Abstract

Even though a graphene-oxide (GO) dispersion is attractive for electro-optical switching devices because of its high Kerr coefficient, it has several limitations such as chemical instability and optical loss due to absorption at visible wavelengths. Here we introduce the use of tetrabutylammonium-tethered α-zirconium phosphate (TBA-ZrP) colloid in various solvents for electro-optical switching devices; the TBA-ZrP colloid is chemically stable and optically transparent. We find that the electrical switching behavior of TBA-ZrP is sensitively dependent on the type of solvent. The TBA-ZrP colloid in acetone exhibits the highest effective Kerr coefficient and the fastest switching time, which is related to the unusual behavior of the viscosity of the TBA-ZrP colloid in acetone. Its viscosity is relatively low and less sensitive to concentration compared to ZrP in other solvents. This indicates that the motion of individual nanoparticles is relatively less restricted in acetone. These findings may be useful in developing electro-optical devices using lyotropic liquid crystal colloids.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. K. H. Kim and J. K. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, and J.-K. Song, “Electro-optical switching of graphene oxide liquid crystals with an extremely large Kerr coefficient,” Nat. Mater. 13(4), 394–399 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. H. Hong, T. Z. Shen, and J. K. Song, “Manipulation of structural color reflection in graphene oxide dispersions using electric fields,” Opt. Express 23(15), 18969–18974 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. T. Ahmad, S. H. Hong, T. Z. Shen, and J. K. Song, “Optimization of particle size for high birefringence and fast switching time in electro-optical switching of graphene oxide dispersions,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4435–4440 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T.-Z. Shen, S. H. Hong, and J. K. Song, “Effect of centrifugal cleaning on the electro-optic response in the preparation of aqueous graphene-oxide dispersions,” Carbon 80, 560–564 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, J.-K. Guo, and J.-K. Song, “Deterioration and recovery of electro-optical performance of aqueous graphene-oxide liquid-crystal cells after prolonged storage,” Carbon 105, 8–13 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. M. Dimiev, L. B. Alemany, and J. M. Tour, “Graphene oxide. Origin of acidity, its instability in water, and a new dynamic structural model,” ACS Nano 7(1), 576–588 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Wang, Z. Qu, J. Liu, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene Oxide Absorbers for Watt-Level High-Power Passive Mode-Locked Nd:GdVO4 Laser Operating at 1 um,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(20), 3259–3262 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Shuai, A. F. Mejia, Y.-W. Chang, and Z. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of layered α-zirconium phosphate disks: control of aspect ratio and polydispersity for nano-architecture,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1970 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. K. Ekanayaka, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, and J.-K. Song, “Effect of solvents on photonic crystallinity in graphene oxide dispersions,” Carbon 123, 283–289 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, and J.-H. Kim, “Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 2719–2732 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Xu and C. Gao, “Aqueous Liquid Crystals of Graphene Oxide,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2908–2915 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

T. K. Ekanayaka, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, and J.-K. Song, “Effect of solvents on photonic crystallinity in graphene oxide dispersions,” Carbon 123, 283–289 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, J.-K. Guo, and J.-K. Song, “Deterioration and recovery of electro-optical performance of aqueous graphene-oxide liquid-crystal cells after prolonged storage,” Carbon 105, 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

T.-Z. Shen, S. H. Hong, and J. K. Song, “Effect of centrifugal cleaning on the electro-optic response in the preparation of aqueous graphene-oxide dispersions,” Carbon 80, 560–564 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, and J.-K. Song, “Electro-optical switching of graphene oxide liquid crystals with an extremely large Kerr coefficient,” Nat. Mater. 13(4), 394–399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. M. Dimiev, L. B. Alemany, and J. M. Tour, “Graphene oxide. Origin of acidity, its instability in water, and a new dynamic structural model,” ACS Nano 7(1), 576–588 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, and J.-H. Kim, “Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 2719–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shuai, A. F. Mejia, Y.-W. Chang, and Z. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of layered α-zirconium phosphate disks: control of aspect ratio and polydispersity for nano-architecture,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1970 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Qu, J. Liu, and Y. H. Tsang, “Graphene Oxide Absorbers for Watt-Level High-Power Passive Mode-Locked Nd:GdVO4 Laser Operating at 1 um,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(20), 3259–3262 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xu and C. Gao, “Aqueous Liquid Crystals of Graphene Oxide,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2908–2915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. H. Kim and J. K. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, R. T.

R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Ahmad, S. H. Hong, T. Z. Shen, and J. K. Song, “Optimization of particle size for high birefringence and fast switching time in electro-optical switching of graphene oxide dispersions,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4435–4440 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, R. T. M.

R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ahn, C. W.

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberti, G.

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alemany, L. B.

A. M. Dimiev, L. B. Alemany, and J. M. Tour, “Graphene oxide. Origin of acidity, its instability in water, and a new dynamic structural model,” ACS Nano 7(1), 576–588 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boo, W. J.

L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bottino, A.

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Casciola, M.

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. W.

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-W.

M. Shuai, A. F. Mejia, Y.-W. Chang, and Z. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of layered α-zirconium phosphate disks: control of aspect ratio and polydispersity for nano-architecture,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1970 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

M. Shuai, A. F. Mejia, Y.-W. Chang, and Z. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of layered α-zirconium phosphate disks: control of aspect ratio and polydispersity for nano-architecture,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1970 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clearfield, A.

L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
[Crossref]

Decher, G.

H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dimiev, A. M.

A. M. Dimiev, L. B. Alemany, and J. M. Tour, “Graphene oxide. Origin of acidity, its instability in water, and a new dynamic structural model,” ACS Nano 7(1), 576–588 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donnadio, A.

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ekanayaka, T. K.

T. K. Ekanayaka, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, and J.-K. Song, “Effect of solvents on photonic crystallinity in graphene oxide dispersions,” Carbon 123, 283–289 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, C.

Z. Xu and C. Gao, “Aqueous Liquid Crystals of Graphene Oxide,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2908–2915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, J.-K.

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, J.-K. Guo, and J.-K. Song, “Deterioration and recovery of electro-optical performance of aqueous graphene-oxide liquid-crystal cells after prolonged storage,” Carbon 105, 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gurunathan, S.

S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, and J.-H. Kim, “Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 2719–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J. W.

S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, and J.-H. Kim, “Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 2719–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, T. H.

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, S. H.

Hong, S.-H.

T. K. Ekanayaka, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, and J.-K. Song, “Effect of solvents on photonic crystallinity in graphene oxide dispersions,” Carbon 123, 283–289 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, J.-K. Guo, and J.-K. Song, “Deterioration and recovery of electro-optical performance of aqueous graphene-oxide liquid-crystal cells after prolonged storage,” Carbon 105, 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, and J.-K. Song, “Electro-optical switching of graphene oxide liquid crystals with an extremely large Kerr coefficient,” Nat. Mater. 13(4), 394–399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, S. W.

H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-N.

H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. E.

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-H.

S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, and J.-H. Kim, “Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 2719–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim and J. K. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. O.

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-S.

R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mallouk, T. E.

H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mannan, M. S.

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marmottini, F.

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Masud, A. R.

R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mejia, A. F.

M. Shuai, A. F. Mejia, Y.-W. Chang, and Z. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of layered α-zirconium phosphate disks: control of aspect ratio and polydispersity for nano-architecture,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1970 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, R.

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piaggio, P.

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pica, M.

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qu, Z.

Schmitt, J.

H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shen, T. Z.

Shen, T.-Z.

T. K. Ekanayaka, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, and J.-K. Song, “Effect of solvents on photonic crystallinity in graphene oxide dispersions,” Carbon 123, 283–289 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, J.-K. Guo, and J.-K. Song, “Deterioration and recovery of electro-optical performance of aqueous graphene-oxide liquid-crystal cells after prolonged storage,” Carbon 105, 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S. H. Hong, and J. K. Song, “Effect of centrifugal cleaning on the electro-optic response in the preparation of aqueous graphene-oxide dispersions,” Carbon 80, 560–564 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, and J.-K. Song, “Electro-optical switching of graphene oxide liquid crystals with an extremely large Kerr coefficient,” Nat. Mater. 13(4), 394–399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shuai, M.

M. Shuai, A. F. Mejia, Y.-W. Chang, and Z. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of layered α-zirconium phosphate disks: control of aspect ratio and polydispersity for nano-architecture,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1970 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. K.

R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Ahmad, S. H. Hong, T. Z. Shen, and J. K. Song, “Optimization of particle size for high birefringence and fast switching time in electro-optical switching of graphene oxide dispersions,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4435–4440 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Hong, T. Z. Shen, and J. K. Song, “Manipulation of structural color reflection in graphene oxide dispersions using electric fields,” Opt. Express 23(15), 18969–18974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Z. Shen, S. H. Hong, and J. K. Song, “Effect of centrifugal cleaning on the electro-optic response in the preparation of aqueous graphene-oxide dispersions,” Carbon 80, 560–564 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Kim and J. K. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-K.

T. K. Ekanayaka, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, and J.-K. Song, “Effect of solvents on photonic crystallinity in graphene oxide dispersions,” Carbon 123, 283–289 (2017).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, J.-K. Guo, and J.-K. Song, “Deterioration and recovery of electro-optical performance of aqueous graphene-oxide liquid-crystal cells after prolonged storage,” Carbon 105, 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, and J.-K. Song, “Electro-optical switching of graphene oxide liquid crystals with an extremely large Kerr coefficient,” Nat. Mater. 13(4), 394–399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sue, H.-J.

L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, D.

L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tour, J. M.

A. M. Dimiev, L. B. Alemany, and J. M. Tour, “Graphene oxide. Origin of acidity, its instability in water, and a new dynamic structural model,” ACS Nano 7(1), 576–588 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsang, Y. H.

Wang, A.

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu and C. Gao, “Aqueous Liquid Crystals of Graphene Oxide,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2908–2915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, J. M.

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

A. M. Dimiev, L. B. Alemany, and J. M. Tour, “Graphene oxide. Origin of acidity, its instability in water, and a new dynamic structural model,” ACS Nano 7(1), 576–588 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xu and C. Gao, “Aqueous Liquid Crystals of Graphene Oxide,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2908–2915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. E. Kim, T. H. Han, S. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, C. W. Ahn, J. M. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Graphene oxide liquid crystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(13), 3043–3047 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carbon (3)

T.-Z. Shen, S. H. Hong, and J. K. Song, “Effect of centrifugal cleaning on the electro-optic response in the preparation of aqueous graphene-oxide dispersions,” Carbon 80, 560–564 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, J.-K. Guo, and J.-K. Song, “Deterioration and recovery of electro-optical performance of aqueous graphene-oxide liquid-crystal cells after prolonged storage,” Carbon 105, 8–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. K. Ekanayaka, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, and J.-K. Song, “Effect of solvents on photonic crystallinity in graphene oxide dispersions,” Carbon 123, 283–289 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

L. Sun, W. J. Boo, D. Sun, A. Clearfield, and H.-J. Sue, “Preparation of Exfoliated Epoxy/α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanocomposites Containing High Aspect Ratio Nanoplatelets,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1749–1754 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-N. Kim, S. W. Keller, T. E. Mallouk, J. Schmitt, and G. Decher, “Characterization of Zirconium Phosphate/Polycation Thin Films Grown by Sequential Adsorption Reactions,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1414–1421 (1997).
[Crossref]

CrystEngComm (1)

M. Shuai, A. F. Mejia, Y.-W. Chang, and Z. Cheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of layered α-zirconium phosphate disks: control of aspect ratio and polydispersity for nano-architecture,” CrystEngComm 15(10), 1970 (2013).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Nanomedicine (1)

S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, and J.-H. Kim, “Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 2719–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

M. Casciola, G. Alberti, A. Donnadio, M. Pica, F. Marmottini, A. Bottino, and P. Piaggio, “Gels of zirconium phosphate in organic solvents and their use for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(39), 4262 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

R. T. M. Ahmad, S.-H. Hong, T.-Z. Shen, Y.-S. Kim, and J.-K. Song, “Electric Field-Induced Ordering of Reduced Graphene Oxide Particles in Colloid,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16(11), 11364–11368 (2016).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

R. T. Ahmad, T. Z. Shen, A. R. Masud, T. K. Ekanayaka, B. Lee, and J. K. Song, “Guided Electro-Optical Switching of Small Graphene Oxide Particles by Larger Ones in Aqueous Dispersion,” Langmuir 32(50), 13458–13463 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

T.-Z. Shen, S.-H. Hong, and J.-K. Song, “Electro-optical switching of graphene oxide liquid crystals with an extremely large Kerr coefficient,” Nat. Mater. 13(4), 394–399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

NPG Asia Mater. (1)

K. H. Kim and J. K. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. F. Mejia, Y. W. Chang, R. Ng, M. Shuai, M. S. Mannan, and Z. Cheng, “Aspect ratio and polydispersity dependence of isotropic-nematic transition in discotic suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E 85(6), 061708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RSC Advances (1)

Y. Zhou, A. Wang, Z. Wang, M. Chen, W. Wang, L. Sun, and X. Liu, “Titanium functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single layer nanosheets for photocatalyst applications,” RSC Advances 5(114), 93969–93978 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) SEM images of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) crystals, b) opaque 1w% aqueous GO and transparent 1 wt% aqueous α-ZrP colloids before and after two months’ storage, and c) zeta potential of ZrP colloids in various solvents before and after two months’ storage.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Liquid crystalline phase behavior of ZrP colloids in various solvents. Birefringence patterns under crossed polarizers are shown, distinguishing isotropic (solid blue line) from biphasic (dotted red line) and nematic (red line) phases. Lowest phase transition concentration (ΦC) is indicated by vertical dotted white line.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Cell configuration (top) and microscopic image for cells containing 0.4, 0.6 or 0.9 wt% ZrP in acetone at various voltages. b) Birefringence Δn as a function of applied voltage for ZrP colloid in various solvents at specified concentrations (wt%). The inset graph in the right top panel shows the birefringence vs V2 at low voltages for 0.9 wt% nematic and 0.6 wt% biphasic colloids in DMF.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Effective Kerr coefficient (KEFF) as a function of concentration for various colloids. b) Conductance and (c) viscosity of ZrP colloids in various solvents. d) Switched optical response of 0.4 wt% ZrP in acetone. e-f) Rise and fall time of ZrP colloid in various solvents (note: logarithmic vertical axes).

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