Abstract

We demonstrate nonlinear microscopy of oriented nanowires using excitation beams with binary phase modulation. A simple and intuitive optical scheme comprising a spatial light modulator gives us the possibility to control the phase across an incident Hermite-Gaussian beam of order (1,0) (HG10 mode). This technique allows us to gradually vary the spatial distribution of the longitudinal electric fields in the focal volume, as demonstrated by second-harmonic generation from vertically-aligned GaAs nanowires. These results open new opportunities for the full control of polarization in the focal volume to enhance light interaction with nanostructured materials.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, and M. Kauranen, “Multipolar second-harmonic emission with focused Gaussian beams,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113005 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S. Brasselet, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear microscopy: application to structural molecular and biological imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(3), 205–271 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. G. Brown, “Chapter 2 - Unconventional polarization states: beam propagation, focusing, and imaging,” Prog. Opt. 56, 81–129 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Yoshiki, K. Ryosuke, M. Hashimoto, N. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, “Second-harmonic-generation microscope using eight-segment polarization-mode converter to observe three-dimensional molecular orientation,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1680–1682 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(10), 2134–2141 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Yew and C. Sheppard, “Effects of axial field components on second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1167–1174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, J. C. Shane, and M. Dantus, “Selective nonlinear optical excitation with pulses shaped by pseudorandom Galois fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 041805 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Inhomogenous polarization in scanning optical microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3919, 75–85 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. Sunney Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite-Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1–4), 21–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

An, L.

Ananias, D.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriano, D.

Araki, T.

Asatryan, A. A.

Bautista, G.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, and M. Kauranen, “Multipolar second-harmonic emission with focused Gaussian beams,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113005 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brasselet, S.

S. Brasselet, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear microscopy: application to structural molecular and biological imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(3), 205–271 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brown, T. G.

T. G. Brown, “Chapter 2 - Unconventional polarization states: beam propagation, focusing, and imaging,” Prog. Opt. 56, 81–129 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Inhomogenous polarization in scanning optical microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3919, 75–85 (2000).
[Crossref]

Carlos, L. D.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrasco, S.

Chen, Y.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, W.

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cohn, R. W.

Comstock, M.

Dantus, M.

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, J. C. Shane, and M. Dantus, “Selective nonlinear optical excitation with pulses shaped by pseudorandom Galois fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 041805 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Comstock, V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference 6; binary phase shaping,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1061–1066 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dhaka, V.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eng, L. M.

Failla, A. V.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, M.

Fourkas, J. T.

Gollmer, D. A.

Gord, J. R.

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grasso, M.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

Haggrén, T.

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, W.

Hartschuh, A.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, M.

Hashimoto, N.

Hille, A.

Horneber, A.

Hu, Q.

Huang, Z.

Huhtio, T.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huttunen, M. J.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, and M. Kauranen, “Multipolar second-harmonic emission with focused Gaussian beams,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113005 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

Kakko, J.-P.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karvonen, L.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasperczyk, M.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauppinen, E.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, and M. Kauranen, “Multipolar second-harmonic emission with focused Gaussian beams,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113005 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kern, D. P.

Kogelnik, H.

Kontio, J. M.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozawa, Y.

Lan, T.-H.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

Li, T.

Li, X.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Lin, F.

Lin, Q.

Lindfors, K.

Lippitz, M.

Lipsanen, H.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lozovoy, V.

Lozovoy, V. V.

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, J. C. Shane, and M. Dantus, “Selective nonlinear optical excitation with pulses shaped by pseudorandom Galois fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 041805 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mäkitalo, J.

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, K. Lindfors, D. Andriano, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, M. Lippitz, and M. Kauranen, “Three-dimensional winged nanocone optical antennas,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3686–3689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, and M. Kauranen, “Multipolar second-harmonic emission with focused Gaussian beams,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113005 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meixner, A. J.

P. Reichenbach, A. Horneber, D. A. Gollmer, A. Hille, J. Mihaljevic, C. Schäfer, D. P. Kern, A. J. Meixner, D. Zhang, M. Fleischer, and L. M. Eng, “Nonlinear optical point light sources through field enhancement at metallic nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15484–15501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihaljevic, J.

Naskali, L.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Novotny, L.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(1), 013903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. Sunney Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite-Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1–4), 21–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pastirk, I.

Peltonen, A.

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Person, S.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pestov, D.

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qian, H.

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichenbach, P.

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ryosuke, K.

Saleh, B. E. A.

Sánchez, E. J.

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. Sunney Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite-Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1–4), 21–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sato, S.

Schäfer, C.

Shane, J. C.

V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, J. C. Shane, and M. Dantus, “Selective nonlinear optical excitation with pulses shaped by pseudorandom Galois fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 041805 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, C.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Yew and C. Sheppard, “Effects of axial field components on second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1167–1174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. A. Asatryan, C. J. R. Sheppard, and C. M. de Sterke, “Vector treatment of second-harmonic generation produced by tightly focused vignetted Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(12), 2206–2212 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Simonen, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Third- and second-harmonic generation microscopy of individual metal nanocones using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21918–21923 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sui, G.

Sunney Xie, X.

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. Sunney Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite-Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1–4), 21–29 (1998).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

Tien, C.-H.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turquet, L.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weng, X.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Wrzesinski, P. J.

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, J. C. Shane, and M. Dantus, “Selective nonlinear optical excitation with pulses shaped by pseudorandom Galois fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 041805 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Xun, X.

Yang, Y.

Yew, E.

Yew, E. Y. S.

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshiki, K.

Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, “Inhomogenous polarization in scanning optical microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 3919, 75–85 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zang, X.

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, D.

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, W.

Zhu, H.

Zhuang, S.

Züchner, T.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

G. Bautista and M. Kauranen, “Vector-field nonlinear microscopy of nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1351–1370 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (2)

S. Brasselet, “Polarization-resolved nonlinear microscopy: application to structural molecular and biological imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(3), 205–271 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, and A. J. Meixner, “Light microscopy with doughnut modes: a concept to detect, characterize, and manipulate individual nanoobjects,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(23), 5274–5293 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

P. J. Wrzesinski, D. Pestov, V. V. Lozovoy, B. Xu, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and M. Dantus, “Binary phase shaping for selective single-beam CARS spectroscopy and imaging of gas-phase molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(3), 393–398 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

L. Turquet, J.-P. Kakko, X. Zang, L. Naskali, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, T. Huhtio, E. Kauppinen, H. Lipsanen, M. Kauranen, and G. Bautista, “Tailorable second-harmonic generation from an individual nanowire using spatially phase-shaped beams,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(1), 1600175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

J.-P. Kakko, T. Haggrén, V. Dhaka, T. Huhtio, A. Peltonen, H. Jiang, E. Kauppinen, and H. Lipsanen, “Fabrication of dual-type nanowire arrays on a single substrate,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1679–1683 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, J. Mäkitalo, Y. Chen, V. Dhaka, M. Grasso, L. Karvonen, H. Jiang, M. J. Huttunen, T. Huhtio, H. Lipsanen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1564–1569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation imaging of metal nano-objects with cylindrical vector beams,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3207–3212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Failla, H. Qian, H. Qian, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “Orientational imaging of subwavelength Au particles with higher order laser modes,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1374–1378 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, G. Bautista, and M. Kauranen, “Multipolar second-harmonic emission with focused Gaussian beams,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113005 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Y. S. Yew and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 453–457 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

E. Yew and C. Sheppard, “Effects of axial field components on second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1167–1174 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guo, X. Weng, M. Jiang, Y. Zhao, G. Sui, Q. Hu, Y. Wang, and S. Zhuang, “Tight focusing of a higher-order radially polarized beam transmitting through multi-zone binary phase pupil filters,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5363–5372 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Han, Y. Yang, W. Cheng, and Q. Zhan, “Vectorial optical field generator for the creation of arbitrarily complex fields,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20692–20706 (2013).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of typical GaAs nanowires used in the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Schematic of the optical setup (HWP: half-wave plate, PBS: polarizing beamsplitter, M: mirror, D: beam dump, SF: spatial filter, BE: beam expander, F: filter, DF: dichroic filter, L: lens, PMT: photomultiplier tube, MO: microscope objective, NA = 0.8, 50 × , S: sample, SS: stage scanner). Red lines: path of fundamental excitation beam (1060nm), green dashed lines: path of SHG signal. b) Calculated spatial distribution of longitudinal electric field of tightly focused linearly-polarized HG10 mode at the focal plane under our experiment settings (excitation wavelength of 1060 nm, NA of 0.8). The polarization of the incident HG10 mode is along x. The data were obtained using the angular spectrum approach [5]. c) Spatial intensity distribution of both the incoming and reflected HG10 mode off from the SLM when unshaped (0%) and for different π coverages (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). The additional π-phase delay applied on the left lobe starts from the center of the SLM aperture. The coverage increases from the center to the left.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG intensity maps of five vertically-aligned GaAs nanowires using a) an unshaped HG10 mode (0% coverage) and b) by applying an additional 2π delay with a 50% coverage on one lobe of the HG10 mode. The input power is 1 mW and the pixel dwell time is 50 ms. Respective phase distributions on the SLM are shown for clarity. White dash circles represent the location of the nanowires extended by white dash lines for guidelines to the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) SHG intensity maps of five vertically-aligned GaAs nanowires for different π coverages on one lobe of the HG10 mode with an additional phase delay starting from the center of the SLM aperture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% as inset). The input power is 1 mW and the pixel dwell time is 50 ms. White dash circles represent the location of the nanowires extended by white dash lines for guidelines to the eye. b) SHG intensity profiles taken for the different coverages and averaged over three line cuts centered on the nanowire as specified on the inset. The location of the nanowire is specified for clarity.

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