Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous wavelength and orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing/demultiplexing of 10 Gbit/s data streams using a new on-chip micro-component – tunable MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter integrated with a spiral phase plate. In the experiment, two wavelengths, each of them carrying two channels with zero and nonzero OAMs, form four independent information channels. In case of spacing between wavelength channels of 0.8 nm and intensity modulation, power penalties relative to the transmission of one channel do not exceed 1.45, 0.79 and 0.46 dB at the hard-decision forward-error correction (HD-FEC) bit-error-rate (BER) limit 3.8 × 10−3 when multiplexing a Gaussian beam and OAM beams of azimuthal orders 1, 2 and 3 respectively. In case of phase modulation, power penalties do not exceed 1.77, 0.54 and 0.79 dB respectively. At the 0.4 nm wavelength grid, maximum power penalties at the HD-FEC BER threshold relative to the 0.8 nm wavelength spacing read 0.83, 0.84 and 1.15 dB when multiplexing a Gaussian beam and OAM beams of 1st, 2nd and 3rd orders respectively. The novelty and impact of the proposed filter design is in providing practical, integrable, cheap, and reliable transformation of OAM states simultaneously with the selection of a particular wavelength in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The proposed on-chip device can be useful in future high-capacity optical communications with spatial- and wavelength-division multiplexing, especially for short-range communication links and optical interconnects.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

15 May 2017: Corrections were made to the abstract and Figs. 3, 5, and 6.


OSA Recommended Articles
Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi
Adv. Opt. Photon. 7(1) 66-106 (2015)

Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry–Perot filter

Sujoy Paul, Vladimir S. Lyubopytov, Martin F. Schumann, Julijan Cesar, Arkadi Chipouline, Martin Wegener, and Franko Küppers
Opt. Lett. 41(14) 3249-3252 (2016)

Orbital-angular-momentum mode-group multiplexed transmission over a graded-index ring-core fiber based on receive diversity and maximal ratio combining

Junwei Zhang, Guoxuan Zhu, Jie Liu, Xiong Wu, Jiangbo Zhu, Cheng Du, Wenyong Luo, Yujie Chen, and Siyuan Yu
Opt. Express 26(4) 4243-4257 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Djordjevic, W. Ryan, and B. Vasic, Coding for Optical Channels (Springer Verlag, 2010), Chap. 10.
  2. R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20150191 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Richardson, “New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20140441 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fiber,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limit of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Wang, M. J. Padgett, S. Ramachandran, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Yue, N. Bozinovic, S. E. Golowich, and A. E. Willner, “Multimode communications using orbital angular momentum,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB: Systems and Networks, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, ed. (Academic, 2013).
  8. A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Berdagué and P. Facq, “Mode division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 21(11), 1950–1955 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Transmission of 107-Gb/s mode and polarization multiplexed CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8808–8814 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16593–16600 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle., “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Optical vortex based Mode Division Multiplexing over graded-index multimode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh4G.3.
  18. H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y.-L. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Optica 2(6), 547–552 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, and L. Buhl, “Efficient multiplexing and demultiplexing of free-space orbital angular momentum using photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu1I.2.
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Su, R. P. Scott, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, X. Cai, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9396–9402 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 32–40 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Paul, V. S. Lyubopytov, M. F. Schumann, J. Cesar, A. Chipouline, M. Wegener, and F. Küppers, “Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3249–3252 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  36. W. Zhang, H. Wang, and K. Bergman, “Next-generation optically interconnected high-performance data centers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3836–3844 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 448–457 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Yue, A. Bozovich, J.-Y. Yang, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Demonstration of OAM mode distortions monitoring using interference-based phase reconstruction,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CF3C.4.
    [Crossref]
  40. E. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, S. Barnett, and M. Padgett, “Fourier relationship between angular position and optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9071–9076 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. “IEEE standard for Ethernet – amendment 3: physical layer specifications and management parameters for 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s operation over fiber optic cables,” IEEE Std 802.3bm-2015 (2015).
  42. J. Petrilla, “100G SR4 & RS (528, 514, 7, 10) FEC,” Avago Technologies, Tech. Rep., September 2012. Available on http://www.ieee802.org/3/bm/public/sep12/petrilla_02a_0912_optx.pdf
  43. “Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” Rec. ITU-T G.694.1 (ITU-T, 02/2012).

2017 (1)

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

S. Paul, V. S. Lyubopytov, M. F. Schumann, J. Cesar, A. Chipouline, M. Wegener, and F. Küppers, “Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3249–3252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20150191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, “New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20140441 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limit of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y.-L. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Optica 2(6), 547–552 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (4)

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 32–40 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fiber,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle., “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, H. Wang, and K. Bergman, “Next-generation optically interconnected high-performance data centers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3836–3844 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 448–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Su, R. P. Scott, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, X. Cai, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9396–9402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Ahmed, N.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Al Amin, A.

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almaiman, A.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Astruc, M.

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S.

Basch, B.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berdagué, S.

Bergman, K.

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigo, S.

Birnbaum, K. M.

Bitar, N.

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 32–40 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bluemm, C.

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boffi, P.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bolle, C.

Boutin, A.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brindel, P.

Burrows, E. C.

Cai, X.

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerou, F.

Cesar, J.

S. Paul, V. S. Lyubopytov, M. F. Schumann, J. Cesar, A. Chipouline, M. Wegener, and F. Küppers, “Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3249–3252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Charlet, G.

Chen, C. P.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y.-L. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Optica 2(6), 547–552 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chipouline, A.

Courtial, J.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolinar, S. J.

Du, C.

Egorov, R.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20150191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erkmen, B. I.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Facq, P.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fiber,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

Foschini, G. J.

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gatto, A.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geisler, D. J.

Gibson, G.

Gierl, C.

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

Goebel, B.

Gringeri, S.

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 32–40 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y.-L. D.

Hong, M.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, J.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kahn, J. M.

N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limit of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khonina, S. N.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kitsuwan, N.

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koebele, C.

Kotlyar, V. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kramer, G.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Küppers, F.

S. Paul, V. S. Lyubopytov, M. F. Schumann, J. Cesar, A. Chipouline, M. Wegener, and F. Küppers, “Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3249–3252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laakkonen, P.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P.

Lavery, M. P. J.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, Q. T.

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, A.

Li, G.

N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limit of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, L.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-J.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limit of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liao, P.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lingle, R.

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lyubopytov, V. S.

Mac Suibhne, N.

A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20150191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malekizandi, M.

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mardoyan, H.

Martelli, P.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

McCurdy, A. H.

McGettrick, S.

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

Milione, G.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, Q.

Molisch, A. F.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mumtaz, S.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fiber,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neumeyr, C.

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nolan, D. A.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, J. L.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortsiefer, M.

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

Pas’ko, V.

Paul, S.

S. Paul, V. S. Lyubopytov, M. F. Schumann, J. Cesar, A. Chipouline, M. Wegener, and F. Küppers, “Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3249–3252 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20150191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peckham, D. W.

Phillips, D. B.

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Provost, L.

Pu, M.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, “New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20140441 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fiber,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rogawski, D.

Ruffini, M.

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Saad, D.

A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20150191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salsi, M.

Schumann, M. F.

Scott, R. P.

Shamee, B.

Shieh, W.

Shukla, V.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sierra, A.

Sillard, P.

Skidanov, R. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Slyne, F.

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soifer, V. A.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sperti, D.

Spreeuw, R. J.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strain, M. J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T.

Taubenblatt, M. A.

Thompson, M. G.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, P.

Tur, M.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turunen, J.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M.

Verluise, F.

Wang, A.

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Willner, A. E.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. J.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, M. J.

Winzer, P. J.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, T. J.

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 32–40 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-Y.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, E.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yu, S.

H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y.-L. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Optica 2(6), 547–552 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhao, N.

N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limit of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

Zhu, J.

H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y.-L. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Optica 2(6), 547–552 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, N. Bitar, and T. J. Xia, “Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(3), 32–40 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Paul, C. Gierl, J. Cesar, M. Malekizandi, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, F. Küppers, and Q. T. Le, “10-Gb/s direct modulation of widely tunable 1550-nm MEMS VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 436–443 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. (1)

P. Boffi, P. Martelli, A. Gatto, and M. Martinelli, “Mode-division multiplexing in fibre-optic communications based on orbital angular momentum,” J. Opt. 15(7), 075403 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fiber,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Zhao, X. Li, G. Li, and J. M. Kahn, “Capacity limit of spatially multiplexed free-space communication,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 822–826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, R. V. Skidanov, V. A. Soifer, P. Laakkonen, and J. Turunen, “Gauss–Laguerre modes with different indices in prescribed diffraction orders of a diffractive phase element,” Opt. Commun. 175(4–6), 301–308 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

T. Su, R. P. Scott, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, X. Cai, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9396–9402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Transmission of 107-Gb/s mode and polarization multiplexed CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8808–8814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100 Gb/s, over 40 km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using LCOS-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16593–16600 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, S. Barnett, and M. Padgett, “Fourier relationship between angular position and optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9071–9076 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. Ruffini, F. Slyne, C. Bluemm, N. Kitsuwan, and S. McGettrick, “Software defined networking for next generation converged metro-access networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 31–41 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2)

A. D. Ellis, N. Mac Suibhne, D. Saad, and D. N. Payne, “Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20150191 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, “New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 374(2062), 20140441 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

N. Ahmed, Z. Zhao, L. Li, H. Huang, M. P. J. Lavery, P. Liao, Y. Yan, Z. Wang, G. Xie, Y. Ren, A. Almaiman, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode-division-multiplexing of multiple Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum for obstruction-tolerant free-space optical and millimetre-wave communication links,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22082 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, and L. Buhl, “Efficient multiplexing and demultiplexing of free-space orbital angular momentum using photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu1I.2.
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, Y. Yue, A. Bozovich, J.-Y. Yang, K. Birnbaum, J. Choi, B. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Demonstration of OAM mode distortions monitoring using interference-based phase reconstruction,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CF3C.4.
[Crossref]

J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Optical vortex based Mode Division Multiplexing over graded-index multimode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh4G.3.

I. Djordjevic, W. Ryan, and B. Vasic, Coding for Optical Channels (Springer Verlag, 2010), Chap. 10.

J. Wang, M. J. Padgett, S. Ramachandran, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, Y. Yue, N. Bozinovic, S. E. Golowich, and A. E. Willner, “Multimode communications using orbital angular momentum,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIB: Systems and Networks, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, ed. (Academic, 2013).

“IEEE standard for Ethernet – amendment 3: physical layer specifications and management parameters for 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s operation over fiber optic cables,” IEEE Std 802.3bm-2015 (2015).

J. Petrilla, “100G SR4 & RS (528, 514, 7, 10) FEC,” Avago Technologies, Tech. Rep., September 2012. Available on http://www.ieee802.org/3/bm/public/sep12/petrilla_02a_0912_optx.pdf

“Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” Rec. ITU-T G.694.1 (ITU-T, 02/2012).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scheme of a vortex MEMS Fabry-Perot filter. (b) Top view of a MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter with an integrated SPP of azimuthal order lSPP = 3. (c) SEM image of a SPP of order lSPP = 1 on a plane Si substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Dependence of MEMS-filter transmittance of the resonance wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Phase profiles for the main resonance mode of the vortex MEMS filters with SPPs of azimuthal orders lSPP = 1, 2, 3 at different resonance wavelengths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scheme of the experimental setup for the BER measurements.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 BER vs. ROP curves and penalties for demultiplexing wavelength and OAM channels when transmitting the Gaussian channel and the OAM channel of order: (a),(b) l = 1; (c),(d) l = 2; and (e),(f) l = 3. The left column [(a),(c),(e)] corresponds to OOK modulation, and the right column [(b),(d),(f)] corresponds to BPSK modulation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 BER vs. ROP curves and penalties for OOK modulation when four (two wavelength and two OAM) channels are being transmitted for different spacing between wavelength channels. Each graph corresponds to transmission of the Gaussian channel and the OAM channel of order: (a),(b) l = 1; (c),(d) l = 2; and (e),(f) l = 3. The left column [(a),(c),(e)] and the right column [(b),(d),(f)] correspond to the cases when the received channel has higher and lower wavelength, than the filtered channel, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Penalties at the FEC BER thresholds for four (two OAM and two wavelength) channels, Δλ = 0.8 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Maximum penalties at the FEC BER thresholds for multiplexing four channels, Δλ = 0.4 nm relative to Δλ = 0.8

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h SPP ( φ ) = φ l SPP λ 0 2 π ( n SPP n 0 ) ,

Metrics