Abstract

Oxide–confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with anti–waveguiding AlAs–rich core presently attract a lot of attention. Anti–waveguiding cavity enables the maximum possible optical confinement of the VCSEL mode (“λ/2 design”), increases its oscillator strength and reduces dramatically the optical power accumulated in the VCSEL mesa regions outside the aperture. VCSEL designs are suggested that favor single transverse mode operation. Modeling including current–induced and absorption–induced overheating shows that the preference for the transverse fundamental mode persists up to 10 mA current at 5 µm aperture diameter. Error–free data transmission is realized up to 160 Gb/s in digital–multitone (DMT) format using single–mode anti–waveguiding VCSELs. The approach to single–mode anti–waveguiding VCSELs is extended over a broad spectral range realizing error–free high–speed data transmission at both 850 nm and 910 nm.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2017 (4)

V. Kalosha, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Robustness versus thermal effects of single–mode operation of vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high–order transverse optical modes,” Proc. SPIE 10122, 10122 (2017).

N. N. Ledentsov, N. Ledentsov, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, and V. A. Shchukin, “Application of nanophotonics to the next generation of surface–emitting lasers,” Nanophotonics 6(5), 813–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

N. Ledentsov, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. Kropp, “Design considerations for single–mode vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with impurity–induced intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(8), 2400406 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Larsson, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. Haglund, and E. P. Haglund, “High Speed VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays for Single and Multicore Fiber Interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810D (2015).

2014 (1)

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J.-W. Shi, Zh.-R. Wei, K.-L. Chi, J.-W. Jiang, J.-M. Wun, I.-Ch. Lu, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Single–mode, high–speed, and high–power vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers at 850 nm for short to medium reach (2 km) optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4037–4044 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shi, Jh.-Ch. Yan, Jh.-M. Wun, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Oxide–relief and Zn–diffusion 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with extremely low energy–to–data–rate ratios for 40 Gbit/sec operations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900208 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

V. P. Kalosha, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Design considerations for large–aperture single–mode oxide–confined vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 071117 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

K. Iga, “Surface–emitting laser – Its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1201–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

Agustin, M.

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

N. N. Ledentsov, N. Ledentsov, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, and V. A. Shchukin, “Application of nanophotonics to the next generation of surface–emitting lasers,” Nanophotonics 6(5), 813–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

Arsenijevic, D.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D.

V. P. Kalosha, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Design considerations for large–aperture single–mode oxide–confined vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 071117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burger, S.

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carpaij, M.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Caspar, C.

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J.-W. Shi, Zh.-R. Wei, K.-L. Chi, J.-W. Jiang, J.-M. Wun, I.-Ch. Lu, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Single–mode, high–speed, and high–power vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers at 850 nm for short to medium reach (2 km) optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4037–4044 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shi, Jh.-Ch. Yan, Jh.-M. Wun, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Oxide–relief and Zn–diffusion 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with extremely low energy–to–data–rate ratios for 40 Gbit/sec operations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chi, K.-L.

Choquette, K. D.

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

Chorchos, L.

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

Feng, Z.

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

Fiol, G.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Florez, L. T.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

Freund, R.

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

Gerlach, Ph.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Gronenborn, S.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Gudde, R.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Gustavsson, J. S.

A. Larsson, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. Haglund, and E. P. Haglund, “High Speed VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays for Single and Multicore Fiber Interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810D (2015).

Haglund, E.

A. Larsson, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. Haglund, and E. P. Haglund, “High Speed VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays for Single and Multicore Fiber Interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810D (2015).

Haglund, E. P.

A. Larsson, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. Haglund, and E. P. Haglund, “High Speed VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays for Single and Multicore Fiber Interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810D (2015).

Harbison, J. P.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hasnain, G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hellmig, J.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Henker, R.

Hopfer, F.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Iga, K.

K. Iga, “Surface–emitting laser – Its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1201–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.-W.

Kalosha, V.

V. Kalosha, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Robustness versus thermal effects of single–mode operation of vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high–order transverse optical modes,” Proc. SPIE 10122, 10122 (2017).

Kalosha, V. P.

V. P. Kalosha, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Design considerations for large–aperture single–mode oxide–confined vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 071117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kolb, J.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Kovsh, A. R.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krestnikov, I. L.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kropp, J.

N. Ledentsov, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. Kropp, “Design considerations for single–mode vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with impurity–induced intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(8), 2400406 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kropp, J. R.

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kropp, J.-R.

N. N. Ledentsov, N. Ledentsov, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, and V. A. Shchukin, “Application of nanophotonics to the next generation of surface–emitting lasers,” Nanophotonics 6(5), 813–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

V. Kalosha, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Robustness versus thermal effects of single–mode operation of vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high–order transverse optical modes,” Proc. SPIE 10122, 10122 (2017).

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

Larsson, A.

A. Larsson, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. Haglund, and E. P. Haglund, “High Speed VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays for Single and Multicore Fiber Interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810D (2015).

Ledentsov, N.

V. Kalosha, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Robustness versus thermal effects of single–mode operation of vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high–order transverse optical modes,” Proc. SPIE 10122, 10122 (2017).

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

N. N. Ledentsov, N. Ledentsov, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, and V. A. Shchukin, “Application of nanophotonics to the next generation of surface–emitting lasers,” Nanophotonics 6(5), 813–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ledentsov, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. Kropp, “Design considerations for single–mode vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with impurity–induced intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(8), 2400406 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ledentsov, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. Kropp, “Design considerations for single–mode vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with impurity–induced intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(8), 2400406 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

Ledentsov, N. N.

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

V. Kalosha, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Robustness versus thermal effects of single–mode operation of vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high–order transverse optical modes,” Proc. SPIE 10122, 10122 (2017).

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, N. Ledentsov, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, and V. A. Shchukin, “Application of nanophotonics to the next generation of surface–emitting lasers,” Nanophotonics 6(5), 813–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kalosha, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Design considerations for large–aperture single–mode oxide–confined vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 071117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, and J. A. Lott, “Ultrafast nanophotonic devices for optical interconnects,” in Proceeding of 2012 Advanced Research Workshop (FTM–7) (2012).

Lee, A.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Lewandowski, A.

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Livshits, D. A.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lott, J. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, and J. A. Lott, “Ultrafast nanophotonic devices for optical interconnects,” in Proceeding of 2012 Advanced Research Workshop (FTM–7) (2012).

Lu, I.-Ch.

Ma, Y.

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

Mikhrin, S. S.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moench, H.

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

Monroy, I. T.

Moser, P.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mutig, A.

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Olmos, J. J. V.

Puerta, R.

Qiu, S.

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

Schaefer, G.

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, G.

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, F.

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shchukin, V.

N. Ledentsov, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. Kropp, “Design considerations for single–mode vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with impurity–induced intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(8), 2400406 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shchukin, V. A.

N. N. Ledentsov, N. Ledentsov, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, and V. A. Shchukin, “Application of nanophotonics to the next generation of surface–emitting lasers,” Nanophotonics 6(5), 813–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

V. Kalosha, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Robustness versus thermal effects of single–mode operation of vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high–order transverse optical modes,” Proc. SPIE 10122, 10122 (2017).

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, and J. A. Lott, “Ultrafast nanophotonic devices for optical interconnects,” in Proceeding of 2012 Advanced Research Workshop (FTM–7) (2012).

Shi, J.-W.

J.-W. Shi, Zh.-R. Wei, K.-L. Chi, J.-W. Jiang, J.-M. Wun, I.-Ch. Lu, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Single–mode, high–speed, and high–power vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers at 850 nm for short to medium reach (2 km) optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4037–4044 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shi, Jh.-Ch. Yan, Jh.-M. Wun, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Oxide–relief and Zn–diffusion 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with extremely low energy–to–data–rate ratios for 40 Gbit/sec operations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steinle, G.

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stepniak, G.

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

Stoffel, N. G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tonski, J.

Turkiewicz, J. P.

R. Puerta, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, J. Toński, J.-R. Kropp, N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, R. Henker, I. T. Monroy, J. J. V. Olmos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Effective 100 Gb/s IM/DD 850 nm multi– and single–mode VCSEL transmission through OM4 MMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 423–429 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

Von Lehmen, A. C.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wei, Zh.-R.

Westbergh, P.

A. Larsson, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. Haglund, and E. P. Haglund, “High Speed VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays for Single and Multicore Fiber Interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810D (2015).

Wu, B.

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

Wun, J.-M.

Wun, Jh.-M.

J.-W. Shi, Jh.-Ch. Yan, Jh.-M. Wun, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Oxide–relief and Zn–diffusion 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with extremely low energy–to–data–rate ratios for 40 Gbit/sec operations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, Jh.-Ch.

J.-W. Shi, Jh.-Ch. Yan, Jh.-M. Wun, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Oxide–relief and Zn–diffusion 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with extremely low energy–to–data–rate ratios for 40 Gbit/sec operations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900208 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.-J.

J.-W. Shi, Jh.-Ch. Yan, Jh.-M. Wun, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Oxide–relief and Zn–diffusion 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with extremely low energy–to–data–rate ratios for 40 Gbit/sec operations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900208 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shi, Zh.-R. Wei, K.-L. Chi, J.-W. Jiang, J.-M. Wun, I.-Ch. Lu, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Single–mode, high–speed, and high–power vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers at 850 nm for short to medium reach (2 km) optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4037–4044 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zoldak, M.

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. P. Kalosha, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Design considerations for large–aperture single–mode oxide–confined vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 071117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Mutig, G. Fiol, P. Moser, D. Arsenijevic, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, A. R. Kovsh, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, “120°C 20 Gbit/s operation of 980 nm VCSEL,” Electron. Lett. 44(22), 1305–1306 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, A. Lewandowski, J. R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, G. Schaefer, M. Agustin, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “54 Gbit/s OOK transmission using single–mode VCSEL up to 2.2 km MMF,” Electron. Lett. 52(8), 633–635 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

V. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. Kropp, G. Steinle, N. Ledentsov, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Single–mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser via oxide–aperture–engineering of leakage of high–order transverse modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(12), 990–995 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, S. Burger, and F. Schmidt, “Direct evidence of the leaky emission in oxide–confined vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(3), 2400207 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ledentsov, V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. Kropp, “Design considerations for single–mode vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with impurity–induced intermixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(8), 2400406 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J.-W. Shi, Jh.-Ch. Yan, Jh.-M. Wun, J. Chen, and Y.-J. Yang, “Oxide–relief and Zn–diffusion 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with extremely low energy–to–data–rate ratios for 40 Gbit/sec operations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 7900208 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Iga, “Surface–emitting laser – Its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1201–1215 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nanophotonics (1)

N. N. Ledentsov, N. Ledentsov, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, and V. A. Shchukin, “Application of nanophotonics to the next generation of surface–emitting lasers,” Nanophotonics 6(5), 813–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

Ł. Chorchos, J. P. Turkiewicz, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov., “Relative intensity noise of single– and multi–mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10325, 103250J (2017).

V. Kalosha, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, and N. N. Ledentsov, “Robustness versus thermal effects of single–mode operation of vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high–order transverse optical modes,” Proc. SPIE 10122, 10122 (2017).

N. N. Ledentsov, J.-R. Kropp, V. A. Shchukin, G. Steinle, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, B. Wu, S. Qiu, Y. Ma, Z. Feng, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, C. Caspar, R. Freund, and K. D. Choquette, “High–speed modulation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical–cavity surface–emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810F (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Moench, M. Carpaij, Ph. Gerlach, S. Gronenborn, R. Gudde, J. Hellmig, J. Kolb, and A. Lee, “VCSEL based sensors for distance and velocity,” Proc. SPIE 9766, 97660A (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Larsson, P. Westbergh, J. S. Gustavsson, E. Haglund, and E. P. Haglund, “High Speed VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays for Single and Multicore Fiber Interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 9381, 93810D (2015).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J.-R. Kropp, G. Steinle, G. Schäfer, V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov, J. P. Turkiewicz, and M. Zoldak, “Accelerated aging of 28 Gb s–1 850 nm vertical–cavity surface–emitting laser with multiple thick oxide apertures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(4), 045001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, V. P. Kalosha, N. N. Ledentsov, Jr., J.-R. Kropp, M. Agustin, Ł. Chorchos, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Progress in design and development of anti–guiding vertical cavity surface emitting laser at 850 nm: Above 50 Gb/s and single mode,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2017), paper Mo.D3.4.
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, and J. A. Lott, “Ultrafast nanophotonic devices for optical interconnects,” in Proceeding of 2012 Advanced Research Workshop (FTM–7) (2012).

N. Ledentsov and V. Shchukin, “Optoelectronic device based on an antiwaveguiding cavity,” US Patent 7,339,965 (March 4, 2008).

G. Stepniak, Ł. Chorchos, M. Agustin, J.-R. Kropp, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, and J. P. Turkiewicz, “Up to 108 Gb/s PAM 850 nm Multi and Single Mode VCSEL Transmission over 100 m of Multi Mode Fiber,” in Proceedings of 42nd European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2016).

Jitter, noise and eye–diagram analysis solution, https://www.tek.com/datasheet/80sjarb-and-80sjnb-jitter-noise-and-ber-analysis

C. Kottke, C. Caspar, V. Jungnickel, R. Freund, M. Agustin, and N. Ledentsov, “High Speed 160 Gb/s DMT VCSEL Transmission Using Pre–equalization,” in Optical Fiber Comminication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper W4I.7.
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, V. A. Shchukin, A. V. Savel’ev, G. Fiol, M. Kuntz, V. A. Haisler, T. Warming, E. Stock, S. S. Mikhrin, A. R. Kovsh, C. Bornholdt, A. Lenz, H. Eisele, M. Dähne, N. D. Zakharov, P. Werner, and D. Bimberg, “Novel concepts for ultrahigh–speed quantum–dot VCSELs and edge–emitters,” Proceedings SPIE, vol. 6468, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XIV, M. Osinski, F. Henneberger and Y. Arakawa, eds., Paper 6468–47.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of 1λ waveguiding ((a)–(d)) and λ/2 anti–waveguding ((e)–(h)) VCSEL designs. Red: refractive index profile, blue: vertical profile of the longitudinal VCSEL mode, green: vertical profile of the in–plane waveguiding mode. (a), (e): general model structures; (b), (f): profiles of practical structures close to the resonance cavity; (c), (g): profiles in the entire structures in the aperture region; (d), (h): profiles in the entire structures in the oxidized region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Modeled cross–sectional profiles of the intensity of the fundamental (LP01) and the high–order (LP11) transverse modes in an A–VCSEL with thin aperture layers at injection current 0 and 10 mA. Increase in current enhances localization of the high–order mode within the aperture. (b) Ratio of the optical confinement factors of two transverse modes versus aperture radius at different currents.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured lasing spectra of quasi–Single–Mode 850 nm VCSELs with the aperture radius of 1 µm (a) and 3 µm (c) (diameters 2 µm and 6 µm). An increase in the spectral separation between the fundamental and the first high–order modes upon current is shown for the devices with the aperture diameter of 2 µm (b) and 6 µm (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gross data rate versus multi–mode fiber transmission distance for directly modulated single–mode A–VCSEL using different modulation schemes. Note: All above mentioned data transmission studies achieved error–free transmission with forward error correction (FEC).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Study of 50 Gb/s NRZ data transmission links for 850 nm and 910 nm directly modulated SM–VCSELs at different OM5 MMF lengths. (a) Eye diagrams. (b) Bathtub curves.