Abstract

We present a novel photonic wire-to-slot waveguide coupler in SOI. The phase matching between a wire and slot mode is achieved using a mode transformer. The architecture consists of a balanced 50/50 power splitter and a tunable phase matched taper combiner forming a slot waveguide. We show a theoretical wire-to-slot coupling efficiency of 99 % is achievable and experimentally, we demonstrate a coupling efficiency of 99 % in the 1550 nm band. Based on the coupling scheme, we also show excitation of a slot mode in a slotted ring resonator and verified the excitation through the thermo-optic response of the rings. We show a nearly athermal behaviour of a PMMA filled slot ring with a thermo-optic response of 12.8 pm/°C compare to 43.5 pm/°C for an air clad slot waveguide.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. E. Ryckeboer, R. Bockstaele, M. Vanslembrouck, and R. Baets, “Glucose sensing by waveguide-based absorption spectroscopy on a silicon chip,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1636–1648 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Huang, S. K. Kalyoncu, Q. Zhao, R. Torun, and O. Boyraz, “Silicon-on-sapphire waveguides design for mid-IR evanescent field absorption gas sensors,” Opt. Commun. 313, 186–194 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23(8), 2455–2461 (2005).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “ Compact and efficient couplers for silicon slot waveguides,” in SPIE OPTO, pp. 82660J, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012).
  17. Q. Deng, L. Liu, X. Li, and Z. Zhou, “Strip-slot waveguide mode converter based on symmetric multimode interference,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5665–5668 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. V. M. N. Passaro and M. la Notte, “Optimizing SOI slot waveguide fabrication tolerances and strip-slot coupling for very efficient optical sensing,” Sensors 12(3), 2436–2455 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowedwaveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express 17(27), 21066–21076 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “Silicon nitride background in nanophotonic waveguide enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Materials 10(2), 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

2012 (1)

V. M. N. Passaro and M. la Notte, “Optimizing SOI slot waveguide fabrication tolerances and strip-slot coupling for very efficient optical sensing,” Sensors 12(3), 2436–2455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (6)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, N. Zhu, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, D. Dai, and S. He, “Ultracompact low-loss coupler between strip and slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1498–1500 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowedwaveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express 17(27), 21066–21076 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 1–3, (2005).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23(8), 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Agarwal, A.

Alasaarela, T.

Alloatti, L.

Almeida, V. R.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 1–3, (2005).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “Silicon nitride background in nanophotonic waveguide enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Materials 10(2), 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Subramanian, E. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U. D. Dave, M. Muneeb, P. Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip,” Photon. Res. 3(5), B47–B59, (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Ryckeboer, R. Bockstaele, M. Vanslembrouck, and R. Baets, “Glucose sensing by waveguide-based absorption spectroscopy on a silicon chip,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1636–1648 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowedwaveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Ben Yoo, S. J.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

Bockstaele, R.

Bogaerts, W.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Boyraz, O.

Y. Huang, S. K. Kalyoncu, Q. Zhao, R. Torun, and O. Boyraz, “Silicon-on-sapphire waveguides design for mid-IR evanescent field absorption gas sensors,” Opt. Commun. 313, 186–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.-T.

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Dave, U. D.

De Groote, A.

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, Q.

Dhakal, A.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowedwaveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, N. N.

Freude, W.

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538, (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gu, T.

Guan, B.

Han, X.

He, S.

Hens, Z.

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 1–3, (2005).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

Hu, J.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, S. K. Kalyoncu, Q. Zhao, R. Torun, and O. Boyraz, “Silicon-on-sapphire waveguides design for mid-IR evanescent field absorption gas sensors,” Opt. Commun. 313, 186–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jian, X.

Kalyoncu, S. K.

Y. Huang, S. K. Kalyoncu, Q. Zhao, R. Torun, and O. Boyraz, “Silicon-on-sapphire waveguides design for mid-IR evanescent field absorption gas sensors,” Opt. Commun. 313, 186–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Karvonen, L.

A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express 17(27), 21066–21076 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “ Compact and efficient couplers for silicon slot waveguides,” in SPIE OPTO, pp. 82660J, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012).

Khanna, A.

Kimerling, L. C.

N. N. Feng, R. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Lossless strip-to-slot waveguide transformer,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1250–1252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23(8), 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kita, D. M.

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

Kuittinen, M.

Kuyken, B.

la Notte, M.

V. M. N. Passaro and M. la Notte, “Optimizing SOI slot waveguide fabrication tolerances and strip-slot coupling for very efficient optical sensing,” Sensors 12(3), 2436–2455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Thomas, N.

Leo, F.

Leuthold, J.

Li, X.

Lin, H.

Liow, T. Y.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “ Compact and efficient couplers for silicon slot waveguides,” in SPIE OPTO, pp. 82660J, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012).

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Lo, G. Q.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “ Compact and efficient couplers for silicon slot waveguides,” in SPIE OPTO, pp. 82660J, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012).

Luzinov, I.

Malik, A.

Martens, D.

Michel, J.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morthier, G.

Muneeb, M.

Okamoto, K.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro and M. la Notte, “Optimizing SOI slot waveguide fabrication tolerances and strip-slot coupling for very efficient optical sensing,” Sensors 12(3), 2436–2455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pathak, S.

Peyskens, F.

Raza, A.

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “Silicon nitride background in nanophotonic waveguide enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Materials 10(2), 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

Roelkens, G.

Ruocco, A.

Ryckeboer, E.

Säynätjoki, A.

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 1–3, (2005).
[Crossref]

Shang, K.

Sparacin, D. K.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23(8), 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spector, S. J.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23(8), 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stenberg, P.

Subramanian, A. Z.

Sun, R.

Tang, Y.

Teng, J.

Tervonen, A.

Torun, R.

Y. Huang, S. K. Kalyoncu, Q. Zhao, R. Torun, and O. Boyraz, “Silicon-on-sapphire waveguides design for mid-IR evanescent field absorption gas sensors,” Opt. Commun. 313, 186–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “ Compact and efficient couplers for silicon slot waveguides,” in SPIE OPTO, pp. 82660J, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012).

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Dorpe, P.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vanslembrouck, M.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 1–3, (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wosinski, L.

Wu, R.

Wuytens, P.

Xie, W.

Xu, Q.

Yoo, S. J. B.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, M.

Zhao, Q.

Y. Huang, S. K. Kalyoncu, Q. Zhao, R. Torun, and O. Boyraz, “Silicon-on-sapphire waveguides design for mid-IR evanescent field absorption gas sensors,” Opt. Commun. 313, 186–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(8), 1–3, (2005).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (1)

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23(8), 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Materials (1)

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, “Silicon nitride background in nanophotonic waveguide enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Materials 10(2), 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature photonics (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Huang, S. K. Kalyoncu, Q. Zhao, R. Torun, and O. Boyraz, “Silicon-on-sapphire waveguides design for mid-IR evanescent field absorption gas sensors,” Opt. Commun. 313, 186–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photon. Res. (1)

Sensors (1)

V. M. N. Passaro and M. la Notte, “Optimizing SOI slot waveguide fabrication tolerances and strip-slot coupling for very efficient optical sensing,” Sensors 12(3), 2436–2455 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, A. Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “ Compact and efficient couplers for silicon slot waveguides,” in SPIE OPTO, pp. 82660J, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Electric field distribution profile of the two waveguide configurations, (a) Wire waveguide (W = 450 nm, T = 220 nm), (b) Slot waveguide (W = 260 nm, gap = 120 nm, T = 220 nm), and (c) Effective index of slot waveguide (air clad) as a function of slot width (Wslot) and gap.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the proposed wire-to-slot coupler, (b) Simulated E-field (V/m) distribution (3D FDTD) and excitation 100 nm gap slot waveguide mode, and (c) Effective index and electric field evolution at different cross-section points along the length of the coupler.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effect of width and length variation of the phase matched arms on the coupling efficiency.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) SEM image of a fabricated wire-to-slot coupler with grating coupler and (b) Optical image of a slot ring resonator (Wslot/gap = 260/140 nm); inset: SEM image of the coupling region between the slotted bus waveguide and ring resonator.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Spectral response of a PMMA filled slotted ring resonator; (b) Insertion loss measured at three different Y-splitter arms.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated slot-gap influence on the TO effect of the slot waveguide with a slot gap of 120 nm, (b) Evanescent field fraction and temperature dependency of the resonance of a PMMA filled slotted ring resonator and (c) Experimentally TO response of a slot and wire waveguide ring resonator.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Thermal response of slot and wire waveguide based ring resonator.

Equations (2)

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d n eff d T = i d ( Γ i n i ) d T i Γ i d ( n i ) d T = Γ core d ( n core ) d T + Γ bot clad d ( n bot clad ) d T + Γ up clad d ( n up clad ) d T
d λ r d T = ( n eff α sub + d n eff d T ) = d n eff d T λ r n g

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