Abstract

We propose and develop an intensity-detection-based refractive-index (RI) sensor for low-cost, rapid RI sensing. The sensor is composed of a polymer bent ridge waveguide (BRWG) structure on a low-cost glass substrate and is integrated with a microfluidic channel. Different-RI solutions flowing through the BRWG sensing region induce output optical power variations caused by optical bend losses, enabling simple and real-time RI detection. Additionally, the sensors are fabricated using rapid and cost-effective vacuum-less processes, attaining the low cost and high throughput required for mass production. A good RI solution of 5.31 10−4 × RIU−1 is achieved from the RI experiments. This study demonstrates mass-producible and compact RI sensors for rapid and sensitive chemical analysis and biomedical sensing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

Y.-C. Lin, W.-H. Hsieh, L.-K. Chau, and G.-E. Chang, “Intensity-detection-based guided-mode-resonance optofluidic biosensing system for rapid, low-cost, label-free detection,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 250, 659–666 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

C.-W. Wu, C.-Y. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, and L.-K. Chau, “Self-referencing fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensing system for real-time biological monitoring,” Talanta 146, 291–298 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Dai, and Y. Duan, “Fiber optic surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: Fabrication, advancement, and application,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 46, 213–223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Puiu and C. Bala, “SPR and SPR imaging: Recent trends in developing nanodevices for detection and real-time monitoring of biomolecular events,” Sensors 16, 870 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Toccafondo and C. J. Oton, “Robust and low-cost interrogation technique for integrated photonic biochemical sensors based on mach-zehnder interferometers,” Photon. Res. 4, 57–60 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Singh, “SPR biosensors: Historical perspectives and current challenges,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 229, 110–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

H. H. Nguyen, J. Park, S. Kang, and M. Kim, “Surface plasmon resonance: A versatile technique for biosensor applications,” Sensors 15, 10481–10510 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Hermannsson, K. T. Sørensen, C. Vannahme, C. L. Smith, J. J. Klein, M.-M. Russew, G. Grützner, and A. Kristensen, “All-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor,” Opt. Express 23, 16529–16539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Ku, H.-Y. Li, W.-H. Hsieh, L.-K. Chau, and G.-E. Chang, “Enhanced sensitivity in injection-molded guided-mode-resonance sensors via low-index cavity layers,” Opt. Express 23, 14850–14859 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

Y. Fu, T. Ye, W. Tang, and T. Chu, “Efficient adiabatic silicon-on-insulator waveguide taper,” Photon. Res. 2, A41–A44 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-F. Lin, F.-C. Chang, Z.-H. Chen, C.-M. Wang, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A polarization control system for intensity-resolved guided mode resonance sensors,” Sensors 14, 5198–5206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dante, D. Duval, B. Sepúlveda, A. B. González-Guerrero, J. R. Sendra, and L. M. Lechuga, “All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors,” Opt. Express 20, 7195–7205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. I. Lapsley, I.-K. Chiang, Y. B. Zheng, X. Ding, X. Mao, and T. J. Huang, “A single-layer, planar, optofluidic mach-zehnder interferometer for label-free detection,” Lab Chip 11, 1795–1800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Malic, M. G. Sandros, and M. Tabrizian, “Designed biointerface using near-infrared quantum dots for ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 83, 5222–5229 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-T. Hsu, W.-H. Hsieh, S.-F. Cheng, C.-P. Jen, C.-C. Wu, C.-H. Li, C.-Y. Lee, W.-Y. Li, L.-K. Chau, C.-Y. Chiang, and S.-R. Lyu, “Integration of fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance biosensor with microfluidic chip,” Anal. Chim. Acta 697, 75–82 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “The photonic integration of non-solid media using optofluidics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 598–604 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photon. 5, 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

A. D. Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33–52 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

L.-K. Chau, Y.-F. Lin, S.-F. Cheng, and T.-J. Lin, “Fiber-optic chemical and biochemical probes based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 113, 100–105 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Domachuk, I. C. M. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact resonant integrated microfluidic refractometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. S. Burke, L. Polerecky, and B. D. MacCraith, “Design and fabrication of enhanced polymer waveguide platforms for absorption-based optical chemical sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1140 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. N. Bashkatov and E. A. Genina, “Water Refractive Index in Dependence on Temperature and Wavelength: a Simple Approximation,” Proc. SPIE 5068, 393–395. (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Voros, J. Ramsden, G. Csucs, I. Szendro, S. D. Paul, M. Textor, and N. Spencer, “Optical grating coupler biosensors,” Biomaterials 23, 3699–3710 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-M. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. H. Santos, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, “Prism-coupled multimode waveguide refractometer,” Opt. Lett. 27, 689–691 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Agarwal, A.

Aitchison, J. S.

Bahrami, F.

Bala, C.

M. Puiu and C. Bala, “SPR and SPR imaging: Recent trends in developing nanodevices for detection and real-time monitoring of biomolecular events,” Sensors 16, 870 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baldini, F.

S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barillaro, G.

S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov and E. A. Genina, “Water Refractive Index in Dependence on Temperature and Wavelength: a Simple Approximation,” Proc. SPIE 5068, 393–395. (2003).
[Crossref]

Block, I. D.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bog, U.

Burke, C. S.

C. S. Burke, L. Polerecky, and B. D. MacCraith, “Design and fabrication of enhanced polymer waveguide platforms for absorption-based optical chemical sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1140 (2004).
[Crossref]

Carlie, N.

Carpignano, F.

S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, F.-C.

S.-F. Lin, F.-C. Chang, Z.-H. Chen, C.-M. Wang, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A polarization control system for intensity-resolved guided mode resonance sensors,” Sensors 14, 5198–5206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, G.-E.

Y.-C. Lin, W.-H. Hsieh, L.-K. Chau, and G.-E. Chang, “Intensity-detection-based guided-mode-resonance optofluidic biosensing system for rapid, low-cost, label-free detection,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 250, 659–666 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Ku, H.-Y. Li, W.-H. Hsieh, L.-K. Chau, and G.-E. Chang, “Enhanced sensitivity in injection-molded guided-mode-resonance sensors via low-index cavity layers,” Opt. Express 23, 14850–14859 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J.-Y.

S.-F. Lin, F.-C. Chang, Z.-H. Chen, C.-M. Wang, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A polarization control system for intensity-resolved guided mode resonance sensors,” Sensors 14, 5198–5206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chau, L.-K.

Y.-C. Lin, W.-H. Hsieh, L.-K. Chau, and G.-E. Chang, “Intensity-detection-based guided-mode-resonance optofluidic biosensing system for rapid, low-cost, label-free detection,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 250, 659–666 (2017).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Wu, C.-Y. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, and L.-K. Chau, “Self-referencing fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensing system for real-time biological monitoring,” Talanta 146, 291–298 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Ku, H.-Y. Li, W.-H. Hsieh, L.-K. Chau, and G.-E. Chang, “Enhanced sensitivity in injection-molded guided-mode-resonance sensors via low-index cavity layers,” Opt. Express 23, 14850–14859 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-T. Hsu, W.-H. Hsieh, S.-F. Cheng, C.-P. Jen, C.-C. Wu, C.-H. Li, C.-Y. Lee, W.-Y. Li, L.-K. Chau, C.-Y. Chiang, and S.-R. Lyu, “Integration of fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance biosensor with microfluidic chip,” Anal. Chim. Acta 697, 75–82 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-K. Chau, Y.-F. Lin, S.-F. Cheng, and T.-J. Lin, “Fiber-optic chemical and biochemical probes based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 113, 100–105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-H.

C.-W. Wu, C.-Y. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, and L.-K. Chau, “Self-referencing fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensing system for real-time biological monitoring,” Talanta 146, 291–298 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-Y.

S.-F. Lin, F.-C. Chang, Z.-H. Chen, C.-M. Wang, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A polarization control system for intensity-resolved guided mode resonance sensors,” Sensors 14, 5198–5206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-L.

H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-H.

S.-F. Lin, F.-C. Chang, Z.-H. Chen, C.-M. Wang, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A polarization control system for intensity-resolved guided mode resonance sensors,” Sensors 14, 5198–5206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.-F.

W.-T. Hsu, W.-H. Hsieh, S.-F. Cheng, C.-P. Jen, C.-C. Wu, C.-H. Li, C.-Y. Lee, W.-Y. Li, L.-K. Chau, C.-Y. Chiang, and S.-R. Lyu, “Integration of fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance biosensor with microfluidic chip,” Anal. Chim. Acta 697, 75–82 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-K. Chau, Y.-F. Lin, S.-F. Cheng, and T.-J. Lin, “Fiber-optic chemical and biochemical probes based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 113, 100–105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chiang, C.-S.

C.-W. Wu, C.-Y. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, and L.-K. Chau, “Self-referencing fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensing system for real-time biological monitoring,” Talanta 146, 291–298 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiang, C.-Y.

C.-W. Wu, C.-Y. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, and L.-K. Chau, “Self-referencing fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensing system for real-time biological monitoring,” Talanta 146, 291–298 (2016).
[Crossref]

W.-T. Hsu, W.-H. Hsieh, S.-F. Cheng, C.-P. Jen, C.-C. Wu, C.-H. Li, C.-Y. Lee, W.-Y. Li, L.-K. Chau, C.-Y. Chiang, and S.-R. Lyu, “Integration of fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance biosensor with microfluidic chip,” Anal. Chim. Acta 697, 75–82 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, I.-K.

M. I. Lapsley, I.-K. Chiang, Y. B. Zheng, X. Ding, X. Mao, and T. J. Huang, “A single-layer, planar, optofluidic mach-zehnder interferometer for label-free detection,” Lab Chip 11, 1795–1800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Photonic Devices (Wiley, 2009), 2nd ed.

Cordovez, B.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33–52 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

P. Domachuk, I. C. M. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact resonant integrated microfluidic refractometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[Crossref]

Csucs, G.

J. Voros, J. Ramsden, G. Csucs, I. Szendro, S. D. Paul, M. Textor, and N. Spencer, “Optical grating coupler biosensors,” Biomaterials 23, 3699–3710 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

G. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Dai, and Y. Duan, “Fiber optic surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: Fabrication, advancement, and application,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 46, 213–223 (2016).
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L.-K. Chau, Y.-F. Lin, S.-F. Cheng, and T.-J. Lin, “Fiber-optic chemical and biochemical probes based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 113, 100–105 (2006).
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G. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Dai, and Y. Duan, “Fiber optic surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: Fabrication, advancement, and application,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 46, 213–223 (2016).
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H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
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G. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Dai, and Y. Duan, “Fiber optic surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: Fabrication, advancement, and application,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 46, 213–223 (2016).
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W.-T. Hsu, W.-H. Hsieh, S.-F. Cheng, C.-P. Jen, C.-C. Wu, C.-H. Li, C.-Y. Lee, W.-Y. Li, L.-K. Chau, C.-Y. Chiang, and S.-R. Lyu, “Integration of fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance biosensor with microfluidic chip,” Anal. Chim. Acta 697, 75–82 (2011).
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D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33–52 (2008).
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M. I. Lapsley, I.-K. Chiang, Y. B. Zheng, X. Ding, X. Mao, and T. J. Huang, “A single-layer, planar, optofluidic mach-zehnder interferometer for label-free detection,” Lab Chip 11, 1795–1800 (2011).
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S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
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H. H. Nguyen, J. Park, S. Kang, and M. Kim, “Surface plasmon resonance: A versatile technique for biosensor applications,” Sensors 15, 10481–10510 (2015).
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A. D. Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
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H. H. Nguyen, J. Park, S. Kang, and M. Kim, “Surface plasmon resonance: A versatile technique for biosensor applications,” Sensors 15, 10481–10510 (2015).
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G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (Wiley, 2004).
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R. Robelek and J. Wegener, “Label-free and time-resolved measurements of cell volume changes by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1221–1224 (2010).
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S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
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S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
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J. Voros, J. Ramsden, G. Csucs, I. Szendro, S. D. Paul, M. Textor, and N. Spencer, “Optical grating coupler biosensors,” Biomaterials 23, 3699–3710 (2002).
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R. Robelek and J. Wegener, “Label-free and time-resolved measurements of cell volume changes by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1221–1224 (2010).
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X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photon. 5, 591–597 (2011).
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W.-T. Hsu, W.-H. Hsieh, S.-F. Cheng, C.-P. Jen, C.-C. Wu, C.-H. Li, C.-Y. Lee, W.-Y. Li, L.-K. Chau, C.-Y. Chiang, and S.-R. Lyu, “Integration of fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance biosensor with microfluidic chip,” Anal. Chim. Acta 697, 75–82 (2011).
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C.-W. Wu, C.-Y. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, and L.-K. Chau, “Self-referencing fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensing system for real-time biological monitoring,” Talanta 146, 291–298 (2016).
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Yamamoto, M.

Yang, A. H. J.

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33–52 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature 442, 381–386 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T.-H.

S.-F. Lin, F.-C. Chang, Z.-H. Chen, C.-M. Wang, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A polarization control system for intensity-resolved guided mode resonance sensors,” Sensors 14, 5198–5206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, T.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, and B. T. Cunningham, “High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 131, 279–284 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y. B.

M. I. Lapsley, I.-K. Chiang, Y. B. Zheng, X. Ding, X. Mao, and T. J. Huang, “A single-layer, planar, optofluidic mach-zehnder interferometer for label-free detection,” Lab Chip 11, 1795–1800 (2011).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

L. Malic, M. G. Sandros, and M. Tabrizian, “Designed biointerface using near-infrared quantum dots for ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 83, 5222–5229 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

W.-T. Hsu, W.-H. Hsieh, S.-F. Cheng, C.-P. Jen, C.-C. Wu, C.-H. Li, C.-Y. Lee, W.-Y. Li, L.-K. Chau, C.-Y. Chiang, and S.-R. Lyu, “Integration of fiber optic-particle plasmon resonance biosensor with microfluidic chip,” Anal. Chim. Acta 697, 75–82 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Domachuk, I. C. M. Littler, M. Cronin-Golomb, and B. J. Eggleton, “Compact resonant integrated microfluidic refractometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093513 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. D. Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 063503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biomaterials (1)

J. Voros, J. Ramsden, G. Csucs, I. Szendro, S. D. Paul, M. Textor, and N. Spencer, “Optical grating coupler biosensors,” Biomaterials 23, 3699–3710 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

R. Robelek and J. Wegener, “Label-free and time-resolved measurements of cell volume changes by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25, 1221–1224 (2010).
[Crossref]

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

G. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Dai, and Y. Duan, “Fiber optic surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: Fabrication, advancement, and application,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 46, 213–223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lab Chip (2)

M. I. Lapsley, I.-K. Chiang, Y. B. Zheng, X. Ding, X. Mao, and T. J. Huang, “A single-layer, planar, optofluidic mach-zehnder interferometer for label-free detection,” Lab Chip 11, 1795–1800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Surdo, S. Merlo, F. Carpignano, L. M. Strambini, C. Trono, A. Giannetti, F. Baldini, and G. Barillaro, “Optofluidic microsystems with integrated vertical one-dimensional photonic crystals for chemical analysis,” Lab Chip 12, 4403–4415 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. S. Burke, L. Polerecky, and B. D. MacCraith, “Design and fabrication of enhanced polymer waveguide platforms for absorption-based optical chemical sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1140 (2004).
[Crossref]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

D. Erickson, S. Mandal, A. H. J. Yang, and B. Cordovez, “Nanobiosensors: optofluidic, electrical and mechanical approaches to biomolecular detection at the nanoscale,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 33–52 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (2)

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “The photonic integration of non-solid media using optofluidics,” Nat. Photon. 5, 598–604 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Nature (1)

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Photon. Res. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

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H.-Y. Li, W.-C. Hsu, K.-C. Liu, Y.-L. Chen, L.-K. Chau, S. Hsieh, and W.-H. Hsieh, “A low cost, label-free biosensor based on a novel double-sided grating waveguide coupler with sub-surface cavities,” Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 206, 371–380 (2015).
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C.-W. Wu, C.-Y. Chiang, C.-H. Chen, C.-S. Chiang, C.-T. Wang, and L.-K. Chau, “Self-referencing fiber optic particle plasmon resonance sensing system for real-time biological monitoring,” Talanta 146, 291–298 (2016).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the proposed optofluidic waveguide refractive-index sensor, consisting of a tapered waveguide structure, bent waveguide sensing region, an output straight waveguide section, and microfluidic module.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabrication processes of the optofluidic waveguide refractive-index sensors integrated with microfluidic module.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterization of the polymer waveguide refractive-index sensors. (a) Measured topography of the SU8 straight waveguide structure, exhibiting a sharp and clear ridge structure. (b) Surface morphology of the waveguide along the X-direction, showing a flat surface of the SU-8 ridge waveguide. (c) Optical image of the SU-8 straight waveguide coupled with green light source, showing clear waveguiding behavior. (d) Optical image of the fabricated sensor chip.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the transmission measurement system for the fabricated optofluidic waveguide refractive-index sensors.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Real-time responses of the sensing system for solutions with different refractive indices (RIs). The inset shows the emission spectrum of the LED light source. (b) Calibration curves of the normalized average intensities and the RI of the sample solutions. The mean values and error bars (represents the standard deviation) are obtained from six experiments using three different RI sensor chips.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated intensity distribution of the fundamental mode for the waveguide structure with w = 10 µm and t = 24 µm, clearly showing optical confinement of light. (b) Simulated normalized field distribution of the bent ridge waveguide structures for different bending angles. The waveguide width and thickness are w = 1 µm and t = 24 µm, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Calculated transmittances and (b) normalized transmittances as a function of refractive index of the solution for the bent ridge waveguide structure with different bending angles. (c) Calculated normalized sensitivity as a function of waveguide width and bending angle. The normalized sensitivity is more pronounced for narrow waveguide width and larger bending angle.

Equations (5)

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S n = d d n [ I avg ( n ) I 0 ]
R s = | σ S n |
T ( n ) = I out ( n ) I in
S n = d d n [ T ( n ) T 0 ]
n ( λ ) = 1.3199 + 6878 λ 2 1.132 × 10 9 λ 4 + 1.11 × 10 14 λ 6

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