bicircular laser field,” Opt. Express 24, 6413 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nature Photon. 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. Dorney, C. Chen, O. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 14206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, O. Kfir, X. M. Tong, F. Dollar, D. Zusin, M. Gopalakrishnan, C. Gentry, E. Turgut, J. L. Ellis, M.-C. Chen, A. Fleischer, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Strong-field ionization with two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 031402 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Odžak and D. B. Milošević, “Bicircular-laser-field-assisted electron-ion radiative recombination,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053416 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ngoko Djiokap, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, N. L. Manakov, A. V. Meremianin, and A. F. Starace, “Electron Vortices in Photoionization by Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 113004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Kraus, O. I. Tolstikhin, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, J. Schneider, C. Z. Bisgaard, T. Morishita, F. Jensen, L.B. Madsen, and H. J. Wörner, “Observation of laser-induced electronic structure in oriented polyatomic molecules,” Nature Commun. 6, 7039 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. S. Landsman and U. Keller, “Attosecond Science and the Tunnelling Time Problem,” Phys. Rep. 547, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-Field Physics with Mid-IR Fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765 (2015).
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2014 (4)

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nature Photon. 8, 543 (2014).
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M. Möller, F. Meyer, A. M. Sayler, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, B. E. Schmidt, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Off-axis low-energy structures in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 023412 (2014).
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W. Becker, S. P. Goreslavski, D. B. Milošević, and G. G. Paulus, “Low-energy electron rescattering in laserinduced ionization,” J. Phys. B 47, 204022 (2014).
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D. B. Milošević, “Forward- and backward-scattering quantum orbits in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 063414 (2014).
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2013 (2)

C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, S. Gräfe, K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, and X.-M. Tong, “Classical-quantum correspondence in atomic ionization by midinfrared pulses: multiple peak and interference structures,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013421 (2013).
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L. Guo, S. S. Han, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Z. Xu, J. Fan, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, W. Becker, C. I. Blaga, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of the Low-Energy Structure in Above-Threshold Ionization in the Tunneling Regime: Theory and Experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013001 (2013).
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2012 (6)

L. Torlina and O. Smirnova, “Time-dependent analytic R-matrix approach for strong-field dynamics. I. One-electron systems,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043408 (2012).
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P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic and molecular ionization dynamics in strong laser fields: from optical to x-rays,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 61, 117 (2012).
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M. Kohler, T. Pfeifer, K. Hatsagortsyan, and C. Keitel, “Frontiers of Atomic High-Harmonic Generation,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 61, 159 (2012).
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P. Salières, A. Maquet, S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and R. Taïeb, “Imaging orbitals with attosecond and Angström resolutions: toward attochemistry?” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 062401 (2012).
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W. Becker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011 (2012).
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T. Rathje, N.G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M.F. Kling, G.G. Paulus, and A.M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier-envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B 45, 074003 (2012).
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2011 (4)

K. Ueda and K. L. Ishikawa, “Attosecond science: Attoclocks play devil’s advocate,” Nature Phys. 7, 371 (2011).
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C. Figueira de Morisson Faria and X. Liu, “Electron-electron correlation in strong laser fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1076 (2011).
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Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61 (2011).
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X.-B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, K.-J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
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2010 (1)

T.-M. Yan, S. V. Popruzhenko, M. J. J. Vrakking, and D. Bauer, “Low-energy structures in strong field ionization revealed by quantum orbits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253002 (2010).
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2009 (4)

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335 (2009).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical Aspects in Above-Threshold Ionization with a Midinfrared Strong Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
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M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33, 17 (2009).
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2008 (3)

M. F. Kling and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond electron dynamics,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59, 4632 (2008).
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O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one- and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
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E. Hasović, A. Kramo, and D. B. Milošević, “Energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of above-threshold ionization and detachment,” Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 160, 205 (2008).
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2007 (2)

A. Kramo, E. Hasović, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold detachment by a two-color bicircular laser field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 279 (2007).
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M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. B 40, R135 (2007).
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2006 (3)

A. Scrinzi, M. Yu. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond physics,” J. Phys. B 39, R1 (2006).
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D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39, R203 (2006).
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E. Hasović, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “A method of carrier-envelope phase control for few-cycle laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 200 (2006).
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2004 (2)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbital with high harmonic generation,” Nature 432, 867 (2004).
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A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “High-energy above-threshold ionization from negative ions,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 053403 (2004).
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2002 (2)

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917 (2002).
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W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above-threshold ionization spectra,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35 (2002).
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2000 (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, A. Dreischuh, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: interplay between electronic quantum trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3791 (2000).
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1998 (2)

D. B. Milošević and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb corrections in above-threshold ionization in a bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 4149 (1998);
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W. Becker, M. Kleber, A. Lohr, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, and F. Zacher, “Electron spectra of above-threshold ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Laser Phys. 8, 56 (1998).

1996 (2)

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “A new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313 (1996).
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J. Z. Kamiński, A. Jaroń, and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb effects in multiphoton above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1756 (1996).
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1995 (1)

H. Eichmann, A. Egbert, S. Nolte, C. Momma, B. Wellegehausen, W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414 (1995).
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1994 (1)

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703 (1994).
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1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
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K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
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1988 (1)

M. Bashkansky, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. W. Schuhmacher, “Asymmetries in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2458 (1988).
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1980 (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
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1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
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1973 (1)

F. H. M. Faisal, “Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms,” J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
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1964 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945 (1964) [Engl. transl.: Sov. Phys.–JETP 20, 1307 (1965)].

Adolph, D.

T. Rathje, N.G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M.F. Kling, G.G. Paulus, and A.M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier-envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. B 45, 074003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

L. Guo, S. S. Han, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Z. Xu, J. Fan, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, W. Becker, C. I. Blaga, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of the Low-Energy Structure in Above-Threshold Ionization in the Tunneling Regime: Theory and Experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013001 (2013).
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P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic and molecular ionization dynamics in strong laser fields: from optical to x-rays,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 61, 117 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335 (2009).
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P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-Free Transitions Following Six-Photon Ionization of Xenon Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Arbó, D. G.

C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, S. Gräfe, K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, and X.-M. Tong, “Classical-quantum correspondence in atomic ionization by midinfrared pulses: multiple peak and interference structures,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bakker, J. M.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bandrauk, A. D.

X.-B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, K.-J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “A new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bashkansky, M.

M. Bashkansky, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. W. Schuhmacher, “Asymmetries in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2458 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baudisch, M.

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-Field Physics with Mid-IR Fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).

Bauer, D.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61 (2011).
[Crossref]

T.-M. Yan, S. V. Popruzhenko, M. J. J. Vrakking, and D. Bauer, “Low-energy structures in strong field ionization revealed by quantum orbits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253002 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39, R203 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bayer, T.

D. Pengel, S. Kerbstadt, D. Johannmeyer, L. Englert, T. Bayer, and M. Wollenhaupt, “Electron Vortices in Femtosecond Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 053003 (2017).
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Baykusheva, D.

P. M. Kraus, O. I. Tolstikhin, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, J. Schneider, C. Z. Bisgaard, T. Morishita, F. Jensen, L.B. Madsen, and H. J. Wörner, “Observation of laser-induced electronic structure in oriented polyatomic molecules,” Nature Commun. 6, 7039 (2015).
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Becker, A.

T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. Dorney, C. Chen, O. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 14206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

D. B. Milošević and W. Becker, “Channel-closing effects in strong-field ionization by a bicircular field,” J. Phys. B 51, 054001 (2018).
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S. Odžak, E. Hasović, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Atomic processes in bicircular fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 64, 971 (2017).
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D. B. Milošević and W. Becker, “Improved strong-field approximation and quantum-orbit theory: Application to ionization by a bicircular laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063418 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. Mancuso, D. D. Hickstein, K. M. Dorney, J. L. Ellis, E. Hasović, R. Knut, P. Grychtol, C. Gentry, M. Gopalakrishnan, D. Zusin, F. J. Dollar, X.-M. Tong, D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Controlling electron-ion rescattering in two-color circularly polarized femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 053406 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Hasović, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Electron rescattering in a bicircular laser field,” Opt. Express 24, 6413 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, S. P. Goreslavski, D. B. Milošević, and G. G. Paulus, “Low-energy electron rescattering in laserinduced ionization,” J. Phys. B 47, 204022 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Möller, F. Meyer, A. M. Sayler, G. G. Paulus, M. F. Kling, B. E. Schmidt, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Off-axis low-energy structures in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 023412 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. S. Han, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Z. Xu, J. Fan, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, W. Becker, C. I. Blaga, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of the Low-Energy Structure in Above-Threshold Ionization in the Tunneling Regime: Theory and Experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kramo, E. Hasović, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold detachment by a two-color bicircular laser field,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 279 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Hasović, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “A method of carrier-envelope phase control for few-cycle laser pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 200 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B 39, R203 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “High-energy above-threshold ionization from negative ions,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 053403 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above-threshold ionization spectra,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, A. Dreischuh, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: interplay between electronic quantum trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3791 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Becker, M. Kleber, A. Lohr, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, and F. Zacher, “Electron spectra of above-threshold ionization in elliptically polarized laser fields,” Laser Phys. 8, 56 (1998).

H. Eichmann, A. Egbert, S. Nolte, C. Momma, B. Wellegehausen, W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, W. Becker, and R. Kopold, “High-harmonic generation by two-color circularly polarized field mixing,” in Atoms, Molecules and Quantum Dots in Laser Fields: Fundamental Processes, Conference Proceedings Vol. 71, edited by N. Bloembergen, N. Rahman, and A. Rizzo, eds. (Società Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, 2001) pp. 239–252.

Berden, G.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. H. Jungmann, A. S. Smolkowska, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, H. G. Muller, W. Vermin, K. J. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Yu. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. V. Popruzhenko, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Time-Resolved Holography with Photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bian, X.-B.

X.-B. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, K.-J. Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

B. Wolter, M. G. Pullen, M. Baudisch, M. Sclafani, M. Hemmer, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and J. Biegert, “Strong-Field Physics with Mid-IR Fields,” Phys. Rev. X 5, 021034 (2015).

Bisgaard, C. Z.

P. M. Kraus, O. I. Tolstikhin, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, J. Schneider, C. Z. Bisgaard, T. Morishita, F. Jensen, L.B. Madsen, and H. J. Wörner, “Observation of laser-induced electronic structure in oriented polyatomic molecules,” Nature Commun. 6, 7039 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blaga, C. I.

L. Guo, S. S. Han, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, Z. Z. Xu, J. Fan, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, W. Becker, C. I. Blaga, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of the Low-Energy Structure in Above-Threshold Ionization in the Tunneling Regime: Theory and Experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

M. Bashkansky, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. W. Schuhmacher, “Asymmetries in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2458 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lemell, J. Burgdörfer, S. Gräfe, K. I. Dimitriou, D. G. Arbó, and X.-M. Tong, “Classical-quantum correspondence in atomic ionization by midinfrared pulses: multiple peak and interference structures,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Busuladžic, M.

M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and D. B. Milošević, “Strong-field ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules by a bicircular laser field: Rotational and reflection symmetries,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Caillat, J.

P. Salières, A. Maquet, S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and R. Taïeb, “Imaging orbitals with attosecond and Angström resolutions: toward attochemistry?” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 062401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carva, K.

T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. Dorney, C. Chen, O. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 14206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catoire, F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Electric-field vector E(t), 0 ≤ tT, (solid lines) and the corresponding vector potential A(t) [dashed (red) lines] and the vector α(t) [dot-dashed (cyan) line] of the ω–2ω bicircular laser field. The left (right) panel corresponds to corotating (counterrotating) bicircular field. The intensities of the field components are equal and the results are presented in arbitrary units.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The logarithm of the differential ionization rate (in a.u.) of Ne atoms presented in false colors in the electron-momentum plane for ionization by a bicircular counterrotating ω–2ω field, equal intensity of both components I1 = I2 = 2 × 1014 W/cm2, the fundamental wavelength of 800 nm, and the relative phase φ = 0. The results are obtained by numerical integration. Both the direct SFA and the rescattering ISFA T-matrix elements are taken into account. The false-color scale is normalized to the maximum rate, which is 1.4702×10−7 a.u. For the upper (lower) panel the helicities are h1 = +1 (−1), h2 = −1 (+1).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Same as in Fig. 2 but with only the rescattering T-matrix element taken into account. The false-color scale is normalized to the maximum rate, which is 5.1177 × 10−10 a.u.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Asymmetry parameter, Eq. (7), for the counterrotating bicircular field that corresponds to Fig. 2 (upper panel) and Fig. 3 (lower panel).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The logarithm of the differential ionization rate (in a.u.; upper panel) of Ne atoms presented in false colors in the electron-momentum plane for ionization by a corotating bicircular ω–2ω field, equal intensity of both components I1 = I2 = 2 × 1014 W/cm2, the fundamental wavelength of 800 nm, and the relative phase φ = 0. The false-color scale is normalized to the maximum rate, which is 2.8446 × 10−7 a.u. In the lower panel we show the asymmetry parameter between the rates for the corotating and the counterrotating field (for the parameters of Fig. 2), defined by Eq. (8). If both ionization rates are lower than 10−13 a.u., the asymmetry parameter is set to zero.

Equations (8)

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w ¯ p i ( n ) m = p | T p i m SFA ( n ) + T p i m ISFA ( n ) | 2 ,
T p i m S F A ( n ) = 0 T d t 0 T p + A ( t 0 ) | r E ( t 0 ) | ψ i m e i [ S p ( t 0 ) + I p t 0 ] ,
T p i m ISFA ( n ) = i 0 T d t T t d t 0 [ 2 π i ( t t 0 ) ] 3 / 2 p | V ( r ) | k st × k st + A ( t 0 ) | r E ( t 0 ) | ψ i m e i [ S p ( t ) S k st ( t ) + S k st ( t 0 ) + I p t 0 ] .
E ( t ) = i 2 [ E 1 e ^ + e i r ω t + E 2 e ^ e i ( s ω t + φ ) ] + c . c . , E x ( t ) = [ E 1 sin ( r ω t ) + E 2 sin ( s ω t + φ ) ] / 2 , E y ( t ) = [ E 1 cos ( r ω t ) + E 2 cos ( s ω t + φ ) ] / 2 ,
T ˜ p i m SFA ( n ) = 0 T d t T e i [ n ω t + p α ˜ ( t ) + U ˜ 1 ( t ) ] d r ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 e i [ p + A ˜ ( t ) ] r r E ˜ ( t ) ψ i m ( r ) .
T ˜ p i m SFA ( n ) = ( 1 ) + m { 0 T d t T e i [ n ω t + p α ( t ) + U 1 ( t ) ] d r ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 e i [ p + A ( t ) ] r r E ( t ) ψ i , m ( r ) }   = ( 1 ) + m [ T p i , m SFA ( n ) ] .
A p i ( n ) = w ¯ p i ( + 1 , 1 ) ( n ) w ¯ p i ( 1 , + 1 ) ( n ) w ¯ p i ( + 1 , 1 ) ( n ) + w ¯ p i ( 1 , + 1 ) ( n ) .
B p i ( n ) = w ¯ p i ( + 1 , 1 ) ( n ) w ¯ p i ( 1 , + 1 ) ( n ) w ¯ p i ( + 1 , 1 ) ( n ) + w ¯ p i ( 1 , + 1 ) ( n ) .

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