Abstract

We report a long-distance phase-stabilized millimeter-wave distribution over optical fibers, where the optical-link-induced phase noise is compensated with a high-precision photonic-generated millimeter-wave (mm-wave) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The mm-wave VCO is realized based on pre-filtering and re-modulating optical spectral lines of an optical frequency comb (OFC). By adjusting the frequency spacing of the optical spectral lines extracted from the OFC, the phase error of the transmitted optical mm-wave signal can be compensated precisely. Using the mm-wave VCO, we demonstrate a distribution of a 100.02 GHz signal over spooled optical fibers and the fractional frequency instability of the system at different transmission distances is exhibited. The residual phase noise of the remote mm-wave signal after being transferred through a 160-km fiber link is measured to be −59 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz frequency offset from the carrier, and the RMS timing jitter in the frequency range from 0.01 Hz to 1 MHz reaches 62 fs. The long-term fractional frequency instability of 4.1 × 10−17 at 10000 s averaging time is achieved, and the maximum timing drift is within 0.93 ps (peak to peak) during 4 hours.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. J. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radio astronomy, maintaining femtosecond synchronization in Atacama large millimeter array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093113 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  14. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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  18. M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schuh and D. Behrend, “VLBI: A fascinating technique for geodesy and astrometry,” J. Geodyn. 61, 68–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

G. Marra, H. S. Margolis, and D. J. Richardson, “Dissemination of an optical frequency comb over fiber with 3 × 10-18 fractional accuracy,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1775–1782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Kiuchi, “Highly stable millimeter-wave signal distribution with an optical round-trip phase stabilizer,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(6), 1493–1500 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjlelker, “Stable photonic links for frequency and time transfer in the deep space network and antenna arrays,” Proc. IEEE 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radio astronomy, maintaining femtosecond synchronization in Atacama large millimeter array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. Beasley, R. Murowinski, and M. Tarenghi, “The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array: overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626702 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093113 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Shillue, “Photonic local oscillator system for the millimeter array,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 143–151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asari, K.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beasley, A. J.

A. J. Beasley, R. Murowinski, and M. Tarenghi, “The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array: overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626702 (2006).
[Crossref]

Behrend, D.

H. Schuh and D. Behrend, “VLBI: A fascinating technique for geodesy and astrometry,” J. Geodyn. 61, 68–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, J. L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L. S. Ma, “Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1459–1467 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brito, R.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

Calhoun, M.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjlelker, “Stable photonic links for frequency and time transfer in the deep space network and antenna arrays,” Proc. IEEE 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[Crossref]

Castro, J.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, Ch.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

Chen, W. L.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cliché, J.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

J. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radio astronomy, maintaining femtosecond synchronization in Atacama large millimeter array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref]

D’Addario, L.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Shillue, “Photonic local oscillator system for the millimeter array,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 143–151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Daussy, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Dong, Y.

Drouin, B. J.

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Emerson, D. T.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Shillue, “Photonic local oscillator system for the millimeter array,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 143–151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y. Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujieda, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, C.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, F. L.

Grammer, W.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

Hall, J. L.

Hara, T.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L. W.

Holman, K. W.

Hosokawa, M.

Hu, W.

Huang, S.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjlelker, “Stable photonic links for frequency and time transfer in the deep space network and antenna arrays,” Proc. IEEE 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jacques, C.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Kawano, N.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kerr, A. R.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Shillue, “Photonic local oscillator system for the millimeter array,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 143–151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kitching, J.

Kiuchi, H.

H. Kiuchi, “Highly stable millimeter-wave signal distribution with an optical round-trip phase stabilizer,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(6), 1493–1500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuji, S.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, K. Y.

Li, T. C.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ma, L. S.

Maiwald, F. W.

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Margolis, H. S.

Marra, G.

Masui, Y.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

Meadows, J.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

Miao, J.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakowski, J. A.

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Murowinski, R.

A. J. Beasley, R. Murowinski, and M. Tarenghi, “The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array: overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626702 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nagano, S.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narbonneau, F.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

Nishio, M.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

Payne, J. M.

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Shillue, “Photonic local oscillator system for the millimeter array,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 143–151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pearson, J. C.

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peng, J. L.

Prather, D. W.

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Robert, L. T.

Robertsson, L.

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schneider, G. J.

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schuetz, C. A.

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schuh, H.

H. Schuh and D. Behrend, “VLBI: A fascinating technique for geodesy and astrometry,” J. Geodyn. 61, 68–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, H.

Shi, S.

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shillue, B.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

J. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radio astronomy, maintaining femtosecond synchronization in Atacama large millimeter array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Shillue, “Photonic local oscillator system for the millimeter array,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 143–151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slavik, R.

Sun, D.

Swann, W. C.

Tarenghi, M.

A. J. Beasley, R. Murowinski, and M. Tarenghi, “The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array: overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626702 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tjlelker, R. L.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjlelker, “Stable photonic links for frequency and time transfer in the deep space network and antenna arrays,” Proc. IEEE 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[Crossref]

Treacy, R.

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

Wang, B.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. J.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Williams, P. A.

Wu, D. S.

Xia, Z.

Xie, W.

Ye, J.

Zhang, J. W.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10-18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 48(1), 35–41 (2008).

IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. (1)

J. Cliché and B. Shillue, “Precision timing control for radio astronomy, maintaining femtosecond synchronization in Atacama large millimeter array,” IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag. 26(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

K. Sato, T. Hara, S. Kuji, K. Asari, M. Nishio, and N. Kawano, “Development of an ultrastable fiber optic frequency distribution system using an optical delay control module [for frequency standard and VLBI],” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49(1), 19–24 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

H. Kiuchi, “Highly stable millimeter-wave signal distribution with an optical round-trip phase stabilizer,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(6), 1493–1500 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Geodyn. (1)

H. Schuh and D. Behrend, “VLBI: A fascinating technique for geodesy and astrometry,” J. Geodyn. 61, 68–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 118–122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjlelker, “Stable photonic links for frequency and time transfer in the deep space network and antenna arrays,” Proc. IEEE 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. J. Beasley, R. Murowinski, and M. Tarenghi, “The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array: overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 626702 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Payne, L. D’Addario, D. T. Emerson, A. R. Kerr, and B. Shillue, “Photonic local oscillator system for the millimeter array,” Proc. SPIE 3357, 143–151 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(6), 064701 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. J. Drouin, F. W. Maiwald, and J. C. Pearson, “Application of cascaded frequency multiplication to molecular spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(9), 093113 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, “Precise and continuous time and frequency synchronisation at the 5×10−19 accuracy level,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 556 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

SPIE (1)

B. Shillue, W. Grammer, C. Jacques, R. Brito, J. Meadows, J. Castro, Y. Masui, R. Treacy, and J. Cliché, “The ALMA photonic local oscillator system,” SPIE 8452, 8452161 (2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set up for the phase-stabilized millimeter-wave signal distribution system based on the photonic generated mm-wave VCO. OFCG, optical frequency comb generator; mm-wave, millimeter-wave; PMC, polarization-maintaining coupler; EDFA, erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier; OBPF, optical bandpass filter; MZM, Mach-Zehnder modulator; SSBM, single sideband modulator; VCO, voltage controlled oscillator; IF, intermediate frequency; LF, loop filter; PFD, digital phase and frequency detector; AOFS, acousto-optic frequency shifter; SSMF, standard single-mode fiber; DHPT, dual heterodyne phase error transfer; PD, photo-detector; PC, polarization controller; PT, polarization tracker; OC, optical coupler; C, circulator; M, mixer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single sideband phase noise (a) and fractional frequency instability (b) of the phase locked transmission system in conditions of 1 m (black), 100 km (red), 120 km (blue), 140 km (dark cyan) and 160 km (magenta) fiber link (500 Hz measurement frequency bandwidth). The inset in the Fig. 2(a) shows optical spectrum of the under-tested 100.02 GHz signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Timing drift of the remote 100.02 GHz signal in 100 km free-running and 100 km, 120 km, 140 km, 160 km phase-locked transmission system. (b) Magnified plot of timing drift in the phase locked transmission system. The inset in Fig. 3(a) shows the detailed timing drift in 100 km free running system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fractional frequency instability of phase locked 120 km (black squares), 160 km (blue triangles) transmission system with the mm-wave VCO and phase locked 120 km transmission system with the AOFS-based concept [20] (red circles). (b) The transmission induced RMS timing jitter of phase locked system with the mm-wave VCO (pink diamonds) and the AOFS-based concept (olive stars).

Equations (5)

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E mmVCO ( t )=exp{ j[ ( ω s 2 ω RF ω VCO )t φ v ( t ) ] } +exp{ j[ ( ω s +2 ω RF + ω VCO )t+ φ v ( t ) ] },
I mm ( t )=cos[ ( 4 ω RF +2 ω VCO )t+ φ p ( t )+2 φ v ( t ) ],
I 40MHz ( t )=cos[ 4 ω VCO t+2( φ p ( t )+2 φ v ( t ) ) ],
E error ( t )=4 φ Rb [ 2 φ p ( t )+4 φ v ( t ) ],
I mm ( t )=cos[ ( 4 ω RF +2 ω VCO )t+2 φ Rb ],

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