Abstract

We numerically demonstrate a multiband circular dichroism (CD) by tilting achiral metamaterials (MMs) composed of an elliptical nanoholes array (ENA) penetrating through metal/ phase-change material (PCM) /metal multilayer stack, with respect to the incident light. The CD spectrum can be actively tuned across a wide range from the near-infrared (NIR) to mid-infrared (MIR) regime by transiting the state of the PCM (Ge2Sb2Te5) from amorphous to crystalline. Thus, it can switch on/off a multiband chiroptical response in the infrared region. Our simulation also elucidates that the achiral multilayer stack MMs, which have strong magnetic resonances, can enhance the optical chirality inside the elliptical apertures for both amorphous and crystalline states. The switching of the enhanced chirality may pave the way to manipulate electromagnetic waves, such as tunable circular polarizers, chiroptical spectroscopy, and chiral biosensors.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (5)

S. Kim and K. Kim, “Resonant absorption and amplification of circularly-polarized waves in inhomogeneous chiral media,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1794–1803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, D. Yang, S. Han, Y. Liu, and H. Yang, “Analog electromagnetically induced transparency for circularly polarized wave using three-dimensional chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30068–30078 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ji, S. W. Wang, X. Liu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Broadband circular polarizers constructed using helix-like chiral metamaterials,” Nanoscale 8(31), 14725–14729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, J. Yang, R. E. Simpson, and T. Cao, “Wideband absorbers in the visible with ultrathin plasmonic-phase change material nanogratings,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(23), 12713–12722 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. L. Nesterov, X. Yin, M. Schäferling, H. Giessen, and T. Weiss, “The role of plasmon-generated near fields for enhanced circular dichroism spectroscopy,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 578–583 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

X. Yin, M. Schäferling, A. K. U. Michel, A. Tittl, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, and H. Giessen, “Active chiral plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4255–4260 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tittl, A. K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid‐infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Waldecker, T. A. Miller, M. Rudé, R. Bertoni, J. Osmond, V. Pruneri, R. E. Simpson, R. Ernstorfer, and S. Wall, “Time-domain separation of optical properties from structural transitions in resonantly bonded materials,” Nat. Mater. 14(10), 991–995 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yoo and Q. H. Park, “Chiral light-matter interaction in optical resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(20), 203003 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Cueff, D. Li, Y. Zhou, F. J. Wong, J. A. Kurvits, S. Ramanathan, and R. Zia, “Dynamic control of light emission faster than the lifetime limit using VO2 phase-change,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C. M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 60–65 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (10)

J. Kaschke, M. Blome, S. Burger, and M. Wegener, “Tapered N-helical metamaterials with three-fold rotational symmetry as improved circular polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(17), 19936–19946 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dietrich, C. Menzel, D. Lehr, O. Puffky, U. Hübner, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and E.-B. Kley, “Elevating optical activity: Efficient on-edge lithography of three-dimensional starfish metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 193107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yoo, M. Cho, and Q. H. Park, “Globally enhanced chiral field generation by negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 161405 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Kenanakis, R. Zhao, N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Optically controllable THz chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12149–12159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Q. Shi, Z. Zhu, and J. Shi, “Mutual conversion and asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light in bilayered chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25679–25688 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Fast tuning of Fano resonance in metal/phase-change materials/metal metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(9), 1775–1786 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. K. U. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3955 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schäferling, X. Yin, N. Engheta, and H. Giessen, “Helical plasmonic nanostructures as prototypical chiral near-field sources,” ACS Photonics 1(6), 530–537 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

J. M. Hoffmann, X. Yin, J. Richter, A. Hartung, T. W. Maß, and T. Taubner, “Low-cost infrared resonant structures for surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy in the fingerprint region from 3 to 13 μm,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(21), 11311–11316 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, “Chirality and chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanostructures: fundamentals, recent progress, and outlook,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2517–2534 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Frank, X. Yin, M. Schäferling, J. Zhao, S. M. Hein, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Large-area 3D chiral plasmonic structures,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6321–6329 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Xu, G. M. Wang, M. Q. Qi, T. Cai, and T. J. Cui, “Compact dual-band circular polarizer using twisted Hilbert-shaped chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24912–24921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Spiral metamaterial for active tuning of optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221906 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Oh, A. Demetriadou, S. Wuestner, and O. Hess, “On the origin of chirality in nanoplasmonic gyroid metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 25(4), 612–617 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Song, X. Zhao, Y. Liu, Q. Fu, and C. Luo, “A frequency-tunable 90-polarization rotation device using composite chiral metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101908 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (11)

C. Feng, Z. B. Wang, S. Lee, J. Jiao, and L. Li, “Giant circular dichroism in extrinsic chiral metamaterials excited by off-normal incident laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 285(10–11), 2750–2754 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

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2011 (4)

2010 (2)

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2008 (3)

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Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. Brueck, “Optical negative-index bulk metamaterials consisting of 2D perforated metal-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6778–6787 (2006).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

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Zhao, J.

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Zhao, R.

G. Kenanakis, R. Zhao, N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Optically controllable THz chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12149–12159 (2014).
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J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
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B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
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ACS Nano (2)

B. Frank, X. Yin, M. Schäferling, J. Zhao, S. M. Hein, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Large-area 3D chiral plasmonic structures,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6321–6329 (2013).
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ACS Photonics (3)

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B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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J. Kaschke, M. Blome, S. Burger, and M. Wegener, “Tapered N-helical metamaterials with three-fold rotational symmetry as improved circular polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(17), 19936–19946 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of an ENA penetrating through Au/ Ge2Sb2Te5/Au multilayer stack, where the structure is suspended in air. (b) Illustration of the unit cell. (c) The transmittance of [(MD)1 M]-ENA in the amorphous state for the LCP (blue solid line) and RCP (blue dashed line) incidences with θ = φ = 45°. Black solid curve presents the transmittances difference between the RCP and LCP incidences. (d) The CDtran spectrum for an ENA penetrating through (MD)vM stacks (for v up to 4) with the amorphous state at θ = φ = 45°. The absorptances for both LCP (blue solid line), RCP (blue dashed line) and ΔA = ARAL (red solid line) for the amorphous [(MD)2 M]-ENA are shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Chirality enhancement ( C/ C CPL ) at the center (black solid line), left (green solid line), right (purple solid line), upper (solid blue line) and lower (cyan solid line) positions inside the elliptical hole. (b) The zoom in picture of Fig. 2(a). Inset presents a vertical cross section of the elliptical hole containing a chiral entity. (c) The CDtran spectra for both amorphous and crystalline states under θ = φ = 45°. (d) The C/ C CPL spectra for both amorphous and crystalline states under θ = φ = 45°, where the location of C/ C CPL is at the upper inside the elliptical hole under the LCP incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The dispersion map of (MD)2M multilayer (left) and C/ C CPL of the [(MD)2M]-ENA (right) for the amorphous state. The distributions of | E/ E 0 | , | H/ H 0 | , and C/ C CPL along both a horizontal plane at an interface between the top Au layer and Ge2Sb2Te5 layer as well as a cross-section plane of the [(MD)2M]-ENA at (b) P2 mode (λ = 1763 nm) and (c) P1 mode (λ = 1975 nm). White dotted lines indicate the elliptical hole’s boundaries. (d) The dispersion relation (left) and C/ C CPL (right) for the crystalline state. The distributions of | E/ E 0 | , | H/ H 0 | , and C/ C CPL at (e) P4 mode (λ = 2748 nm) and (f) P3 mode (λ = 2970 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a-b) Snapshots of the normalized E-field intensities of P1 mode at the top Au- Ge2Sb2Te5 (amorphous) interface when the light propagates through the [(MD)2 M]-ENA. The left and right columns present the response to LCP and RCP incidences respectively, obtained from the same time steps along the light propagation. (a) E-field intensities under θ = φ = 0°, where the patterns of both LCP and RCP incidences have a mirror symmetry. (b) E-field intensities are asymmetric under θ = φ = 45°. (c-d) E-field intensities of P3 mode at the top Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 (crystalline) interface. It presents (c) mirror symmetric patterns under θ = φ = 0°, and (d) asymmetric field distribution under θ = φ = 45°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) 3D-FEM simulation of heat power irradiating on a [(MD)2 M]-ENA located at the beam center, where the red and blue solid lines present the heat power irradiating on the structures, the red and blue dashed lines show the temperature of the bottom Ge2Sb2Te5 layer, the red and blue dotted lines demonstrate the temperature of the top Ge2Sb2Te5 layer for the LCP and RCP incidences accordingly. (b) The temperature distribution of [(MD)2 M]-ENA along a vertical cross-section plane at 4.3 ns, where the color image indicates the temperature distribution and the arrows indicate the heat flux for the LCP (top column) and RCP (bottom column) incidences.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dielectric constant ε1(ω) and ε2(ω)vs wavelength for both the amorphous and crystalline states in Ge2Sb2Te5. (b) Reflectance and (c) absorptance of (MD)1 M-ENA with the amorphous state for both LCP (blue solid line) and RCP (blue dashed line) incidences at θ = φ = 45°. ΔA= A R A L and ΔR= R R R L are shown in red curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The CDtran of (a) various φ at θ = 45°, (b) different θ at φ = 45° for the amorphous [(MD)2 M]-ENA. (c) A 2D diagram of CDtran against θ and φ at λ = 1937 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Material thermal properties used in the heat transfer model

Equations (6)

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C D tran = T R T L
C= ε 0 ω 2 Im[ E * H]
| k spp |=| k x + G i,j |=| k 0 sinθ+i G x +j G y |
F l (r)= 2 P 0 π w 2 f r exp( 2 r 2 w 2 )
E th (r)= R a × L 2 × F l (r)
Q s (r,t)= E th (r) 1 π τ exp( (t t 0 ) 2 τ 2 )

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