Abstract

In this work, we suggest a graphene/ poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite as a transparent electrode for stabilizing white emission of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Graphene/PEDOT:PSS composite electrodes have increased reflectance when compared to graphene itself, but their reflectance is still lower than that of ITO itself. Changes in the reflectance of the composite electrode have the advantage of suppressing the angular spectral distortion of white emission OLEDs and achieving an efficiency of 16.6% for white OLEDs, comparable to that achieved by graphene-only electrodes. By controlling the OLED structure to compensate for the two-beam interference effect, the CIE color coordinate change (Δxy) of OLEDs based on graphene/PEDOT:PSS composite electrodes is 0.018, less than that based on graphene-only electrode, i.e.,0.027.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  21. H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  23. H.-W. Lin, W.-C. Lin, J.-H. Chang, and C.-I. Wu, “Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(4), 1204–1210 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Moon, H. Cho, M. Kim, K. Takimiya, and S. Yoo, “Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3105–3110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Lin, W.-C. Lin, J.-H. Chang, and C.-I. Wu, “Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(4), 1204–1210 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes employing graphene as the anode,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1081–1085 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht, S.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allard, S.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anissimova, S.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.-H.

H.-W. Lin, W.-C. Lin, J.-H. Chang, and C.-I. Wu, “Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(4), 1204–1210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-Y.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-C.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, D.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, D.-H.

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Moon, H. Cho, M. Kim, K. Takimiya, and S. Yoo, “Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3105–3110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, N. S.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. W.

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-P.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.-R.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-Y.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu Lim, S.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, J.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, H.

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Drzaic, P.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumsch, I.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gruner, G.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, C. J.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-H.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, S.-J.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, T.-H.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hannon, J. B.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haske, W.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hecht, D.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez, Y.

S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertwig, A.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J.-A.

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, J. W.

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, C.-S.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Irvin, G.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiao, M.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joo, C. W.

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ju, B.-K.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jung, D. Y.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. J.

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-J.

S.-Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes employing graphene as the anode,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1081–1085 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

H. Moon, H. Cho, M. Kim, K. Takimiya, and S. Yoo, “Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3105–3110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, N.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes employing graphene as the anode,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1081–1085 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. Y.

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-S.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kippelen, B.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knauer, K. A.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuk Lee, B.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwak, M.-G.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwon, B.-H.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, D.-G.

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-J.

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.-D.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lange, I.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-J.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.-K.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-I.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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Lee, T.-W.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, N.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-Y.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.-W.

H.-W. Lin, W.-C. Lin, J.-H. Chang, and C.-I. Wu, “Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(4), 1204–1210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.-C.

H.-W. Lin, W.-C. Lin, J.-H. Chang, and C.-I. Wu, “Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(4), 1204–1210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.-Y.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, H.

H. Moon, H. Cho, M. Kim, K. Takimiya, and S. Yoo, “Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3105–3110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Müllen, K.

S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
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Najafabadi, E.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
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Neher, D.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oida, S.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ok, K.-H.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ou, E. C.-W.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, X.-L.

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, S.

S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. B.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, M.-H.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raymond, G. C. R.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, G. H.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, J.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sadana, D. K.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfer, S.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scherf, U.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seo, H.-K.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shin, H.-A.-S.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.-W.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Son, S.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, C.-H.

C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soo, O. K.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, H.-B.

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sung Cho, N.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tae Lim, J.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takimiya, K.

H. Moon, H. Cho, M. Kim, K. Takimiya, and S. Yoo, “Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3105–3110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, W.-L.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tulevski, G. S.

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Won, D.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, S.-H.

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-C.

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-I.

H.-W. Lin, W.-C. Lin, J.-H. Chang, and C.-I. Wu, “Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(4), 1204–1210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-H.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, Y.

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yilmaz, S.

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoo, J. M.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Moon, H. Cho, M. Kim, K. Takimiya, and S. Yoo, “Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3105–3110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, B.-G.

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, C.

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

E. C.-W. Ou, L. Hu, G. C. R. Raymond, O. K. Soo, J. Pan, Z. Zheng, Y. Park, D. Hecht, G. Irvin, P. Drzaic, and G. Gruner, “Surface-modified nanotube anodes for high performance organic light-emitting diode,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2258–2264 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Moon, H. Cho, M. Kim, K. Takimiya, and S. Yoo, “Towards colorless transparent organic transistors: potential of benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene-based wide-gap semiconductors,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3105–3110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pang, Y. Hernandez, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics,” Adv. Mater. 23(25), 2779–2795 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Huang, W.-L. Tsai, W.-K. Lee, M. Jiao, C.-Y. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, and C.-C. Wu, “Unlocking the full potential of conducting polymers for high-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(5), 929–934 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, T. Y. Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. W. Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carbon (2)

J.-H. Kim, J. Seo, D.-G. Kwon, J.-A. Hong, J. Hwang, H. K. Choi, J. Moon, J.-I. Lee, D. Y. Jung, S.-Y. Choi, and Y. Park, “Carrier injection efficiencies and energy level alignments of multilayer graphene anodes for organic light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers,” Carbon 79, 623–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, J. Lee, S. Park, Y. Yi, S. W. Cho, J. W. Kim, and S. J. Kang, “Hole injection enhancement of a single-walled carbon nanotube anode using an organic charge-generation layer,” Carbon 71, 268–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000206 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

T.-H. Han, S.-H. Jeong, Y. Lee, H.-K. Seo, S.-J. Kwon, M.-H. Park, and T.-W. Lee, “Flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(2), 71–84 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

N. Li, S. Oida, G. S. Tulevski, S.-J. Han, J. B. Hannon, D. K. Sadana, and T.-C. Chen, “Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2294 (2013).
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J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T.-H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (6)

H.-W. Lin, W.-C. Lin, J.-H. Chang, and C.-I. Wu, “Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(4), 1204–1210 (2013).
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E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
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S.-Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes employing graphene as the anode,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 1081–1085 (2012).
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C.-H. Song, K.-H. Ok, C.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, M.-G. Kwak, C. J. Han, N. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and J.-W. Kim, “Intense-pulsed-light irradiation of Ag nanowire-based transparent electrodes for use in flexible organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 17, 208–215 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Liu, J. Feng, X.-L. Ou, H. Cui, M. Xu, and H.-B. Sun, “Ultrasmooth, highly conductive and transparent PEDOT:PSS/silver nanowire composite electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 31, 247–252 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Albrecht, S. Schäfer, I. Lange, S. Yilmaz, I. Dumsch, S. Allard, U. Scherf, A. Hertwig, and D. Neher, “Light management in PCPDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: a comparison of standard and inverted device structures,” Org. Electron. 13(4), 615–622 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Tae Lim, H. Lee, H. Cho, B.-H. Kwon, N. Sung Cho, B. Kuk Lee, J. Park, J. Kim, J.-H. Han, J.-H. Yang, B.-G. Yu, C.-S. Hwang, S. Chu Lim, and J.-I. Lee, “Flexion bonding transfer of multilayered graphene as a top electrode in transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters (Taylor & Francis, 2001)

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Data File 1: CSV (7 KB)      the CIE x- and y-coordinates at different angles (0-70°)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of OLED structures under study and (b) electroluminescent spectra of blue, green and red dopants for constructing the white spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured and simulated transmittances of the (a) ITO and (b) graphene electrodes in the presence of a PEDOT:PSS layer. Inset: images of patterned ITO and graphene electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The calculated reflectance of the structure of TAPC/x/Glass with x being ITO, ITO/PEDOT:PSS, graphene, and graphene/PEDOT:PSS. (b) The change in the calculated reflectance of the structure of TAPC/graphene/PEDOT:PSS/Glass for PEDOT:PSS thicknesses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CIE (a) x-coordinate and (b) y-coordinate changes for OLEDs with ITO and graphene electrodes against an emission angle range of 0° to 70° and varying HTL thicknesses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Current density (J)-voltage (V)-luminance (L) of white OLEDs with (a) ITO and graphene electrodes and (b) graphene electrodes with and without presence of a PEDOT:PSS layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (d) Electroluminescent intensity at normal direction and (b), (e) CIE color coordinates of OLEDs with ITO and graphene electrodes according to the presence of a PEDOT:PSS layer. Normalized emission spectra for different emission angles of OLEDs based on (c) ITO and (f) graphene, each with a PEDOT:PSS layer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 External quantum efficiency and CIE color coordinate changes in OLEDs with ITO and graphene electrodes according to the presence of a PEDOT:PSS layer.

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