Abstract

Abstract: We report here the refractive index (RI) sensing using the singly degenerate high quality factor (Q) modes in photonic crystal slabs (PCS) with the free-space coupled incident beam close to normal incidence. Q values of 3.2x104 and 1.8x104 were achieved for the fabricated PCS in air and aqueous solution, respectively. A spectral sensitivity (S) of 94.5 nm/RIU and a detection limit (DL) of 3x10−5 RIU were achieved with our device. Such a high-Q cavity for the singly degenerate mode close to normal incidence is very promising to achieve a lower DL for RI sensing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, S. Kita, F. Liang, C. Wang, H. Tian, Y. Ji, M. Lončar, and Q. Quan, “High sensitivity and high Q-factor nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity for real-time and label-free sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 063118 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, B. Zhen, S.-L. Chua, W. Qiu, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and O. Shapira, “Observation and differentiation of unique high-Q optical resonances near zero wave vector in macroscopic photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(6), 067401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4: A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (5)

M. El Beheiry, V. Liu, S. Fan, and O. Levi, “Sensitivity enhancement in photonic crystal slab biosensors,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22702–22714 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kang, C. T. Phare, Y. A. Vlasov, S. Assefa, and S. M. Weiss, “Photonic crystal slab sensor with enhanced surface area,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27930–27937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (8)

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 418–425 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, G. Frye-Mason, and X. Fan, “Rapid chemical-vapor sensing using optofluidic ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 788–790 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and X. Fan, “Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10254–10268 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, “Controlling uncoupled resonances in photonic crystals through breaking the mirror symmetry,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13090–13103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

I. Alvarado-Rodriguez and E. Yablonovitch, “Separation of radiation and absorption losses in two-dimensional photonic crystal single defect cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6399–6402 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(13), 2023–2026 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

Abstreiter, G.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J. S.

Akhavan, H.

Alvarado-Rodriguez, I.

I. Alvarado-Rodriguez and E. Yablonovitch, “Separation of radiation and absorption losses in two-dimensional photonic crystal single defect cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6399–6402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Arjavalingam, G.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(13), 2023–2026 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assefa, S.

Baker, J. R.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, R.

Block, I. D.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brommer, K. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(13), 2023–2026 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chadha, A.

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chakravarty, S.

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, X. Wang, C. Lin, and R. T. Chen, “On-chip methane sensing by near-IR absorption signatures in a photonic crystal slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 984–986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, L. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 418–425 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, X. Wang, C. Lin, and R. T. Chen, “On-chip methane sensing by near-IR absorption signatures in a photonic crystal slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 984–986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chua, S.-L.

J. Lee, B. Zhen, S.-L. Chua, W. Qiu, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and O. Shapira, “Observation and differentiation of unique high-Q optical resonances near zero wave vector in macroscopic photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(6), 067401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuwongin, S.

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, B. T.

J.-N. Liu, M. V. Schulmerich, R. Bhargava, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24182–24197 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 418–425 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Di Falco, A.

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Digonnet, M.

Ding, Y.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, “Resonant photonic biosensors with polarization-based multiparametric discrimination in each channel,” Sensors (Basel) 11(2), 1476–1488 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Divin, C.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorfner, D.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El Beheiry, M.

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S.

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Lemmer, U.

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
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B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
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S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
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W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
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W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(13), 2023–2026 (1992).
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Nazirizadeh, Y.

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
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Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061106 (2008).
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B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
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D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
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M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
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W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Lee, B. Zhen, S.-L. Chua, W. Qiu, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and O. Shapira, “Observation and differentiation of unique high-Q optical resonances near zero wave vector in macroscopic photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(6), 067401 (2012).
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X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
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S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
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W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. S.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Watkin, K. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 418–425 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wawro, D.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, “Resonant photonic biosensors with polarization-based multiparametric discrimination in each channel,” Sensors (Basel) 11(2), 1476–1488 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, S. M.

Wheeler, M. S.

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Alvarado-Rodriguez and E. Yablonovitch, “Separation of radiation and absorption losses in two-dimensional photonic crystal single defect cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6399–6402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

D. Yang, S. Kita, F. Liang, C. Wang, H. Tian, Y. Ji, M. Lončar, and Q. Quan, “High sensitivity and high Q-factor nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity for real-time and label-free sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 063118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuai, D. Zhao, A. Singh Chadha, J.-H. Seo, H. Yang, S. Fan, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J. Y.

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Zabel, T.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuai, D. Zhao, Z. Tian, J.-H. Seo, D. V. Plant, Z. Ma, S. Fan, and W. Zhou, “Double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24582–24589 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shuai, D. Zhao, A. Singh Chadha, J.-H. Seo, H. Yang, S. Fan, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhen, B.

J. Lee, B. Zhen, S.-L. Chua, W. Qiu, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and O. Shapira, “Observation and differentiation of unique high-Q optical resonances near zero wave vector in macroscopic photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(6), 067401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuai, D. Zhao, Z. Tian, J.-H. Seo, D. V. Plant, Z. Ma, S. Fan, and W. Zhou, “Double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24582–24589 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shuai, D. Zhao, A. Singh Chadha, J.-H. Seo, H. Yang, S. Fan, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, S.

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, “Resonant photonic biosensors with polarization-based multiparametric discrimination in each channel,” Sensors (Basel) 11(2), 1476–1488 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

Y. Guo, J. Y. Ye, C. Divin, B. Huang, T. P. Thomas, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time biomolecular binding detection using a sensitive photonic crystal biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 82(12), 5211–5218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061106 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, S. Kita, F. Liang, C. Wang, H. Tian, Y. Ji, M. Lončar, and Q. Quan, “High sensitivity and high Q-factor nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity for real-time and label-free sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(6), 063118 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuai, D. Zhao, A. Singh Chadha, J.-H. Seo, H. Yang, S. Fan, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic Fano resonance photonic crystal refractometric sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091105 (2017).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, Y. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Slow light enhanced sensitivity of resonance modes in photonic crystal biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (2)

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4: A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Alvarado-Rodriguez and E. Yablonovitch, “Separation of radiation and absorption losses in two-dimensional photonic crystal single defect cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6399–6402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 267–291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (14)

T. Xu, M. S. Wheeler, H. E. Ruda, M. Mojahedi, and J. S. Aitchison, “The influence of material absorption on the quality factor of photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8343–8348 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Huang, L. J. Martínez, and M. L. Povinelli, “Tuning the transmission lineshape of a photonic crystal slab guided-resonance mode by polarization control,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20675–20682 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-N. Liu, M. V. Schulmerich, R. Bhargava, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24182–24197 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Extraordinarily high spectral sensitivity in refractive index sensors using multiple optical modes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10029–10040 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, “Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4530–4535 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kang, C. T. Phare, Y. A. Vlasov, S. Assefa, and S. M. Weiss, “Photonic crystal slab sensor with enhanced surface area,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27930–27937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and X. Fan, “Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10254–10268 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. El Beheiry, V. Liu, S. Fan, and O. Levi, “Sensitivity enhancement in photonic crystal slab biosensors,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22702–22714 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Nicolaou, W. T. Lau, R. Gad, H. Akhavan, R. Schilling, and O. Levi, “Enhanced detection limit by dark mode perturbation in 2D photonic crystal slab refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31698–31712 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Liu, M. Povinelli, and S. Fan, “Resonance-enhanced optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21897–21909 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shuai, D. Zhao, Z. Tian, J.-H. Seo, D. V. Plant, Z. Ma, S. Fan, and W. Zhou, “Double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24582–24589 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, and O. Solgaard, “Controlling uncoupled resonances in photonic crystals through breaking the mirror symmetry,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13090–13103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5751–5758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Lee, B. Zhen, S.-L. Chua, W. Qiu, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and O. Shapira, “Observation and differentiation of unique high-Q optical resonances near zero wave vector in macroscopic photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(6), 067401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(13), 2023–2026 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (3)

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free imaging of cancer cells using photonic crystal biosensors and application to cytotoxicity screening of a natural compound library,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132(2), 418–425 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 85(3), 219–226 (2002).
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I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 120(1), 187–193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

R. Magnusson, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, and Y. Ding, “Resonant photonic biosensors with polarization-based multiparametric discrimination in each channel,” Sensors (Basel) 11(2), 1476–1488 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Shuai, H. Yang, W. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Optofluidic double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal slab liquid sensors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper STu1F.6.
[Crossref]

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of Fano (guided) resonance PCS on SOI substrate. (b) Device SEM top view with zoom in of four holes and angled cross-sectional view of three air holes shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated reflection spectra for PCS at 0.5 degree and 0 degree incident angles. (b) Simulated band diagram of singly degenerate modes (A, D) and doubly degenerate modes (B, C) for the PCS. (c) Fano fitted quality factor for reflection spectra at different incident angles for the four modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-d) Ex field distribution in y-z plane at the center of the hole, (e-h) Ez field distribution in x-y plane at the center of PCS for the four modes (a, e) mode A, (b, f) mode B, (c, g) mode C, (d, h) mode D, with air hole boundary shown in dashed line and the Si region boundary shown in solid line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of B mode at 0.5 degree incident angle. (a) ε|E|2 profile in x-y plane at the center of PCS (z = −120nm) with air hole boundary shown in dashed line. (b) ε|E|2 profile in y-z plane at the center of air hole (x = 0), solid lines show the boundary of Si region. (b) Distribution of ε|E|2 along vertical (z-axis) direction for x = 0 and integrated ε|E|2 from −485 nm < x < 485 nm, with dashed lines showing the Si slab boundary.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the PCS based optofluidic RI sensor (not to scale). (b) Schematic illustration of the measurement system. TLS: tunable laser source, BS: beam splitter, P1 (P2): polarizer, DUT: device under test.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Simulated reflection spectra of PCS at normal incidence in air and in water and measured reflection spectrum for PCS in air without polarizer. (b) Measured reflection spectrum in air and Fano fitting shows Q = 2,690.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured PCS reflection spectra with cross polarizers in air and in water. (b, c) Lorentzian fit of the measured reflection resonance for D mode (b) in air and (c) in water.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measured reflection spectra of the PCS in water and in different concentration of ethanol/DI water mixture, with the spectrum in water and 0.05% ethanol concentration shown in the inset. (b) Bulk sensitivity of the PCS is linear fitted to be 94.5 nm/RIU.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of resonance location, radiative quality factor, sensitivity, and detection limit of the four modes simulated with S4 and MEEP.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f= V analyte ε | E | 2 dv V total ε | E | 2 dv
S= Δ λ 0 Δ n analyte = λ 0 f n analyte
DL= r S
σ= λ 0 4.5Q (SNR) 0.25
1 Q M = 1 Q rad + 1 Q loss
Q abs = n i /(2f n r )

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