Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of higher-order modulation formats using silicon-based inphase/quadrature (IQ) modulators at symbol rates of up to 100 GBd. Our devices exploit the advantages of silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) integration, which combines silicon-on-insulator waveguides with highly efficient organic electro-optic (EO) cladding materials to enable small drive voltages and sub-millimeter device lengths. In our experiments, we use an SOH IQ modulator with a π-voltage of 1.6 V to generate 100 GBd 16QAM signals. This is the first time that the 100 GBd mark is reached with an IQ modulator realized on a semiconductor substrate, leading to a single-polarization line rate of 400 Gbit/s. The peak-to-peak drive voltages amount to 1.5 Vpp, corresponding to an electrical energy dissipation in the modulator of only 25 fJ/bit.

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2017 (3)

2016 (4)

2015 (5)

2014 (6)

2013 (2)

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

2012 (4)

J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
[PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

2011 (3)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1, 042137 (2011).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (5)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[PubMed]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity Limits of Optical Fiber Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).

2008 (2)

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 804–817 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

2004 (1)

1993 (1)

Aaron, Z.

Alloatti, L.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Altenhain, L.

Andrekson, P.

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Chen, “Monolithic Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Compact 100+Gb/s Coherent Optical Receivers and Transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Awaji, Y.

Azadeh, S. S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Baets, R.

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Barklund, A.

Barrios, C. A.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Bielik, A.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Block, B. a.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bojko, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Bolten, J.

Bosshard, C.

Boyko, B.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Buca, D.

Buchali, F.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Buhl, L.

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Chen, “Monolithic Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Compact 100+Gb/s Coherent Optical Receivers and Transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Burla, M.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Chen, “Monolithic Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Compact 100+Gb/s Coherent Optical Receivers and Transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).

Chang, Y.-C.

Chelladurai, D.

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

Chen, Y.

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Buhl, Y. Chen, J. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon In-Phase/Quadrature Modulator with On-Chip Optical Equalizer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1191–1196 (2015).

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Chen, “Monolithic Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Compact 100+Gb/s Coherent Optical Receivers and Transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Cheng, B.

Cheng, Y. J.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Cottier, R.

Cushon, K.

Dalton, L. R.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, Y. Fedoryshyn, N. Đorđević, D. Chelladurai, U. Koch, K. Portner, M. Burla, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, M. Nedeljkovic, S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, and M. Hirano, “Harnessing nonlinearities near material absorption resonances for reducing losses in plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 2168–2181 (2017).

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Dan-Xia, X.

David, T.

Delgado Mendinueta, J.

Delphine, M.

Den Driesch, N.V

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

Ding, R.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Buhl, Y. Chen, J. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon In-Phase/Quadrature Modulator with On-Chip Optical Equalizer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1191–1196 (2015).

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Chen, “Monolithic Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Compact 100+Gb/s Coherent Optical Receivers and Transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Ðordevic, N.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Dümler, U.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Dumon, P.

Elder, D. L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, Y. Fedoryshyn, N. Đorđević, D. Chelladurai, U. Koch, K. Portner, M. Burla, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, M. Nedeljkovic, S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, and M. Hirano, “Harnessing nonlinearities near material absorption resonances for reducing losses in plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 2168–2181 (2017).

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Ellermeyer, T.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Enami, Y.

Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1, 042137 (2011).

Eric, C.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fedeli, J.

Fedeli, J.-M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

Fedoryshyn, Y.

Foschini, G. J.

Fournier, M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Frédéric, B.

Freude, W.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[PubMed]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).

Geistert, K.

Georgas, M.

Giesecke, A. L.

Goebel, B.

Goran, Z. M.

Graham, T. R.

Günter, P.

Haffner, C.

Harris, N. C.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

Hartmann, W.

Hayashi, T.

Heni, W.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, Y. Fedoryshyn, N. Đorđević, D. Chelladurai, U. Koch, K. Portner, M. Burla, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, M. Nedeljkovic, S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, and M. Hirano, “Harnessing nonlinearities near material absorption resonances for reducing losses in plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 2168–2181 (2017).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Hill, C.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hirano, M.

Hochberg, M.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Hoessbacher, C.

Hölzle, U.

U. Hölzle, “Ubiquitous Cloud Requires a Revolution in Optics,” Plenary Talk, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (2017).

Hu, Q.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Huang, S.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Idler, W.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Jang, S. H.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Jean-Marc, F.

Jean-Michel, H.

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

Jen, A. K.-Y. Y.

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1, 042137 (2011).

Jens, H. S.

Jin, Z.

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

John, E. B.

Johnston, P. V.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Jouane, Y.

Kashino, T.

Kashio, N.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Kikuchi, N.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Kikuchi, T.

Kim, T. D.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Kim, W.-J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Klaus, W.

Knoll, D.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Koch, U.

Koeber, S.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Koehnle, K.

Koenig, S.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Koenigsmann, M.

Kohl, M.

Kohler, M.

Koos, C.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Korn, D.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kramer, G.

Kschischang, F. R.

Kutuvantavida, Y.

Langenhagen, H.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Larsson-Edefors, P.

Lauermann, M.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[PubMed]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

Laurent, V.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Léopold, V.

Leu, J.

Leuthold, J.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, Y. Fedoryshyn, N. Đorđević, D. Chelladurai, U. Koch, K. Portner, M. Burla, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, T. David, Z. Aaron, E. B. John, K. Tin, T. R. Graham, V. Laurent, M. Delphine, C. Eric, V. Léopold, F. Jean-Marc, H. Jean-Michel, H. S. Jens, X. Dan-Xia, B. Frédéric, O. B. Peter, Z. M. Goran, M. Nedeljkovic, S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, and M. Hirano, “Harnessing nonlinearities near material absorption resonances for reducing losses in plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 2168–2181 (2017).

W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Li, H.

Li, J.

Liff, S.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

Lipson, M.

Lischke, S.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Liu, X.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Chen, “Monolithic Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Compact 100+Gb/s Coherent Optical Receivers and Transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Lopez, I. G.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Luís, S.

Luo, J.

Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1, 042137 (2011).

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Lutz, J.

Mai, C.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Malsam, D.

Mantl, S.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).

Mawatari, H.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Melikyan, A.

Merget, F.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Miura, H.

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).

Möller, M.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Moscoso-Mártir, A.

Moss, B.

Muehlbrandt, S.

Müller, J.

Nawata, H.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Nedeljkovic, M.

Novack, A.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

Odoi, K.

Ogiso, Y.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).

Orcutt, J. S.

Ozaki, J.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Ozawa, M.

Pahl, K. P.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

Palmer, R.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Peter, O. B.

Petermann, K.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Petousi, D.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Pfeifle, J.

Phillips-Sylvain, N.

Polishak, B. M.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Pomerene, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Popovic, M.

Portner, K.

Qiu, F.

Ram, R. J.

Raybon, G.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).

Reid, P. J.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Reinhardt, W.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Rito, P.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Robinson, B.

Romero-García, S.

Ronniger, G.

Rupeter, J.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Sakaguchi, J.

Salamin, Y.

Sato, H.

Savory, S. J.

Schindler, P. C.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
[PubMed]

Schlesser, R.

Schmid, R.

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Schuh, K.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Shainline, J.

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Sinsky, J.

Spott, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

Spring, A. M.

Steier, W. H.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Stojanovic, V.

Sullivan, P. A.

Sun, C.

Sun, J.

Sürgers, C.

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

Sutter, K.

Takahashi, S.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Tamura, Y.

Templ, W.

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 37–39.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).

Tillack, A. F.

Tin, K.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Ueda, Y.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Ulusoy, A.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Ummethala, S.

Uroševic, S.

Voigt, K.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Wada, N.

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Weaver, M.

Weimann, C.

Wieland, J.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

Winzer, G.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Winzer, P. J.

Witzens, J.

Woessner, M.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

Wolf, S.

Xie, C.

Xu, Q.

Xuan, Z.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

Yamada, E.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Yamada, T.

Y. Ogiso, T. Yamada, J. Ozaki, Y. Ueda, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, E. Yamada, and H. Mawatari, “Ultra-High Bandwidth InP IQ Modulator with 1.5 V Vπ,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), 355–357.

Yick, A.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Yokoyama, S.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Younkin, T. R.

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

Yu, H.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zgraggen, E.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, L. M.

Zhang, Y.

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

Zhou, X.

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Zhou, X.-H.

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

Zimmermann, L.

D. Petousi, I. G. Lopez, S. Lischke, D. Knoll, P. Rito, G. Winzer, C. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann, and K. Petermann, “High-Speed Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photonic Transmitters in 0.25 μm BiCMOS Platform,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2016), pp. 604–606.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

Zwick, T.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

Zwickel, H.

AIP Adv. (1)

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1, 042137 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233303 (2011).

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 51104 (2013).

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y. J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T. D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Polishak, S. H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Donor - Acceptor thiolated polyenic chromophores exhibiting large optical nonlinearity and excellent photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5047–5054 (2008).

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
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F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), 48–55 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-Voltage, Compact, Depletion-Mode, Silicon Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Chen, “Monolithic Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Compact 100+Gb/s Coherent Optical Receivers and Transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a Performance Measure for Advanced Modulation Formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).

IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. (1)

M. Hochberg, N. C. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon Photonics: The Next Fabless Semiconductor Industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Buhl, Y. Chen, J. Sinsky, and G. Raybon, “Silicon In-Phase/Quadrature Modulator with On-Chip Optical Equalizer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1191–1196 (2015).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, P. C. Schindler, G. Ronniger, K. Geistert, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “DAC-less amplifier-less generation and transmission of QAM signals using sub-volt silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1425–1432 (2015).

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).

K. Cushon, P. Larsson-Edefors, and P. Andrekson, “Low-Power 400-Gbps Soft-Decision LDPC FEC for Optical Transport Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(18), 4304–4311 (2016).

L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase Codes With 6% to 33% Overhead,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 1999–2002 (2014).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity Limits of Optical Fiber Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. Huang, J. Luo, Z. Jin, X.-H. Zhou, Z. Shi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced temporal stability of a highly efficient guest–host electro-optic polymer through a barrier layer assisted poling process,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(38), 20353–20357 (2012).

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

Z. Shi, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, S. Liff, T. R. Younkin, B. a. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Achieving excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability in poled polymers through an expeditious crosslinking process,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 22(3), 951–959 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e173 (2014).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon–organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e255 (2015).

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).

Opt. Express (10)

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N.V Den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, “Low Vπ Silicon photonics modulators with highly linear epitaxially grown phase shifters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23526–23550 (2015).
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J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
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M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Low-power silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for advanced modulation formats,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29927–29936 (2014).
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H. Sato, H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Low driving voltage Mach-Zehnder interference modulator constructed from an electro-optic polymer on ultra-thin silicon with a broadband operation,” Opt. Express 25(2), 768–775 (2017).
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Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, B. Cheng, B. Robinson, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Nonlinearities of organic electro-optic materials in nanoscale slots and implications for the optimum modulator design,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2627–2653 (2017).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, W. Hartmann, R. Palmer, Y. Kutuvantavida, H. Zwickel, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, J. Lutz, R. Schmid, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, A. L. Giesecke, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9389–9396 (2016).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, W. Freude, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) IQ Modulator for 100 GBd 16QAM Operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2017), paper Th5C.1.

W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “100 Gbit/s OOK using a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2015), paper PDP.1.4.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s On-Off Keying,” arXiv 1709.01793 (2017).

S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, H. Zwickel, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Koenigsmann, M. Gruen, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “An Energy-Efficient 252 Gbit/s Silicon-Based IQ-Modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (OSA, 2016), paper Th3J.2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept of the silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator. (a) Schematic of an SOH inphase-quadrature (IQ) modulator consisting of two nested Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM). The thin black lines represent standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) strip waveguides. The phase modulator sections are based on slot waveguides (rail width wrail = 240 nm, slot width wslot = 120 nm) and represented by rectangles in light grey. Coplanar ground-signal-ground (GSG) radio-frequency transmission lines carry the modulation signals. (b) Schematic of the SOH MZM cross section along the line AA’ illustrated in (a). The transmission line is electrically connected to the slot by aluminum (AL) vias and thin n-doped silicon slabs (thickness hslab = 70 nm, width 8 µm). The chip is overclad with SiO2, which is locally removed in the slot areas. The slots are the covered with an organic electro-optic (EO) material, which is deposited on the chip such that it homogeneously fills the slots. The chromophores are aligned (green arrows) at an elevated temperature using a poling voltage Upol applied to the floating ground (G) electrodes. After cooling to ambient temperature, the orientation of the chromophores is frozen, and the poling voltage can be removed. For operation of the device, the modulating signal is applied to the GSG line. This RF field (red arrows) is oriented in opposite direction to the chromophore alignment in one arm, and in the same direction in the other arm of the MZM such that two phase modulators of the MZM are operated in push-pull mode. (c) Fundamental quasi-TE mode of the slot waveguide. The color-coded graph shows the magnitude of the dominant optical electric field (dominant x-component), which is strongly confined to the slot. (d) Magnitude of the electrical RF modulation field (dominant x-component), which is also strongly confined to the slot. The good overlap of optical and RF field results in efficient EO modulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup. An arbitrary-waveform generator (AWG) is used for driving the modulator via radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers. The electrical drive signals are fed to the ground-signal-ground (GSG) transmission lines of the SOH IQ modulator. The transmission lines are terminated by external 50 Ω resistors. The optical carrier is provided by an external cavity laser (ECL). Grating couplers (GC) are used to couple light to and off the chip. The insertion loss of the modulator is compensated by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), and an optical bandbass filter is used to suppress out-of-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. The signal is received, recorded and evaluated using an optical modulation analyzer (OMA). We perform two sets of experiments, which we refer to as Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 in the following. Both experiments use the same setup scheme, but differ in the specifications of the actual equipment, in particular in the bandwidth of the AWG and the OMA, see Appendix A for details.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Results of Experiment 1. Constellation diagrams for single-polarization (a) QPSK and (b) 16QAM signals with symbol rates of up to 63 GBd for 16QAM signaling and up to 77 GBd for QPSK. In the QPSK experiment, we measure the error vector magnitude (EVM) and estimate a corresponding bit error ratio (BERest) [43]. With estimated BER values below 10 –9, the QPSK signal can be considered error free for symbol rates up to 63 GBd. For the 77 GBd QPSK signal with a line rate of 154 Gbit/s on a single polarization, we measure an EVM of 20.3 % corresponding to an estimated BER of 3.6 × 10–7 – still well below the threshold of hard-decision FEC with 7 % overhead. For the 16QAM signals, the BER is directly measured from the signal recordings. The BER values range from 4.3 × 10−4 for the 46 GBd signal to 4.1 × 10−3 for the 63 GBd signal representing a line rate of 252 Gbit/s. All 16QAM BER values are hence well within the limits of hard-decision FEC with 7 % overhead.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Results of Experiment 2: 16QAM constellation diagrams for symbol rates of 50 GBd (left), 80 GBd (center) and 100 GBd (right). The BER up to 80 GBd (320 Gbit/s) remains below the hard-decision FEC limit with 7% overhead, while the 100 GBd (400 Gbit/s) signal is below the soft-decision FEC threshold with 20% overhead. The single-polarization net data rate is 333 Gbit/s.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Eye diagrams of electrical four-level signals at 80 GBd and 100 GBd, measured at the output of the DAC used for Experiment 2 without pre-compensation by a finite impulse response (FIR) filter.

Equations (1)

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W bit (16QAM) =2[ 1 2 ( U drive 2 ) 2 + 1 2 ( 1 3 U drive 2 ) 2 ] 1 R × 1 r .

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