Abstract

We report the investigation of plasmonic effect of array of aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) on blue micro-OLED subject to exciplex emission. N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) andcarbazol derivative 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) have been used as the emitting layer (EML) and hole transport layer (HTL), respectively. For the reference µ-OLED without Al-NPs, we observed two emission peaks attributed to CBP emission and exciplex emission formed at the NPB/CBP (EML/HTL) interface. By the incorporation of the Al-NPs array, obtained by e-beam lithography technique on the ITO anode, the exciplex emission has been widely depressed. Moreover, thanks to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), an enhancement of the CBP emission has been achieved indicating an efficient energy coupling between the LSPR of the Al-NPs and the CBP excitons. Thus, an enhancement of about 20% of the efficiency of the µ-OLED with Al-NPs in comparison to the reference device has been obtained.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Liu, R. Wu, J. Huang, and J. Yu, “Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 133307 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. Mertens, The OLED Handbook, a Guide to OLED Technology,Industry and Market (OLED-Info, 2012).
  4. A. C. Grimsdale, “In search of stable blue emission from phenylene-based conjugated polymers,” Curr. Org. Chem. 14(18), 2196–2217 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Ogawa, R. Okuda, and Y. Shirota, “Tuning of the emission color of organic electroluminescent devices by exciplex formation at the organic solid interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(5), 599–602 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. J. Liang and W. C. H. Choy, “Color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by using europium organometallic complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251108 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Yan and X. W. Sun, “A plasmonically enhanced charge generation layer for tandem organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043303 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. Belkhir, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced emission of organic light emitting diode coupled to DBR-cathode microcavity by using silver nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23647–23659 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Khadir, L. Zeng, M. Chakaroun, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Hole injection and electroluminescence enhancement by Ag periodic nanorods arrays on indium tin oxide electrode in organic light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 52(21), 1790–1792 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. F. Garcia, L. Zeng, S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Enhanced electroluminescence of organic light emitting diode by localized surface plasmon using Al-periodic structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), 246–252 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. B. Ross, C. A. Mirkin, and C. Schatz, “Optical properties of one-, two-, and three-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 816–830 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. D. Humphrey and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic surface lattice resonances in arrays of metallic nanoparticle dimmers,” J. Opt. 18(3), 035005 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics, Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  25. M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Hamidi, F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and O. Lamrous, “Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(24), 245101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).
  29. G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, and Y. Kawamura, “Low-damage Indium Tin Oxide formation on organic layers using unique cylindrical sputtering module and application in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), L213–L216 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  31. P. I. Djurovich, E. I. Mayo, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Measurement of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 515–520 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  32. I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal., “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3–4), 181–188 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  33. V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  35. V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Khadir, L. Zeng, M. Chakaroun, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Hole injection and electroluminescence enhancement by Ag periodic nanorods arrays on indium tin oxide electrode in organic light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 52(21), 1790–1792 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. F. Garcia, L. Zeng, S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Enhanced electroluminescence of organic light emitting diode by localized surface plasmon using Al-periodic structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), 246–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. B. Ross, C. A. Mirkin, and C. Schatz, “Optical properties of one-, two-, and three-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 816–830 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. D. Humphrey and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic surface lattice resonances in arrays of metallic nanoparticle dimmers,” J. Opt. 18(3), 035005 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. Belkhir, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced emission of organic light emitting diode coupled to DBR-cathode microcavity by using silver nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23647–23659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. Liu, R. Wu, J. Huang, and J. Yu, “Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 133307 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Yan and X. W. Sun, “A plasmonically enhanced charge generation layer for tandem organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043303 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hamidi, F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and O. Lamrous, “Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(24), 245101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Grimsdale, “In search of stable blue emission from phenylene-based conjugated polymers,” Curr. Org. Chem. 14(18), 2196–2217 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. I. Djurovich, E. I. Mayo, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Measurement of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 515–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

C. J. Liang and W. C. H. Choy, “Color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by using europium organometallic complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251108 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, and Y. Kawamura, “Low-damage Indium Tin Oxide formation on organic layers using unique cylindrical sputtering module and application in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), L213–L216 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal., “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3–4), 181–188 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Ogawa, R. Okuda, and Y. Shirota, “Tuning of the emission color of organic electroluminescent devices by exciplex formation at the organic solid interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(5), 599–602 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akai-Kasaya, M.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aldakov, D.

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Angioni, E.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baida, F. I.

M. Hamidi, F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and O. Lamrous, “Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(24), 245101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

A. D. Humphrey and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic surface lattice resonances in arrays of metallic nanoparticle dimmers,” J. Opt. 18(3), 035005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belkhir, A.

S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. Belkhir, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced emission of organic light emitting diode coupled to DBR-cathode microcavity by using silver nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23647–23659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hamidi, F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and O. Lamrous, “Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(24), 245101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Borchardt, L.

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudrioua, A.

Bradley, A. L.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, L.

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakaroun, M.

Chapran, M.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. J.

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, P. P.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S. H.

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherpak, V.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chou, P.-T.

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, W. C. H.

C. J. Liang and W. C. H. Choy, “Color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by using europium organometallic complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chu, B.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y. H.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Divayana, Y.

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

Djurovich, P. I.

P. I. Djurovich, E. I. Mayo, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Measurement of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 515–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, J. Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dramohan, S.

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dubavik, A.

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ephritikhine, M.

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eychmüller, A.

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, G. C.

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández-García, R.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Findlay, N. J.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A.

S. Khadir, L. Zeng, M. Chakaroun, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Hole injection and electroluminescence enhancement by Ag periodic nanorods arrays on indium tin oxide electrode in organic light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 52(21), 1790–1792 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. Belkhir, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced emission of organic light emitting diode coupled to DBR-cathode microcavity by using silver nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23647–23659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. P. A.

Forrest, S. R.

P. I. Djurovich, E. I. Mayo, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Measurement of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 515–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujiki, A.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, T.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaponik, N.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, R. F.

Geffroy, B.

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gerard, V. A.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giannini, V.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grazulevicius, J. V.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grimsdale, A. C.

A. C. Grimsdale, “In search of stable blue emission from phenylene-based conjugated polymers,” Curr. Org. Chem. 14(18), 2196–2217 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gun’ko, Y. K.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamidi, M.

M. Hamidi, F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and O. Lamrous, “Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(24), 245101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hanif, M.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Higuchi, T.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, I. G.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal., “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3–4), 181–188 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. H.

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, Z. R.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

S. Liu, R. Wu, J. Huang, and J. Yu, “Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 133307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Humphrey, A. D.

A. D. Humphrey and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic surface lattice resonances in arrays of metallic nanoparticle dimmers,” J. Opt. 18(3), 035005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hung, W. Y.

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivaniuk, K.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jeon, T.

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, F.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jun-Sheng, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kahn, A.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal., “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3–4), 181–188 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kamalasanan, M. N.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang-Li, C.

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaskel, S.

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawamura, Y.

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, and Y. Kawamura, “Low-damage Indium Tin Oxide formation on organic layers using unique cylindrical sputtering module and application in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), L213–L216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Khadir, S.

Kim, H. G.

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

King, N. S.

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, Z.

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kostiv, N.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, T. Y.

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuwahara, Y.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lamrous, O.

S. Khadir, L. Zeng, M. Chakaroun, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Hole injection and electroluminescence enhancement by Ag periodic nanorods arrays on indium tin oxide electrode in organic light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 52(21), 1790–1792 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. Belkhir, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced emission of organic light emitting diode coupled to DBR-cathode microcavity by using silver nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23647–23659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hamidi, F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and O. Lamrous, “Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(24), 245101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lazauskas, A.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lesnyak, V.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, M. T.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, W. L.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. Q.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, C. J.

C. J. Liang and W. C. H. Choy, “Color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by using europium organometallic complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251108 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. W.

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, R. Wu, J. Huang, and J. Yu, “Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 133307 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lunz, M.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marocico, C. A.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masui, K.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayo, E. I.

P. I. Djurovich, E. I. Mayo, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Measurement of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 515–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mirkin, C. A.

M. B. Ross, C. A. Mirkin, and C. Schatz, “Optical properties of one-, two-, and three-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 816–830 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morimoto, K.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, S.

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakanotani, H.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, and Y. Kawamura, “Low-damage Indium Tin Oxide formation on organic layers using unique cylindrical sputtering module and application in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), L213–L216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Niu, J. H.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Numata, M.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, H.

H. Ogawa, R. Okuda, and Y. Shirota, “Tuning of the emission color of organic electroluminescent devices by exciplex formation at the organic solid interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(5), 599–602 (1998).
[Crossref]

Okuda, R.

H. Ogawa, R. Okuda, and Y. Shirota, “Tuning of the emission color of organic electroluminescent devices by exciplex formation at the organic solid interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(5), 599–602 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oyamada, T.

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, and Y. Kawamura, “Low-damage Indium Tin Oxide formation on organic layers using unique cylindrical sputtering module and application in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), L213–L216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pascal, R. A.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal., “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3–4), 181–188 (2000).
[Crossref]

Qing, Z.

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rogach, A. L.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roschuk, T.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, M. B.

M. B. Ross, C. A. Mirkin, and C. Schatz, “Optical properties of one-, two-, and three-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 816–830 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ryu, B. D.

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sagara, Y.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, A.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sarma, K. R.

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schatz, C.

M. B. Ross, C. A. Mirkin, and C. Schatz, “Optical properties of one-, two-, and three-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 816–830 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shirota, Y.

H. Ogawa, R. Okuda, and Y. Shirota, “Tuning of the emission color of organic electroluminescent devices by exciplex formation at the organic solid interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(5), 599–602 (1998).
[Crossref]

Skabara, P. J.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sonnefraud, Y.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soos, Z. G.

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal., “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3–4), 181–188 (2000).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, R.

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stakhira, P.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Su, Z.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

F. Yan and X. W. Sun, “A plasmonically enhanced charge generation layer for tandem organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

Susha, A. S.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamulevicius, S.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J. X.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

P. I. Djurovich, E. I. Mayo, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Measurement of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 515–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thuéry, P.

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tondelier, D.

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tuttle, T.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Uemura, T.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uthirakumar, P.

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Voitekhovich, S. V.

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volyniuk, D.

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. Y.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. J.

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, H. Z.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolf, A.

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, K. T.

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, R.

S. Liu, R. Wu, J. Huang, and J. Yu, “Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 133307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, H.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xin, Q.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. B.

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Q.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

F. Yan and X. W. Sun, “A plasmonically enhanced charge generation layer for tandem organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. P.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, T.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

S. Liu, R. Wu, J. Huang, and J. Yu, “Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 133307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

S. Khadir, L. Zeng, M. Chakaroun, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Hole injection and electroluminescence enhancement by Ag periodic nanorods arrays on indium tin oxide electrode in organic light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 52(21), 1790–1792 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. F. Garcia, L. Zeng, S. Khadir, M. Chakaroun, A. P. A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, “Enhanced electroluminescence of organic light emitting diode by localized surface plasmon using Al-periodic structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), 246–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zettsu, N.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. J.

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zucchi, G.

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. A. Marocico, M. Lunz, V. A. Gerard, Y. K. Gun’ko, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, and A. L. Bradley, “Wavelength, concentration, and distance dependence of nonradiative energy transfer to a plane of gold nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9283–9290 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. Liu, R. Wu, J. Huang, and J. Yu, “Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 133307 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, Z. Xie, H. Xia, M. Hanif, and Y. Ma, “Tunable electroluminescent color for 2, 5-diphenyl −1, 4-distyrylbenzene with two trans-double bonds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013506 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. J. Liang and W. C. H. Choy, “Color tunable organic light-emitting diodes by using europium organometallic complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251108 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Li, W. Li, L. Chen, Z. Kong, B. Chu, B. Li, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning emission color of electroluminescence from two organic interfacial exciplexesby modulating the thickness of middle gadolinium complex layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091108 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiao, J. P. Yang, P. P. Cheng, J. J. Zhu, Z. Q. Xu, Y. H. Deng, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Surface plasmon-enhanced electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes incorporating Au nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013308 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Yan and X. W. Sun, “A plasmonically enhanced charge generation layer for tandem organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 043303 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

H. Ogawa, R. Okuda, and Y. Shirota, “Tuning of the emission color of organic electroluminescent devices by exciplex formation at the organic solid interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(5), 599–602 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. G. Hill, A. Kahn, Z. G. Soos, and R. A. Pascal., “Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 327(3–4), 181–188 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

Z. Wei, Y. Jun-Sheng, H. Jiang, J. Y. Dong, Z. Qing, and C. Kang-Li, “Exciplex elimination in an organic light-emitting diode based on a fluorene derivative by inserting 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole-biphenyl into donor/acceptor interface,” Chin. Phys. B 19(4), 047802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Curr. Org. Chem. (1)

A. C. Grimsdale, “In search of stable blue emission from phenylene-based conjugated polymers,” Curr. Org. Chem. 14(18), 2196–2217 (2010).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Khadir, L. Zeng, M. Chakaroun, A. Fischer, O. Lamrous, and A. Boudrioua, “Hole injection and electroluminescence enhancement by Ag periodic nanorods arrays on indium tin oxide electrode in organic light-emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 52(21), 1790–1792 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

V. Lesnyak, A. Wolf, A. Dubavik, L. Borchardt, S. V. Voitekhovich, N. Gaponik, S. Kaskel, and A. Eychmüller, “3D assembly of semiconductor and metal nanocrystals: hybrid CdTe/Au structures with controlled content,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(34), 13413–13420 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Y. Wang, W. L. Li, B. Chu, C. J. Liang, Z. R. Hong, M. T. Li, H. Z. Wei, Q. Xin, J. H. Niu, and J. B. Xu, “Effect of exciplex formation on organic light emitting diodes based on rare-earth complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024506 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

G. Zucchi, T. Jeon, D. Tondelier, D. Aldakov, P. Thuéry, M. Ephritikhine, and B. Geffroy, “White electroluminescence of lanthanide complexes resulting from exciplex formation,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2114–2120 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

E. Angioni, M. Chapran, K. Ivaniuk, N. Kostiv, V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, A. Lazauskas, S. Tamulevicius, D. Volyniuk, N. J. Findlay, T. Tuttle, J. V. Grazulevicius, and P. J. Skabara, “A single emitting layer white OLED based on exciplex interface emission,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(17), 3851–3856 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

A. D. Humphrey and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic surface lattice resonances in arrays of metallic nanoparticle dimmers,” J. Opt. 18(3), 035005 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. B. Ross, C. A. Mirkin, and C. Schatz, “Optical properties of one-, two-, and three-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 816–830 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hamidi, F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and O. Lamrous, “Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(24), 245101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Nakanotani, T. Oyamada, and Y. Kawamura, “Low-damage Indium Tin Oxide formation on organic layers using unique cylindrical sputtering module and application in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), L213–L216 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. W. Knight, L. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Brown, S. Mukherjee, N. S. King, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 6000–6004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016–4023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (3)

B. Zhao, T. Zhang, B. Chu, W. Li, Z. Su, Y. Luo, R. Li, X. Yan, F. Jin, Y. Gao, and H. Wu, “Highly efficient tandem full exciplex orange and warm white OLEDs based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence mechanism,” Org. Electron. 17, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, R. Srivastava, D. S. Mehta, and M. N. Kamalasanan, “Surface plasmon enhanced blue organic light emitting diode with nearly 100% fluorescence efficiency,” Org. Electron. 13(9), 1750–1755 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. I. Djurovich, E. I. Mayo, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Measurement of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 515–520 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Y. Hung, G. C. Fang, S. W. Lin, S. H. Cheng, K. T. Wong, T. Y. Kuo, and P.-T. Chou, “The first tandem, all-exciplex-based WOLED,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5161–5166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6(22), 2498–2507 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (2)

S. Dramohan, B. D. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, H. J. Wang, H. K. Kim, H. G. Kim, and C. H. Hong, “Tuning the spectrometric properties of white light by surface plasmon effect using Ag nanoparticles in a colour converting light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 57(1), 90–92 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Divayana, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, G. Q. Lo, K. R. Sarma, and D. L. Kwong, “Bandgap engineering in Alq3- and NPB-based organic light-emitting diodes for efficient green, blue and white emission,” Solid-State Electron. 51(11–12), 1618–1623 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. Mertens, The OLED Handbook, a Guide to OLED Technology,Industry and Market (OLED-Info, 2012).

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics, Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic presentation of the simulated 3D structures, (b) Calculated extinction spectra of arrays of Al nanorods with different aspect ratios (r = l/w).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maps of the electromagnetic field distribution of the array of Al nanorods with an aspect ratio of 2 at the LSPR wavelength (460 nm) (a) in the XY plane (into the organic material 10 nm away from the NPs) and in (b) the XZ plane (median plane)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic structure of the fabricated µ-OLEDs, (b) SEM image of the fabricated Al nanorods (80 nm x 40 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL spectra of the µ-OLEDs with and without the Al NPs and the extinction spectrum of the Al NPs embedded into the OLED heterostructure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy level diagram of the studied µ-OLEDs

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EL of an OLED based, in a first time, on CBP (no NPB) and, in a second time, on NPB (no CBP). The exciplex emission spectrum deduced from the EL of the reference µ-OLED is also plotted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Current density and (b) luminance versus voltage of the µ-OLED with and without Al-NPs. Inset of (b) luminous efficiency versus current density for the µ-OLEDs with and without Al-NPs.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E Exciplex =| E HOMO (NPB) E LUMO (CBP) |=2.55 eV.

Metrics