Abstract

Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) is an emerging microscopy technique for three-dimensional (3D) refractive index (RI) mapping of transparent specimens. Recently, the digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme for angle-controlled plane wave illumination has been proposed to improve the imaging speed and stability of ODT. However, undesired diffraction noise always exists in the reported DMD-based illumination scheme, which leads to a limited contrast ratio of the measurement fringe and hence inaccurate RI mapping. Here we present a novel spatial filtering method, based on a second DMD, to dynamically remove the diffraction noise. The reported results illustrate significantly enhanced image quality of the obtained interferograms and the subsequently derived phase maps. And moreover, with this method, we demonstrate mapping of 3D RI distribution of polystyrene beads as well as biological cells with high accuracy. Importantly, with the proper hardware configuration, our method does not compromise the 3D imaging speed advantage promised by the DMD-based illumination scheme. Specifically, we have been able to successfully obtain interferograms at over 1 kHz speed, which is critical for potential high-throughput label-free 3D image cytometry applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (4)

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Focus-tunable lens in limited-angle holographic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10070, 1007009 (2017).

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

2016 (4)

S. Lee, H. Park, S. Jang, and P. Yongkeun, “Refractive Index Tomograms and Dynamic Membrane Fluctuations of Red Blood Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus,” Blood 128, 4813 (2016).

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Solving inverse scattering problems in biological samples by quantitative phase imaging,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 13–39 (2016).

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

2013 (2)

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung and R. R. Dasari, “Deterministic regularization of three-dimensional optical diffraction tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(8), 1554–1561 (2011).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Badizadegan, K.

Bartelt, H.

Becker, H.

Bhaduri, B.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Carney, P. S.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Choi, C.

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Cooper, K. L.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dao, M.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung and R. R. Dasari, “Deterministic regularization of three-dimensional optical diffraction tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(8), 1554–1561 (2011).
[PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[PubMed]

Diez-Silva, M.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Edwards, C.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Fang-Yen, C.

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Friebel, M.

Goddard, L. L.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Solving inverse scattering problems in biological samples by quantitative phase imaging,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 13–39 (2016).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Heo, J.

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

Holbrow, C. J.

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hong, K.

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

Hosseini, P.

Jang, S.

S. Lee, H. Park, S. Jang, and P. Yongkeun, “Refractive Index Tomograms and Dynamic Membrane Fluctuations of Red Blood Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus,” Blood 128, 4813 (2016).

Jin, D.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

Kim, G.

Kim, K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

S. Shin, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Active illumination using a digital micromirror device for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5407–5410 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2, 343–346 (2015).

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

Kim, T.

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Solving inverse scattering problems in biological samples by quantitative phase imaging,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 13–39 (2016).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Kim, Y.-H.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kirschner, M. W.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

Krauze, W.

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Focus-tunable lens in limited-angle holographic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10070, 1007009 (2017).

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Limited-angle holographic tomography with optically controlled projection generation,” Proc. SPIE 9330, 933007 (2015).

Kujawinska, M.

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Focus-tunable lens in limited-angle holographic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10070, 1007009 (2017).

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Limited-angle holographic tomography with optically controlled projection generation,” Proc. SPIE 9330, 933007 (2015).

Kus, A.

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Focus-tunable lens in limited-angle holographic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10070, 1007009 (2017).

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Limited-angle holographic tomography with optically controlled projection generation,” Proc. SPIE 9330, 933007 (2015).

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Park, S. Jang, and P. Yongkeun, “Refractive Index Tomograms and Dynamic Membrane Fluctuations of Red Blood Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus,” Blood 128, 4813 (2016).

Lee, W. H.

Lue, N.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

P. Hosseini, Y. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23(15), 19752–19762 (2015).
[PubMed]

P. Hosseini, Y. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23(15), 19752–19762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Meinke, M.

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Nguyen, T. H.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Oh, S.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

Park, H.

S. Lee, H. Park, S. Jang, and P. Yongkeun, “Refractive Index Tomograms and Dynamic Membrane Fluctuations of Red Blood Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus,” Blood 128, 4813 (2016).

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

Park, J.

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

Park, Y.

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Active illumination using a digital micromirror device for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5407–5410 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2, 343–346 (2015).

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pham, H.

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Popescu, G.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Solving inverse scattering problems in biological samples by quantitative phase imaging,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 13–39 (2016).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Shin, S.

So, P.

So, P. T. C.

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

Streibl, N.

Sung, Y.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

P. Hosseini, Y. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23(15), 19752–19762 (2015).
[PubMed]

P. Hosseini, Y. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23(15), 19752–19762 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung and R. R. Dasari, “Deterministic regularization of three-dimensional optical diffraction tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(8), 1554–1561 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[PubMed]

Suresh, S.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Tabin, C. J.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wiltschko, E.

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).

Yaqoob, Z.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

P. Hosseini, Y. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23(15), 19752–19762 (2015).
[PubMed]

P. Hosseini, Y. Sung, Y. Choi, N. Lue, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT),” Opt. Express 23(15), 19752–19762 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

Yongkeun, P.

S. Lee, H. Park, S. Jang, and P. Yongkeun, “Refractive Index Tomograms and Dynamic Membrane Fluctuations of Red Blood Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus,” Blood 128, 4813 (2016).

Yoon, H.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yoon, J.

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2, 343–346 (2015).

S. Shin, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Active illumination using a digital micromirror device for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5407–5410 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhou, R.

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Solving inverse scattering problems in biological samples by quantitative phase imaging,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 13–39 (2016).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, H. Pham, R. Zhou, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 57–119 (2014).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Blood (1)

S. Lee, H. Park, S. Jang, and P. Yongkeun, “Refractive Index Tomograms and Dynamic Membrane Fluctuations of Red Blood Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus,” Blood 128, 4813 (2016).

Cytometry A (1)

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y.-H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Solving inverse scattering problems in biological samples by quantitative phase imaging,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 13–39 (2016).

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Nature (1)

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

PLoS One (1)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Focus-tunable lens in limited-angle holographic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 10070, 1007009 (2017).

A. Kuś, W. Krauze, and M. Kujawińska, “Limited-angle holographic tomography with optically controlled projection generation,” Proc. SPIE 9330, 933007 (2015).

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2 (2016).

J. Cooper and R. Dooley, “Release on the IAPWS formulation 2008 for the viscosity of ordinary water substance,” The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic system setup. L1-L8, lenses (f1, 5, 8 = 200 mm, f2 = 125 mm, f3 = 150 mm, f4 = 350 mm, f6 = 75 mm, f7 = 300 mm); M1-M2, mirrors; D1-D2, digital micromirror devices (DMDs); OL1-OL2, objective lenses (Zeiss, 40X, oil immersion, NA = 1.3); SMFC, single-mode fiber coupler; BS, beam splitter. Inset shows the mask pattern displayed by D2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A comparison of diffraction noise removal performance. (a1)-(a3) show the raw interferogram of the 10 µm polystyrene bead, modulus of the Fourier transform of the interferogram and the correspondingly calculated phase image, respectively, with respect to the Zenith illumination angle of ~48° (in medium with RI of 1.337) when no spatial filtering is applied. (b1)-(b3) correspond to the case where an annular aperture is used. (c1)-(c3) correspond to the case where a mask pattern as proposed in this study is used. The color bars in (a2), (b2) and (c2) are in logarithm scale. The color bars in (a3), (b3) and (c3) are in radians.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional slices of a reconstructed RI tomogram of a 10 μm diameter polystyrene bead in x–z, x–y, and y–z planes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional slices of a reconstructed RI tomogram of a healthy human RBC in x–y, x–z, and y–z planes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional slices of a reconstructed RI tomogram of a HeLa cell in x–y, x–z, and y–z planes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Validation of the capability of high-speed 3D RI imaging. (a) shows the 3D trajectory of a 2 μm silicon dioxide bead in the water; (b) shows the corresponding MSD plot as a function of lag time and its fitted line by doing a linear regression.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ(f;g)= 1 2 n A n f g n 2 +αJ(f),
n(r)= n 0 1f(r)/ k 2 ,