Abstract

We investigate a regime of parametric amplification in which the pump and signal waves are spectrally separated by only a few hundreds of GHz frequency – therefore resulting in a sub-THz frequency idler wave. Operating in this regime we find an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) behavior which is highly dissimilar to conventional OPAs. In this regime, we observe multiple three-wave mixing processes occurring simultaneously which results in spectral cascading around the pump and signal wave. Via numerical simulations, we elucidate the processes at work and show that cascaded optical parametric amplification offers a pathway toward THz-wave generation beyond the Manly-Rowe limit and toward the generation of high-energy, sparse frequency-combs.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient Terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse sequences for efficient multi-cycle terahertz generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25582–25607 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, C. Zhou, W. R. Huang, F. Ahr, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29729–29737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Bache, O. Bang, B. B. Zhou, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063806 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. A. Walsh, P. G. Browne, M. H. Dunn, and C. F. Rae, “Intracavity parametric generation of nanosecond terahertz radiation using quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13951–13963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

M. Bache, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling laws for soliton pulse compression by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), 2752–2762 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JEPT Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

R. A. Baumgartner and R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 432–444 (1979).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Ahr, F.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, C. Zhou, W. R. Huang, F. Ahr, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29729–29737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alisauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assmann, R. W.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Austin, D. R.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bache, M.

M. Bache, O. Bang, B. B. Zhou, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063806 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bache, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling laws for soliton pulse compression by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), 2752–2762 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

M. Bache, O. Bang, B. B. Zhou, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063806 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P.

Baudisch, M.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, R. A.

R. A. Baumgartner and R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 432–444 (1979).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

Berggren, K. K.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berzanskis, A.

Biegert, J.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Browne, P. G.

Byer, R. L.

R. A. Baumgartner and R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 432–444 (1979).
[Crossref]

Calendron, A.-L.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cankaya, H.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Çankaya, H.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carbajo, S.

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chapman, H. N.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chekalin, S. V.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JEPT Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).

Chen, M. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cirmi, G.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient Terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Danielius, R.

Dorda, U.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dörner, K.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dubietis, A.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Dunn, M. H.

Faccio, D.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallahi, A.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Fromme, P.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graafsma, H.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haefner, C.

Hartin, A.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hemmer, M.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient Terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernández-García, C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, A. E.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Hobbs, R.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, K. H.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, Y.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, W. R.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, C. Zhou, W. R. Huang, F. Ahr, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29729–29737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishizuki, H.

Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jolly, S. W.

Jovanovic, I.

Kaertner, F. X.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse sequences for efficient multi-cycle terahertz generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25582–25607 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient Terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, C. Zhou, W. R. Huang, F. Ahr, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29729–29737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kompanets, V. O.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JEPT Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).

Kroh, T.

Letrun, R.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maier, A. R.

Matlis, N.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Matlis, N. H.

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mazalova, V.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Meents, A.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mel’nikov, A. A.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JEPT Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).

Miller, R. J. D.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molter, D.

Moriena, G.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moses, J.

M. Bache, O. Bang, B. B. Zhou, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063806 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bache, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling laws for soliton pulse compression by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), 2752–2762 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mücke, O. D.

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient Terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muecke, O. D.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nanni, E.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nanni, E. A.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Peters, C. W.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Piskarskas, A.

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putnam, W.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rae, C. F.

Ravi, K.

F. Ahr, S. W. Jolly, N. H. Matlis, S. Carbajo, T. Kroh, K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, J. Schulte, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, A. R. Maier, and F. X. Kärtner, “Narrowband terahertz generation with chirped-and-delayed laser pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2118–2121 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi, D. N. Schimpf, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse sequences for efficient multi-cycle terahertz generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25582–25607 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient Terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichert, F.

G. Cirmi, M. Hemmer, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, L. E. Zapata, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, F. Ahr, O. D. Muecke, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kaertner, “Cascaded second-order processes for the efficient generation of narrowband terahertz radiation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(4), 044002 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ravi, M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, F. Reichert, D. N. Schimpf, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded parametric amplification for highly efficient Terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3806–3809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sarrou, I.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schimpf, D. N.

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulte, J.

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva, F.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. G.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, “Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification,” JEPT Lett. 85(5), 227–230 (2007).

Taira, T.

Thai, A.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theuer, M.

Varanavicius, A.

Walsh, D. A.

Wattellier, B.

Weinreich, G.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118 (1961).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

M. Bache, O. Bang, B. B. Zhou, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063806 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bache, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, “Scaling laws for soliton pulse compression by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), 2752–2762 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, C. Zhou, W. R. Huang, F. Ahr, and F. X. Kärtner, “Temperature dependent refractive index and absorption coefficient of congruent lithium niobate crystals in the terahertz range,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29729–29737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yahaghi, A.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

F. X. Kärtner, F. Ahr, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, S. Carbajo, G. Chang, G. Cirmi, K. Dörner, U. Dorda, A. Fallahi, A. Hartin, M. Hemmer, R. Hobbs, Y. Hua, W. R. Huang, R. Letrun, N. Matlis, V. Mazalova, O. D. Mücke, E. Nanni, W. Putnam, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, I. Sarrou, X. Wu, A. Yahaghi, H. Ye, L. Zapata, D. Zhang, C. Zhou, R. J. D. Miller, K. K. Berggren, H. Graafsma, A. Meents, R. W. Assmann, H. N. Chapman, and P. Fromme, “AXSIS: exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 829, 24–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zapata, L.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the multi-wave mixing or cascading process. (Top) Narrowband – single longitudinal mode to a few hundreds of picometers – pump (ωp) and seed (ωs) pulses with neighboring central frequency – in the nanometer to few nanometers range – in the optical domain are fed into a nonlinear medium. An idler wave (ωi) in the terahertz frequency domain is generated via phase-matched three-wave mixing. (Middle) Upon generation of the idler wave (ωi), the latter interacts with the signal wave (ωs) to generate the first red-shifted cascaded order (ω1 = ωs−ωi) via DFG or to feed energy back into the pump wave (ωp = ωi + ωs) via SFG. Additionally, the idler wave (ωi) interacts with the pump wave (ω-1 = ωp + ωi) to generate a blue-shifted cascaded order. (Bottom) The process then avalanches to generate N red-shifted orders as each pair (ωN, ωN + 1) contributes to enhancing the idler wave (ωi) constituting a series of N OPAs. Simultaneously, the generated terahertz frequency idler wave interacts with each blue-shifted order to create/enhance the next blue-shifted peak via SFG. The idler wave can similarly interact with each red-shifted peak via DFG. Notice that all the interactions involved in the cascaded orders generation only involve three-wave (χ(2)) mixing processes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Layout of the THz-COPA. Pump and seed beams were combined using a dielectric beam combiner and gently focused in an MgO:PPLN crystal with 212 μm poling period at room temperature. Detection setups include an optical spectral analyzer (OSA) with 0.1 nm resolution, a CCD camera used for relay imaging the end facet of the nonlinear medium (not shown) and a home-built SHG-FROG apparatus for temporal characterization of the pump and seed beams.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (Upper row) Measured cascaded spectrum for in-band (Δλ ~0.4 nm) seed energy at 1031.2 nm of ~230 μJ versus pump fluence in a 0.5 cm long MgO:PPLN crystal (left), 1 cm long MgO:PPLN crystal and (right) 2 cm long MgO:PPLN crystal; (lower row) Numerically simulated cascaded spectrum for in-band (Δλ ~0.4 nm) seed energy at 1031.2 nm of ~230 μJ versus pump fluence in a 0.5 cm long MgO:PPLN crystal (left), 1 cm long MgO:PPLN crystal and (right) 2 cm long MgO:PPLN crystal. Notice that the maximum applied fluence on the 2 cm long sample was capped at 1.1 J/cm2. The pump line is the strongest line located at 1029.5 nm for all plots, at all fluence levels.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (Left) Measured (blue line) and numerically simulated (black squares) THz radiation yield versus signal energy for the 1 cm long crystal and 1.5 J/cm2 pump fluence and (right) versus pump fluence for the three crystals under consideration for a seed energy of 165 μJ.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (Left) Numerically simulated cascaded spectra plotted at the plane of maximum intensity (using 1 + 1-D) using pump and signal input parameters matching those of Fig. 3 for a crystal at room temperature (top) and a cryogenically cooled crystal (bottom); (right) computed conversion efficiency for various crystal length as a function of pump fluence for a crystal maintained at cryogenic temperature.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (Top left) Measured SHG-FROG trace, obtained from the THz-COPA output after filtering the pump; (Top right) retrieved FROG trace; (bottom left) Retrieved temporal profile and phase of the pulses from FROG; (bottom right) zoom of the retrieved FROG trace showing a strong modulation in time with 2-ps (1/0.5THz) period.

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