Abstract

Compared to the conventional strip waveguide microring resonators, subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide microring resonators have better sensitivity and lower detection limit due to the enhanced photon-analyte interaction. As sensors, especially biosensors, are usually used in absorptive ambient environment, it is very challenging to further improve the detection limit of the SWG ring resonator by simply increasing the sensitivity. The high sensitivity resulted from larger mode-analyte overlap also brings significant absorption loss, which deteriorates the quality factor of the resonator. To explore the potential of the SWG ring resonator, we theoretically and experimentally optimize an ultrasensitive transverse magnetic mode SWG racetrack resonator to obtain maximum quality factor and thus lowest detection limit. A quality factor of 9800 around 1550 nm and sensitivity of 429.7 ± 0.4nm/RIU in water environment are achieved. It corresponds to a detection limit (λ/S·Q) of 3.71 × 10−4 RIU, which marks a reduction of 32.5% compared to the best value reported for SWG microring sensors.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

2015 (3)

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of SOI micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, and Y. Ji, “Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 15658–15668 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

J. T. Kindt, M. S. Luchansky, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Lee, and R. C. Bailey, “Subpicogram per milliliter detection of interleukins using silicon photonic microring resonators and an enzymatic signal enhancement strategy,” Anal. Chem. 85(22), 10653–10657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3799–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Guan, Q. Huang, J. Zheng, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Suspended ultra-small disk resonator on silicon for optical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5405–5408 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. Talebi Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7994–8006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. Yao and Y. Shi, “High-Q width modulated photonic crystal stack mode-gap cavity and its application to refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27039–27044 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. H. Ahn, J. H. Kang, M. K. Kim, J. H. Song, B. Min, K. S. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “One-dimensional parabolic-beam photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5654–5660 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. A. Barrios, “Optical slot-waveguide based biochemical sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 9(6), 4751–4765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

N. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, “Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 4(1–2), 117–127 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. C. Andreani, “Photonic bands and radiation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 234(1), 139–146 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1934 (1)

L. F. Hoyt, “New table of the refractive index of pure glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B. H.

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani, “Photonic bands and radiation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 234(1), 139–146 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. C.

J. T. Kindt, M. S. Luchansky, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Lee, and R. C. Bailey, “Subpicogram per milliliter detection of interleukins using silicon photonic microring resonators and an enzymatic signal enhancement strategy,” Anal. Chem. 85(22), 10653–10657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, “Optical slot-waveguide based biochemical sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 9(6), 4751–4765 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chakravarty, S.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3799–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R. T.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3799–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheung, K. C.

J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. Talebi Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7994–8006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. H.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chrostowski, L.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Covey, J.

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deotare, P. B.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Donzella, V.

Drabkin, H. A.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fard, S. T.

Flueckiger, J.

Fu, Z.

Gemmill, R. M.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grist, S. M.

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of SOI micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. Talebi Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7994–8006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, X.

Hosseini, A.

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoyt, L. F.

L. F. Hoyt, “New table of the refractive index of pure glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

Huang, L.

L. Huang, J. Zhou, F. Sun, Z. Fu, and H. Tian, “Optimization of One Dimensional Photonic Crystal Elliptical-Hole Low-Index Mode Nanobeam Cavities for On-chip Sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(15), 3496–3502 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and Y. Ji, “Label-free optical sensor by designing a high-Q photonic crystal ring–slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 335, 73–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, and Y. Ji, “Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 15658–15668 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Hugonin, J. P.

Ji, Y.

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and Y. Ji, “Label-free optical sensor by designing a high-Q photonic crystal ring–slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 335, 73–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, and Y. Ji, “Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 15658–15668 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

Khumwan, P.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. S.

Kim, M. K.

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt, M. S. Luchansky, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Lee, and R. C. Bailey, “Subpicogram per milliliter detection of interleukins using silicon photonic microring resonators and an enzymatic signal enhancement strategy,” Anal. Chem. 85(22), 10653–10657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirk, J.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Kirk, J. T.

Kravchenko, I. I.

Kulik, P.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3799–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

Lee, S. H.

J. T. Kindt, M. S. Luchansky, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Lee, and R. C. Bailey, “Subpicogram per milliliter detection of interleukins using silicon photonic microring resonators and an enzymatic signal enhancement strategy,” Anal. Chem. 85(22), 10653–10657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

Liu, Q.

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and Y. Ji, “Label-free optical sensor by designing a high-Q photonic crystal ring–slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 335, 73–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luchansky, M. S.

J. T. Kindt, M. S. Luchansky, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Lee, and R. C. Bailey, “Subpicogram per milliliter detection of interleukins using silicon photonic microring resonators and an enzymatic signal enhancement strategy,” Anal. Chem. 85(22), 10653–10657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, B.

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mortensen, N.

N. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, “Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 4(1–2), 117–127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, J.

N. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, “Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 4(1–2), 117–127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qavi, A. J.

J. T. Kindt, M. S. Luchansky, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Lee, and R. C. Bailey, “Subpicogram per milliliter detection of interleukins using silicon photonic microring resonators and an enzymatic signal enhancement strategy,” Anal. Chem. 85(22), 10653–10657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, K.

Quan, Q.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ratner, D.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Ratner, D. M.

Retterer, S. T.

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S.

J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S. A.

Sherwali, A.

J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of SOI micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Shi, Y.

Simon, G. R.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. H.

Subbaraman, H.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, F.

Talebi Fard, S.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. Talebi Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7994–8006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, N.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, E. R.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, H.

L. Huang, J. Zhou, F. Sun, Z. Fu, and H. Tian, “Optimization of One Dimensional Photonic Crystal Elliptical-Hole Low-Index Mode Nanobeam Cavities for On-chip Sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(15), 3496–3502 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and Y. Ji, “Label-free optical sensor by designing a high-Q photonic crystal ring–slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 335, 73–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, and Y. Ji, “Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 15658–15668 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Guan, Q. Huang, J. Zheng, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Suspended ultra-small disk resonator on silicon for optical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5405–5408 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, S. M.

White, I. M.

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W. X.

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

N. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, “Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 4(1–2), 117–127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X. C.

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. J.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, K.

Zhang, P.

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and Y. Ji, “Label-free optical sensor by designing a high-Q photonic crystal ring–slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 335, 73–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

Zhou, J.

L. Huang, J. Zhou, F. Sun, Z. Fu, and H. Tian, “Optimization of One Dimensional Photonic Crystal Elliptical-Hole Low-Index Mode Nanobeam Cavities for On-chip Sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(15), 3496–3502 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and Y. Ji, “Label-free optical sensor by designing a high-Q photonic crystal ring–slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 335, 73–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, and Y. Ji, “Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 14(9), 15658–15668 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed detection of xylene and trichloroethylene in water by photonic crystal absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3799–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. T. Kindt, M. S. Luchansky, A. J. Qavi, S. H. Lee, and R. C. Bailey, “Subpicogram per milliliter detection of interleukins using silicon photonic microring resonators and an enzymatic signal enhancement strategy,” Anal. Chem. 85(22), 10653–10657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible high efficiency subwavelength grating couplers for silicon integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031109 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, Y. Zou, S. Chakravarty, C. J. Yang, Z. Wang, N. Tang, D. Fan, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121103 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, and M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chakravarty, A. Hosseini, X. Xu, L. Zhu, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 191109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

L. F. Hoyt, “New table of the refractive index of pure glycerol at 20°C,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 26(3), 329–332 (1934).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Microfluid. Nanofluidics (1)

N. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, “Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Microfluid. Nanofluidics 4(1–2), 117–127 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

X. Fan and I. M. White, “Optofluidic microsystems for chemical and biological analysis,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 591–597 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Huang, H. Tian, J. Zhou, Q. Liu, P. Zhang, and Y. Ji, “Label-free optical sensor by designing a high-Q photonic crystal ring–slot structure,” Opt. Commun. 335, 73–77 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

L. C. Andreani, “Photonic bands and radiation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 234(1), 139–146 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, W. X. Wu, S. M. Grist, S. Talebi Fard, V. Donzella, P. Khumwan, E. R. Thompson, Q. Wang, P. Kulik, X. Wang, A. Sherwali, J. Kirk, K. C. Cheung, L. Chrostowski, and D. Ratner, “Improving the performance of silicon photonic rings, disks, and Bragg gratings for use in label-free biosensing,” Proc. SPIE 9166, 91660M (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Z. Wang, X. Xu, D. Fan, Y. Wang, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 24106 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Fan, I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and H. Oveys, “Overview of novel integrated optical ring resonator bio/chemical sensors,” Lasers Appl. Sci. Eng. 64520M (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design, (Cambridge University, 2015).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of the proposed SWGRTR. (b) The magnified images in xy plane in red dashed box. The magnified images of the SWG bus waveguide and the SWG racetrack waveguide in rectangular region with a blue dashed line in (c) xz plane and (d) yz plane.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electric fields intensity distribution of the TM mode with L × W × H of 140 nm × 600nm × 220nm in xy plane in red (a) and blue (b) dashed line position in Fig. 1 around 1550 nm. Electric fields intensity distribution of the TE mode with L × W × H of 140 nm × 600nm × 220nm in xy plane in red (c) and blue (d) dashed line position in Fig. 1 around 1550 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The plot of the overlap of light and matter changing with the duty cycle and width of Si pillars. (b) The plot of the coupling efficiency changing with the coupling length Lc and the gap G around 1550 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Optical microscope image of the fabricated SWGRTR with the coupling length of 6.5μm. (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of green dashed rectangular region in (a). (c) The TM mode grating coupler in (a). The magnified SEM images of (d) the left taper between strip waveguide and SWG waveguide in white dashed rectangular region, and (e) the coupling region between the SWG bus waveguide and racetrack waveguide in blue dashed rectangular region.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The testing transmission spectra of the fabricated 5 SWGRTRs with different Lc (5.5μm, 6μm, 6.5μm, 7μm, and 7.5μm) in DI water. Inset in green dashed box is the magnified resonance dips in blue dashed box, and curves were shifted deliberately to show the difference.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The results by monitoring the resonance shift for the fabricated SWGRTR with the Lc of 6.5 μm and different concentration glycerol solutions. (b) The corresponding redshift of the transmission spectra for different concentration glycerol solutions (0%, 5%, 10% and 20%). (c) The linear fitting plot of the resonance shifts.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The iDL and quality factor of the fabricated SWGRTRS with different Lc in DI water.

Equations (1)

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f= V low index ε| E |d r 3 V low index+dielectric ε| E |d r 3

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