Abstract

Ptychography is a coherent diffractive imaging method that can provide a diffraction-limited, robust reconstruction of the sample’s complex transmission function without the use of high-quality optics. However, the scanning nature of conventional X-ray ptychography unavoidably requires the mechanical motion of either the illumination probe or the sample. In order to avoid overhead related to breaking and acceleration for every scan position, so-called fly-scan methods were developed. Here, we present an improved variant that removes the limitation of continuous scanning along a linear scanning path and allows for ptychographic reconstruction of scans taken along an arbitrary 2D continuous trajectory. We also demonstrate numerically and experimentally that our method provides significantly improved robustness against noise, particularly for larger fly-scan steps, i.e. sample shift during an exposure, which will gain importance with the advent of 4th generation synchrotron sources, where the available coherent flux may be increased by orders of magnitude. Finally, we show that the use of a spiral scan continuous trajectory alleviates significantly raster grid artifacts.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2018 (1)

2017 (5)

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

2014 (8)

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Continuous scanning mode for ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6066–6069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hettel, “DLSR design and plans: an international overview,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 843–855 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and A. Menzel, “Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 1011–1018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Godard, M. Allain, V. Chamard, and J. Rodenburg, “Noise models for low counting rate coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 25914–25934 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. Mardilovich, and S. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

L. B. Lucy, “An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions,” Astron. J 79, 745 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

Aeppli, G.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allain, M.

Baksh, P.

Bergamaschi, A.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Billich, H.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boden, S.

Brocklesby, W.

Bunk, O.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Card, R.

Cartier, S.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chad, J.

Chamard, V.

Chen, S.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y. S.

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

Clark, J. N.

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Continuous scanning mode for ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6066–6069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cullis, A.

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Damoulakis, J.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, J.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Odstrcil, A. Diaz, M. Holler, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Path toward fast, high-resolution and more photon-efficient X-ray ptychography,” in COSI (OSA, 2017), pp. CW2B.

Dierolf, M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinapoli, R.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobson, B.

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eiles, T.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elam, J.

J. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. Mardilovich, and S. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[Crossref]

Färm, E.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frey, J.

Ge, M.

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
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George, S.

J. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. Mardilovich, and S. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
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Godard, P.

Greiffenberg, D.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

M. Odstrčil, A. Menzel, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Iterative least-squares solver for generalized maximum-likelihood ptychography,” Opt. Express 26, 3108–3123 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and A. Menzel, “Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 1011–1018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
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P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
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A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
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M. Odstrcil, A. Diaz, M. Holler, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Path toward fast, high-resolution and more photon-efficient X-ray ptychography,” in COSI (OSA, 2017), pp. CW2B.

Harder, R.

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

Harder, R. J.

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Continuous scanning mode for ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6066–6069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Härkönen, E.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henrich, B.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
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R. Hettel, “DLSR design and plans: an international overview,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 843–855 (2014).
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M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Odstrcil, A. Diaz, M. Holler, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Path toward fast, high-resolution and more photon-efficient X-ray ptychography,” in COSI (OSA, 2017), pp. CW2B.

Hong, Y. P.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Continuous scanning mode for ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6066–6069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, A.

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C. J.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Q.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, I.

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jungmann, J.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
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Karvinen, P.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lachat, T.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauer, K.

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

Levi, A. J.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
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Lucy, L. B.

L. B. Lucy, “An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions,” Astron. J 79, 745 (1974).
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Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
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Mardilovich, P.

J. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. Mardilovich, and S. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[Crossref]

Menzel, A.

M. Odstrčil, A. Menzel, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Iterative least-squares solver for generalized maximum-likelihood ptychography,” Opt. Express 26, 3108–3123 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, I. Johnson, A. Diaz, M. Holler, P. Karvinen, H.-C. Stadler, R. Dinapoli, O. Bunk, and A. Menzel, “High-throughput ptychography using Eiger: scanning X-ray nano-imaging of extended regions,” Opt. Express 22, 14859–14870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and A. Menzel, “Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 1011–1018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mezza, D.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mozzanicaa, A.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Müller, E.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nashed, Y. S.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazaretski, E.

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

Odstrcil, M.

Öztürk, H.

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pelz, P. M.

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peterka, T.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, N. W.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, W. H.

Ritala, M.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, I. K.

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Continuous scanning mode for ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6066–6069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J.

P. Godard, M. Allain, V. Chamard, and J. Rodenburg, “Noise models for low counting rate coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 20, 25914–25934 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, R.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Routkevitch, D.

J. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. Mardilovich, and S. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saha, S.

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarafimov, B.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schatz, M.

M. Van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, P.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahmoradian, S. H.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shia, X.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stadler, H.-C.

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and A. Menzel, “Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 1011–1018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tintia, C.

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trtik, P.

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, E. H.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Heel, M.

M. Van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vine, D. J.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitins, M.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, S.

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, Y. S. Nashed, S. Chen, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, C. Jacobsen, and D. J. Vine, “Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent X-ray imaging,” Opt. Express 23, 5438–5451 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wepf, R.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

Yan, H.

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, M. Ge, H. Öztürk, E. Nazaretski, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Artifact mitigation of ptychography integrated with on-the-fly scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 023103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Astron. J (1)

L. B. Lucy, “An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions,” Astron. J 79, 745 (1974).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater (1)

J. Elam, D. Routkevitch, P. Mardilovich, and S. George, “Conformal coating on ultrahigh-aspect-ratio nanopores of anodic alumina by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Mater 15, 3507–3517 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Instrum (1)

I. Johnson, A. Bergamaschi, H. Billich, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Henrich, J. Jungmann, D. Mezza, A. Mozzanicaa, X. Shia, and C. Tintia, “Eiger: a single-photon counting X-ray detector,” J. Instrum 9, C05032 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

M. Van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

R. Hettel, “DLSR design and plans: an international overview,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 843–855 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and A. Menzel, “Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21, 1011–1018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative X-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Deng, Y. P. Hong, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, A. J. Levi, J. Damoulakis, S. Saha, T. Eiles, and C. Jacobsen, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging of circuit features without wafer etching,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 104111 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PNAS (1)

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Y. S. Nashed, Q. Jin, N. W. Phillips, T. Peterka, R. Ross, S. Vogt, and C. J. Jacobsen, “Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae,” PNAS 112, 2314–2319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Holler, J. Raabe, R. Wepf, S. H. Shahmoradian, A. Diaz, B. Sarafimov, T. Lachat, H. Walther, and M. Vitins, “OMNY PIN-A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113701 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (3)

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, E. Färm, E. Härkönen, M. Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Deng, D. J. Vine, S. Chen, Q. Jin, Y. S. Nashed, T. Peterka, S. Vogt, and C. Jacobsen, “X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells using continuous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7445 (2017).

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 59074 (2015).

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Odstrcil, A. Diaz, M. Holler, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Path toward fast, high-resolution and more photon-efficient X-ray ptychography,” in COSI (OSA, 2017), pp. CW2B.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustrations of the fly-scan paths used in our measurements: (a) linear and (b) spiral trajectory. The arrows denote direction of continuous move for each pattern.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The illumination probe in complex colorscale in which the color brightness and hue encode the amplitude and phase respectively. Examples of phase reconstructions: (b) a reference step scan with imaging dose of 670 photons per object pixel compared to a linear fly-scan dataset with step length 6.2 pixel and imaging dose of 800 photons per object pixel reconstructed by (c) the A-fly method, (d) the conventional fly-scan method. The scale bar is 4 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dependence of the spatial resolution on the sample velocity for measured data.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Phase reconstruction for the spiral scan trajectory using the (a) A-fly method and (b) conventional fly-scan method. The scale bar is 4 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A simulation of reconstruction quality as a function of the imaging dose. The step along the fast axis for fly-scan methods was 10 pixels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 A simulation of the reconstruction quality of fly-scan methods for a different step length with a constant imaging dose of 1000 photons per pixel. For reference we show the result using a step scan method with 1 µm steps along both axes.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I i , k e = | P { ψ i , r } | 2 ,
ψ i , r = P r O r + r i ,
I i , k e = t i t i + T | P { P r O r + R ( t ) } | 2 d t ,
I i , k e T N j = 1 N | P { P r O r + R ( t i + j T / N ) } | 2 = T N j = 1 N | P { P r S i j { O r } } | 2 ,
I i , k e T N j = 1 N | P { P r S i j { P r } O r } | 2 = T N j = 1 N | P { P ^ r , j O r } | 2 ,
= i k [ I i , k m log ( I i , k e ) I i , k e ] ,
O = i j S i j 1 { P r χ i j , r } ,
P = i j S i j { O r } χ i j , r ,
χ i j , r = P 1 [ ( 1 I i , k m I i , k e ) P { P r S i j { O r } } ] .
u r ( n + 1 ) = u r ( n ) α A T { 1 I i , k m A { u r ( n ) } } u r ( n ) ,

Metrics