Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an adjustable all-fiber comb filter with precisely controlled channel spacing by employing a tapered fiber in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the first time. Using fused taper technology to draw the fiber, we can precisely control the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI, thus realizing a precisely controllable channel spacing. By rotating the polarization controller state in the other arm of the MZI, the transmission spectrum wavelength can be continuously tuned. Comb filters with controllable channel spacings from 0.2 to 3.0 nm have been numerically studied and achieved in experiment. Applications of a filter based on a multi-wavelength tunable all-fiber laser source are also demonstrated.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2017 (8)

H. He, L. Shao, H. Qian, X. Zhang, J. Liang, B. Luo, W. Pan, and L. Yan, “Novel birefringence interrogation for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor with unlimited linear measurement range,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6832–6839 (2017).
[PubMed]

X. M. Tan, H. J. Chen, H. Cui, Y. K. Lv, G. K. Zhao, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Tunable and switchable dual-waveband ultrafast fiber laser with 100 GHz repetition-rate,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16291–16299 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Jung and Y. W. Lee, “Continuously wavelength-tunable passband-flattened fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversified loop structure,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8311 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Jung and Y. W. Lee, “Continuously tunable polarization-independent zeroth-order fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversity loop structure,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 106 (2017).

D. A. Korobko, A. A. Fotiadi, and I. O. Zolotovskii, “Mode-locking evolution in ring fiber lasers with tunable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21180–21190 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Tian, M. Quan, and Y. Yao, “Tunable multiwavelength Er-doped fiber laser with a two-stage Lyot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 287–290 (2017).

P. Chen, X. Shu, and K. Sugden, “Ultra-compact all-in-fiber-core Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 42(20), 4059–4062 (2017).
[PubMed]

P. Schneeweiss, S. Zeiger, T. Hoinkes, A. Rauschenbeutel, and J. Volz, “Fiber ring resonator with a nanofiber section for chiral cavity quantum electrodynamics and multimode strong coupling,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 85–88 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (2)

S. Sengupta and S. K. Ghorai, “Ultra-narrow band optical comb filter using Gaussian-sampled fiber Bragg grating with periodic chirp effect,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(10), 482 (2016).

L. Huang, P. Chang, X. Song, W. Peng, W. Zhang, F. Gao, F. Bo, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer driven by unique acoustic transducer and its application in tunable multi-wavelength laser,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2406–2412 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (2)

S. Jo, Y. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Study on transmission and output polarization characteristics of a first-order Lyot-type fiber comb filter using polarization-diversity loop,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 7801015 (2015).

Y. Li, M. Quan, J. Tian, and Y. Yao, “Tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear optical loop mirror and birefringence fiber filter,” Appl. Phys. B 119(2), 363–370 (2015).

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

W. Jin, C. Wang, H. Xuan, and W. Jin, “Tunable comb filters and refractive index sensors based on fiber loop mirror with inline high birefringence microfiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4277–4280 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Kim and Y. W. Lee, “Study on spectral deviations of high-order optical fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversity loop configuration,” Opt. Commun. 301–302, 159–163 (2013).

2011 (2)

A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Multiwavelength switchable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a PBS-based Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 197–202 (2011).

Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter using a PBS-based two-stage cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4167–4170 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

D. R. Chen, H. Fu, H. Ou, and S. Qin, “Wavelength-spacing continuously tunable multi-wavelength SOA-fiber ring laser based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(2), 278–281 (2008).

2007 (2)

D. Chen, H. Ou, H. Fu, S. Qin, and S. Gao, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(4), 287–290 (2007).

D. Chen, S. Qin, and S. He, “Channel-spacing-tunable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser with hybrid Raman and Erbium-doped fiber gains,” Opt. Express 15(3), 930–935 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

J. Magné, P. Giaccari, S. LaRochelle, J. Azaña, and L. R. Chen, “All-fiber comb filter with tunable free spectral range,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2062–2064 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. Kwon, Y. Jeon, and B. Lee, “Tunable dispersion compensation with fixed center wavelength and bandwidth using a side-polished linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 159–166 (2005).

2004 (2)

H. Lee and G. P. Agrawal, “Add–drop multiplexers and interleavers with broad-band chromatic dispersion compensation based on purely phase-sampled fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 635–637 (2004).

K. Lee, M. Fok, S. Wan, and C. Shu, “Optically controlled Sagnac loop comb filter,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6335–6340 (2004).
[PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelength-switched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F–P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).

R. M. Sova, C. Kim, and J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 287–289 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

H. L. An, X. Z. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. D. Liu, “Multi-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a dual-pass Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” Opt. Commun. 169(1), 159–165 (1999).

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).

1986 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

H. Lee and G. P. Agrawal, “Add–drop multiplexers and interleavers with broad-band chromatic dispersion compensation based on purely phase-sampled fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 635–637 (2004).

An, H. L.

H. L. An, X. Z. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. D. Liu, “Multi-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a dual-pass Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” Opt. Commun. 169(1), 159–165 (1999).

Azaña, J.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000).
[PubMed]

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).

Bo, F.

Boucouvalas, A. C.

Chan, C. C.

Chang, P.

Chen, D.

D. Chen, S. Qin, and S. He, “Channel-spacing-tunable multi-wavelength fiber ring laser with hybrid Raman and Erbium-doped fiber gains,” Opt. Express 15(3), 930–935 (2007).
[PubMed]

D. Chen, H. Ou, H. Fu, S. Qin, and S. Gao, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(4), 287–290 (2007).

Chen, D. R.

D. R. Chen, H. Fu, H. Ou, and S. Qin, “Wavelength-spacing continuously tunable multi-wavelength SOA-fiber ring laser based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(2), 278–281 (2008).

Chen, H. J.

Chen, L. R.

Chen, P.

Cui, H.

Dong, X.

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3288–3293 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelength-switched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F–P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).

Fok, M.

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok, C. Shu, and W. W. Tang, “A cascadable approach to produce widely selectable spectral spacing in birefringent comb filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(18), 1937–1939 (2006).

Fotiadi, A. A.

Fu, H.

D. R. Chen, H. Fu, H. Ou, and S. Qin, “Wavelength-spacing continuously tunable multi-wavelength SOA-fiber ring laser based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(2), 278–281 (2008).

D. Chen, H. Ou, H. Fu, S. Qin, and S. Gao, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(4), 287–290 (2007).

Gao, F.

Gao, S.

D. Chen, H. Ou, H. Fu, S. Qin, and S. Gao, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(4), 287–290 (2007).

Georgiou, G.

Ghorai, S. K.

S. Sengupta and S. K. Ghorai, “Ultra-narrow band optical comb filter using Gaussian-sampled fiber Bragg grating with periodic chirp effect,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(10), 482 (2016).

Giaccari, P.

He, H.

He, S.

Hoinkes, T.

Huang, L.

Jeon, Y.

J. Kwon, Y. Jeon, and B. Lee, “Tunable dispersion compensation with fixed center wavelength and bandwidth using a side-polished linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 159–166 (2005).

Jin, W.

Jo, S.

S. Jo, Y. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Study on transmission and output polarization characteristics of a first-order Lyot-type fiber comb filter using polarization-diversity loop,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 7801015 (2015).

Jung, J.

J. Jung and Y. W. Lee, “Continuously tunable polarization-independent zeroth-order fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversity loop structure,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 106 (2017).

J. Jung and Y. W. Lee, “Continuously wavelength-tunable passband-flattened fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversified loop structure,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8311 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kai, G.

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelength-switched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F–P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).

Kang, J. U.

R. M. Sova, C. Kim, and J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 287–289 (2002).

Kashiwagi, K.

Kieu, K.

Kim, C.

R. M. Sova, C. Kim, and J. U. Kang, “Tunable dual-wavelength all-PM fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(3), 287–289 (2002).

Kim, Y.

S. Jo, Y. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Study on transmission and output polarization characteristics of a first-order Lyot-type fiber comb filter using polarization-diversity loop,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 7801015 (2015).

Y. Kim and Y. W. Lee, “Study on spectral deviations of high-order optical fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversity loop configuration,” Opt. Commun. 301–302, 159–163 (2013).

Korobko, D. A.

Kwon, J.

J. Kwon, Y. Jeon, and B. Lee, “Tunable dispersion compensation with fixed center wavelength and bandwidth using a side-polished linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 159–166 (2005).

LaRochelle, S.

Lee, B.

J. Kwon, Y. Jeon, and B. Lee, “Tunable dispersion compensation with fixed center wavelength and bandwidth using a side-polished linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11(2), 159–166 (2005).

Lee, H.

H. Lee and G. P. Agrawal, “Add–drop multiplexers and interleavers with broad-band chromatic dispersion compensation based on purely phase-sampled fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 635–637 (2004).

Lee, K.

Lee, Y. W.

J. Jung and Y. W. Lee, “Continuously wavelength-tunable passband-flattened fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversified loop structure,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8311 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Jung and Y. W. Lee, “Continuously tunable polarization-independent zeroth-order fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversity loop structure,” Appl. Phys. B 123(4), 106 (2017).

S. Jo, Y. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Study on transmission and output polarization characteristics of a first-order Lyot-type fiber comb filter using polarization-diversity loop,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 7801015 (2015).

Y. Kim and Y. W. Lee, “Study on spectral deviations of high-order optical fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversity loop configuration,” Opt. Commun. 301–302, 159–163 (2013).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, J. Tian, M. Quan, and Y. Yao, “Tunable multiwavelength Er-doped fiber laser with a two-stage Lyot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 287–290 (2017).

Y. Li, M. Quan, J. Tian, and Y. Yao, “Tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear optical loop mirror and birefringence fiber filter,” Appl. Phys. B 119(2), 363–370 (2015).

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).

Li, Z.

S. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Liao, G. Wang, Z. Li, Q. Wang, J. Zhou, K. Yang, X. Zhong, J. Zhao, and J. Tang, “High-sensitivity strain sensor based on in-fiber improved Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2121–2124 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelength-switched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F–P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).

Liang, J.

Liao, C.

Lin, X. Z.

H. L. An, X. Z. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. D. Liu, “Multi-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a dual-pass Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” Opt. Commun. 169(1), 159–165 (1999).

Liu, H. D.

H. L. An, X. Z. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. D. Liu, “Multi-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a dual-pass Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” Opt. Commun. 169(1), 159–165 (1999).

Liu, S.

Luo, A.

A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Multiwavelength switchable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a PBS-based Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 197–202 (2011).

Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter using a PBS-based two-stage cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4167–4170 (2011).

Luo, A. P.

Luo, B.

Luo, Z.

A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Multiwavelength switchable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a PBS-based Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 197–202 (2011).

Z. Luo, A. Luo, and W. Xu, “Tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter using a PBS-based two-stage cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4167–4170 (2011).

Luo, Z. C.

Lv, Y. K.

Magné, J.

Mansuripur, M.

Ngo, N. Q.

Ou, H.

D. R. Chen, H. Fu, H. Ou, and S. Qin, “Wavelength-spacing continuously tunable multi-wavelength SOA-fiber ring laser based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(2), 278–281 (2008).

D. Chen, H. Ou, H. Fu, S. Qin, and S. Gao, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(4), 287–290 (2007).

Pan, W.

Peng, W.

Pun, E. Y. B.

H. L. An, X. Z. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, and H. D. Liu, “Multi-wavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a dual-pass Mach–Zehnder comb filter,” Opt. Commun. 169(1), 159–165 (1999).

Qian, H.

Qin, S.

D. R. Chen, H. Fu, H. Ou, and S. Qin, “Wavelength-spacing continuously tunable multi-wavelength SOA-fiber ring laser based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(2), 278–281 (2008).

D. Chen, H. Ou, H. Fu, S. Qin, and S. Gao, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(4), 287–290 (2007).

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S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelength-switched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F–P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).

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S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelength-switched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F–P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).

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Opt. Lett. (8)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Sengupta and S. K. Ghorai, “Ultra-narrow band optical comb filter using Gaussian-sampled fiber Bragg grating with periodic chirp effect,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(10), 482 (2016).

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J. Jung and Y. W. Lee, “Continuously wavelength-tunable passband-flattened fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversified loop structure,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8311 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed comb filter with a PC1 in one arm and a segment of tapered fiber in the other.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated tunable transmission spectrum location of the MZI comb filters with channel spacings of 0.8 nm (a) and 0.4 nm (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The optical transmission spectra of the MZI comb filter with channel spacings of 3.0 nm (with 0.1-nm resolution), 1.0 nm (with 0.05-nm resolution), 0.6 nm (with 0.02-nm resolution), and 0.2 nm (with 0.01-nm resolution) (a), the channel spacing versus optical path difference (b), and the oscillations of transmitted optical power during the taper heating-pulling process (c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The tunable transmission spectra (with 0.05-nm resolution) of the MZI comb filter with channel spacings of 0.8 nm (a) and 0.4 nm (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the proposed multi-wavelength fiber laser. 1480 nm pump laser: a 1480-nm Raman fiber laser, WDM: wavelength division multiplexer, EDF: erbium-doped fiber, SMF: single mode fiber, MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer, PI-ISO: polarization-insensitive isolator, PC1 and PC2: polarization controllers, OC1: 10:90 output coupler; 3-dB OC2 and 3-dB OC3: 50:50 output couplers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The output spectra of the proposed fiber laser with a 0.8-nm comb filter. (a) The spectra with different pump powers. (b) The spectra with tunable multi-wavelength operation.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The output spectra of the proposed fiber laser with a 0.4-nm comb filter. (a) The spectrum at a pump power of 33 dBm. (b) The spectra with tunable multi-wavelength operation.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ [ E out1 ] [ E out2 ] ]=[ C 2 ][ [ M 1 ][ P ] 0 0 [ M 2 ] ][ C 1 ][ [ E in1 ] [ E in2 ] ]
[ C 1 ]=[ C 2 ]= 2 2 [ 1 i i 1 ]
[ P ]=[ cosα sinα sinα cosα ]
[ M 1 ]=[ exp(ik n x L) 0 0 exp(ik n y L) ]
[ M 2 ]=[ expi(k n x L+ φ x ) 0 0 expi(k n y L+ φ y ) ]
T= | E out1 | 2 | E in1 | 2 + | E in2 | 2 = 1 2 (1cos(α+θ)cosθcos φ x sin(α+θ)sinθcos φ y )
φ x = 2π λ n x ΔL, φ y = 2π λ n y ΔL

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