Abstract

In this paper, we present the design and the experimental demonstration of a radio over fiber (RoF) network relying on state-of-the-art spatial modulation (SM), that activates one out of multiple antennas. We propose a novel RoF-aided SM encoding scheme, where the optical single side-band signal generated by a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is used for both the antenna selection and for the classic modulated symbol selection. The SM encoding is optically processed in a centralized fashion, aiming for the reduction of power consumption and for enabling cost-effective maintenance and management, which can be employed in the context of a cloud radio access network (C-RAN) and a small-cell front-haul. Furthermore, an experimental demonstration of the proposed system is discussed and analyzed, where a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) is used for transmission. In this experiment, a 2 Gbps transmission relying on two transmit and two receive antennas is achieved with less than 1 dB SNR degradation compared to those operating without RoF.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. A. Goldsmith, Wireless communications (Cambridge University, 2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Li, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Joint space-time block-coding and beamforming for the multiuser radio over plastic fiber downlink,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 67, 2781–2786 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. Thomas, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Performance improvement and cost reduction techniques for radio over fiber communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 627–670 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. express 24, 8666–8678 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. A. Hemadeh, M. El-Hajjar, S. Won, and L. Hanzo, “Multi-set space-time shift-keying with reduced detection complexity,” IEEE Access 4, 4234–4246 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Xue, S. Pan, and Y. Zhao, “Optical single-sideband modulation based on a dual-drive MZM and a 120 hybrid coupler,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 3317–3323 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, and L. Szczecinski, “Spatial modulation: optimal detection and performance analysis,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 545–547 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic, 2007).

2018 (1)

Y. Li, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Joint space-time block-coding and beamforming for the multiuser radio over plastic fiber downlink,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 67, 2781–2786 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Thomas, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Performance improvement and cost reduction techniques for radio over fiber communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 627–670 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Xue, S. Pan, and Y. Zhao, “Optical single-sideband modulation based on a dual-drive MZM and a 120 hybrid coupler,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 3317–3323 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2008 (2)

R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, and L. Szczecinski, “Spatial modulation: optimal detection and performance analysis,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aggoune, H. M.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic, 2007).

Ahmed, Z.

G. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahn, C. W.

R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bai, W.

Basar, E.

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berger, M. S.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Checko, A.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, H. L.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Di Renzo, M.

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dittmann, L.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

El-Hajjar, M.

Y. Li, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Joint space-time block-coding and beamforming for the multiuser radio over plastic fiber downlink,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 67, 2781–2786 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. A. Hemadeh, M. El-Hajjar, S. Won, and L. Hanzo, “Multi-set space-time shift-keying with reduced detection complexity,” IEEE Access 4, 4234–4246 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Thomas, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Performance improvement and cost reduction techniques for radio over fiber communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 627–670 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, S.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghrayeb, A.

M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, and L. Szczecinski, “Spatial modulation: optimal detection and performance analysis,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goldsmith, A.

A. Goldsmith, Wireless communications (Cambridge University, 2005).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haider, F.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanzo, L.

Y. Li, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Joint space-time block-coding and beamforming for the multiuser radio over plastic fiber downlink,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 67, 2781–2786 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. A. Hemadeh, M. El-Hajjar, S. Won, and L. Hanzo, “Multi-set space-time shift-keying with reduced detection complexity,” IEEE Access 4, 4234–4246 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Thomas, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Performance improvement and cost reduction techniques for radio over fiber communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 627–670 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Hemadeh, I. A.

I. A. Hemadeh, M. El-Hajjar, S. Won, and L. Hanzo, “Multi-set space-time shift-keying with reduced detection complexity,” IEEE Access 4, 4234–4246 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hepsaydir, E.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeganathan, J.

J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, and L. Szczecinski, “Spatial modulation: optimal detection and performance analysis,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Kardaras, G.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Joint space-time block-coding and beamforming for the multiuser radio over plastic fiber downlink,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 67, 2781–2786 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mesleh, R.

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mesleh, R. Y.

R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

D. Novak and R. Waterhouse, “Advanced radio over fiber network technologies,” Opt. express 21, 23001–23006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pan, S.

M. Xue, S. Pan, and Y. Zhao, “Optical single-sideband modulation based on a dual-drive MZM and a 120 hybrid coupler,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 3317–3323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Renzo, M. D.

M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scolari, L.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sinanovic, S.

R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sugiura, S.

M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Szczecinski, L.

J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, and L. Szczecinski, “Spatial modulation: optimal detection and performance analysis,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thomas, V.

V. Thomas, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Performance improvement and cost reduction techniques for radio over fiber communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 627–670 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. X.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Waterhouse, R.

Wen, M.

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Won, S.

I. A. Hemadeh, M. El-Hajjar, S. Won, and L. Hanzo, “Multi-set space-time shift-keying with reduced detection complexity,” IEEE Access 4, 4234–4246 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xue, M.

M. Xue, S. Pan, and Y. Zhao, “Optical single-sideband modulation based on a dual-drive MZM and a 120 hybrid coupler,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 3317–3323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yang, Y.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

You, X. H.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, D.

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yun, S.

R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

M. Xue, S. Pan, and Y. Zhao, “Optical single-sideband modulation based on a dual-drive MZM and a 120 hybrid coupler,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 3317–3323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett. 33, 74–75 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (2)

I. A. Hemadeh, M. El-Hajjar, S. Won, and L. Hanzo, “Multi-set space-time shift-keying with reduced detection complexity,” IEEE Access 4, 4234–4246 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Basar, M. Wen, R. Mesleh, M. Di Renzo, Y. Xiao, and H. Haas, “Index modulation techniques for next-generation wireless networks,” IEEE Access 5, 16693–16746 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

J. Jeganathan, A. Ghrayeb, and L. Szczecinski, “Spatial modulation: optimal detection and performance analysis,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan, H. M. Aggoune, H. Haas, S. Fletcher, and E. Hepsaydir, “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52, 122–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (2)

A. Checko, H. L. Christiansen, Y. Yan, L. Scolari, G. Kardaras, M. S. Berger, and L. Dittmann, “Cloud RAN for mobile networks—–a technology overview,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 405–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Thomas, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Performance improvement and cost reduction techniques for radio over fiber communications,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17, 627–670 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. (2)

Y. Li, M. El-Hajjar, and L. Hanzo, “Joint space-time block-coding and beamforming for the multiuser radio over plastic fiber downlink,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 67, 2781–2786 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Mesleh, H. Haas, S. Sinanovic, C. W. Ahn, and S. Yun, “Spatial modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Veh. Technol. 57, 2228–2241 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (1)

M. Xue, S. Pan, and Y. Zhao, “Optical single-sideband modulation based on a dual-drive MZM and a 120 hybrid coupler,” J. Light. Technol. 32, 3317–3323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. D. Renzo, H. Haas, A. Ghrayeb, S. Sugiura, and L. Hanzo, “Spatial modulation for generalized mimo: Challenges, opportunities, and implementation,” Proc. IEEE 102, 56–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic, 2007).

A. Goldsmith, Wireless communications (Cambridge University, 2005).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Conventional twin-antenna SM scheme adapted to SB-switching.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 System schematic of RoF-aided twin-antenna SM downlink system. PRBS: Pseudorandom Binary Sequence, ASI: Antenna Selection Information, DSP: Digital Signal Processing, LD: Laser Diode, RF: Radio Frequency, MZM: Mach-Zehnder Modulator, OBPF: Optical Band Pass Filter, PD: Photo Detector, EA: Electronic Amplfier, RAP: Radio Access Point, Tx: Transmitter, Rx: Receiver.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Side-band Selection. ASI: Antenna Selection Information, PS: Phase Shift.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PSD of the OSSB for Side-Band Selection.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated BER performance of proposed RoF-aided twin-antenna SM system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental Setup.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental demonstration BER of proposed RoF-aided twin-antenna SM BER performance.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Parameters

Metrics