Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a directional torsion sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a multicore fiber (MCF) with a ~570-μm-long helical structure (HS). The HS was fabricated into the MCF by simply pre-twisting and then heating with a CO2 laser splicing system. This device shows the capability of directional torsion measurement from −17.094 rad/m to 15.669 rad/m with the sensitivity of ~0.118 nm/(rad/m). Moreover, since the multiple interferences respond differently to torsion and temperature simultaneously, the temperature cross-sensitivity of the proposed sensor can be eliminated effectively. Besides, the sensor owns other merits such as easy fabrication and good mechanical robustness.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Wang and Y. Rao, “Long period fibre grating torsion sensor measuring twist rate and determining twist direction simultaneously,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1 (2004).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Zhang, Y. Q. Liu, X. B. Cao, and T. Y. Wang, “High sensitivity chiral long-period grating sensors written in the twisted fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4253–4257 (2016).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, A. Yurkewich, and R. V. Patel, “Curvature, torsion, and force sensing in continuum robots using helically wrapped FBG sensors,” IEEE Robot. Automat. Lett. 1(2), 1052–1059 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Q. Liu, X. B. Cao, and T. Y. Wang, “High sensitivity chiral long-period grating sensors written in the twisted fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4253–4257 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Huang and X. Shu, “Ultra-compact strain- and temperature-insensitive torsion sensor based on a line-by-line inscribed phase-shifted FBG,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17670–17679 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

X. Ma, C. H. Liu, G. Chang, and A. Galvanauskas, “Angular-momentum coupled optical waves in chirally-coupled-core fibers,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26515–26528 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5299–5302 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. M. Kim, T. H. Kim, B. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Temperature-insensitive torsion sensor with enhanced sensitivity by use of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1539–1541 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes - An application to microstructured optical fibres,” Compel 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. Wang and Y. Rao, “Long period fibre grating torsion sensor measuring twist rate and determining twist direction simultaneously,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1 (2004).

2001 (1)

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Agha, Y. O.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes - An application to microstructured optical fibres,” Compel 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

Cao, X. B.

L. Zhang, Y. Q. Liu, X. B. Cao, and T. Y. Wang, “High sensitivity chiral long-period grating sensors written in the twisted fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4253–4257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.

Chen, J. P.

Chen, L.

Chen, W. G.

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5299–5302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. Y.

Chung, Y.

H. M. Kim, T. H. Kim, B. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Temperature-insensitive torsion sensor with enhanced sensitivity by use of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1539–1541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dinh, X. Q.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. E.

L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5299–5302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fernandes, L. A.

Fu, S.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Galvanauskas, A.

Grenier, J. R.

Guenneau, S.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes - An application to microstructured optical fibres,” Compel 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Havsgard, G. B.

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Herman, P. R.

Huang, B.

Jensen, A. E.

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jian, S. S.

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johnson, G. A.

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

H. M. Kim, T. H. Kim, B. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Temperature-insensitive torsion sensor with enhanced sensitivity by use of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1539–1541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. M.

H. M. Kim, T. H. Kim, B. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Temperature-insensitive torsion sensor with enhanced sensitivity by use of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1539–1541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. J.

Kim, T. H.

H. M. Kim, T. H. Kim, B. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Temperature-insensitive torsion sensor with enhanced sensitivity by use of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1539–1541 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

Li, H.

Li, X. L.

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. H.

Liu, D. M.

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. Q.

L. Zhang, Y. Q. Liu, X. B. Cao, and T. Y. Wang, “High sensitivity chiral long-period grating sensors written in the twisted fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4253–4257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lou, S. Q.

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Low, C. W.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, W. L.

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

Nicolet, A.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes - An application to microstructured optical fibres,” Compel 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Patel, R. V.

R. Xu, A. Yurkewich, and R. V. Patel, “Curvature, torsion, and force sensing in continuum robots using helically wrapped FBG sensors,” IEEE Robot. Automat. Lett. 1(2), 1052–1059 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pran, K.

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y.

Y. Wang and Y. Rao, “Long period fibre grating torsion sensor measuring twist rate and determining twist direction simultaneously,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1 (2004).

Rao, Y. J.

L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5299–5302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Wang, J. P. Chen, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion characteristics of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(6), 1167–1172 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sagvolden, G.

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shao, X.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, L. L.

L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5299–5302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shu, X.

Shum, P. P.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q. Z.

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tong, W.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vohra, S. T.

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

Wang, G.

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. W.

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, R.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Q. Liu, X. B. Cao, and T. Y. Wang, “High sensitivity chiral long-period grating sensors written in the twisted fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4253–4257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and Y. Rao, “Long period fibre grating torsion sensor measuring twist rate and determining twist direction simultaneously,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1 (2004).

Wang, Y. P.

Wo, J. H.

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xian, L.

Xu, R.

R. Xu, A. Yurkewich, and R. V. Patel, “Curvature, torsion, and force sensing in continuum robots using helically wrapped FBG sensors,” IEEE Robot. Automat. Lett. 1(2), 1052–1059 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. L.

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, T.

Yurkewich, A.

R. Xu, A. Yurkewich, and R. V. Patel, “Curvature, torsion, and force sensing in continuum robots using helically wrapped FBG sensors,” IEEE Robot. Automat. Lett. 1(2), 1052–1059 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Q. Liu, X. B. Cao, and T. Y. Wang, “High sensitivity chiral long-period grating sensors written in the twisted fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4253–4257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhou, W. Zhang, L. Chen, T. Yan, L. Zhang, L. Wang, and B. Wang, “Fiber torsion sensor based on a twist taper in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23877–23886 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhou, Q.

Zhu, T.

L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5299–5302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zolla, F.

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes - An application to microstructured optical fibres,” Compel 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zou, H.

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Compel (1)

Y. O. Agha, F. Zolla, A. Nicolet, and S. Guenneau, “On the use of PML for the computation of leaky modes - An application to microstructured optical fibres,” Compel 27(1), 95–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang and Y. Rao, “Long period fibre grating torsion sensor measuring twist rate and determining twist direction simultaneously,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1 (2004).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

H. M. Kim, T. H. Kim, B. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Temperature-insensitive torsion sensor with enhanced sensitivity by use of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1539–1541 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. G. Chen, S. Q. Lou, L. W. Wang, H. Zou, W. L. Lu, and S. S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Robot. Automat. Lett. (1)

R. Xu, A. Yurkewich, and R. V. Patel, “Curvature, torsion, and force sensing in continuum robots using helically wrapped FBG sensors,” IEEE Robot. Automat. Lett. 1(2), 1052–1059 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

L. Zhang, Y. Q. Liu, X. B. Cao, and T. Y. Wang, “High sensitivity chiral long-period grating sensors written in the twisted fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(11), 4253–4257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Xu, Q. Z. Sun, J. H. Wo, Y. Dai, X. L. Li, and D. M. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(6), 2139–2145 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, R. Wang, X. Q. Dinh, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Fiber Bragg gratings in heterogeneous multicore fiber for directional bending sensing,” J. Opt. 18(8), 085705 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. L. Shi, T. Zhu, Y. E. Fan, K. S. Chiang, and Y. J. Rao, “Torsion sensing with a fiber ring laser incorporating a pair of rotary long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5299–5302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Zhang, Z. Wu, P. P. Shum, X. Q. Dinh, C. W. Low, Z. Xu, R. Wang, X. Shao, S. Fu, W. Tong, and M. Tang, “Highly sensitive strain sensor based on helical structure combined with Mach-Zehnder interferometer in multicore fiber,” Sci. Rep. 7, 46633 (2017).
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Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

G. Wang, K. Pran, G. Sagvolden, G. B. Havsgard, A. E. Jensen, G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, “Ship hull structure monitoring using fibre optic sensors,” Smart Mater. Struct. 10(3), 472–478 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

N. K. Chen, J. J. Wang, G. L. Cheng, W. H. Cheng, and P. P. Shum, “Fiber torsion sensor with directional discrimination based on twist-induced circular birefringence in unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in CLEO:2014, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper JW2A.35.

P. S. J. Russell, R. Beravat, and G. K. L. Wong, “Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, in press (2017).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional micrograph of the MCF. (b) Measured RI profile of the MCF. (c) The schematic diagram of the sensor structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Side-view microscope photograph of the MCF with the fabricated HS. (b) Transmission spectrum of the proposed senor. (c) SF spectrum of the transmission spectrum. Simulated transverse mode field distribution of (d) center core mode, (e) outer core mode and (f) the first order cladding more.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Wavelengths responses of Dip A and Dip B to TR. (b) Transmission spectral evolutions of Dip A and Dip B with varying TR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectral evolutions of the two dips with temperature variation. (b) Relationships between the wavelength shift and temperature for the two dips.

Equations (10)

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I= i=1 N I i +2 i=1 N j=2 N I i I j cos(Δ ϕ ij ) ,
λ ij = 2[ ( n eff,i n eff,j ) L s +( n eff,i H n eff,j H ) L H ] 2m+1 ,
Δ ij 2 2m+1 [ δ( n eff.i n eff.j ) δτ L s + δ( n eff.i H n eff.j H ) δτ L H ]Δτ.
Δ λ 1 2 n eff,cl ρ cl 2 [ τ( L s + L H )± τ 0 L H ]Δτ 2m+1 ,
Δ λ 2 2( n eff,ou ρ ou 2 n eff,cl ρ cl 2 )[ τ( L s + L H )± τ 0 L H ]Δτ 2m+1 ,
Δ λ 3 2 n eff,ou ρ ou 2 [ τ( L s + L H )± τ 0 L H ]Δτ 2m+1 ,
Δm= ξ λ 0 2 /L ,
Δ λ i = S τi Δτ+ S Ti ΔT,(i=A,B),
[ Δτ ΔT ]= [ S τA S TA S τB S TB ] 1 [ Δ λ A Δ λ B ].
[ Δτ ΔT ]= [ 0.115 0.054 0.118 0.101 ] 1 [ Δ λ A Δ λ B ],17.094τ15.669.