Abstract

The small correction volume for conventional wavefront shaping methods limits their application in biological imaging through scattering media. We demonstrate large volume wavefront shaping through a scattering layer with a single correction by conjugate adaptive optics and remote focusing (CAORF). The remote focusing module can maintain the conjugation between the adaptive optical (AO) element and the scattering layer during three-dimensional scanning. This new configuration provides a wider correction volume by better utilization of the memory effect in a fast three-dimensional laser scanning microscope. Our results show that the proposed system can provide 10 times wider axial field of view compared with a conventional conjugate AO system when 16,384 segments are used on a spatial light modulator. We also demonstrate three-dimensional fluorescence imaging, multi-spot patterning through a scattering layer and two-photon imaging through mouse skull tissue.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

J. Ryu, M. Jang, T. J. Eom, C. Yang, and E. Chung, “Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (11)

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, W. Sun, and M. Cui, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain through the intact skull,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(30), 9236–9241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Wu and M. Cui, “Numerical study of multi-conjugate large area wavefront correction for deep tissue microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7463–7470 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, H. Paudel, and T. G. Bifano, “Field of view advantage of conjugate adaptive optics in microscopy applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3498–3506 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, “Feedback-based wavefront shaping,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12189–12206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schott, J. Bertolotti, J. F. Léger, L. Bourdieu, and S. Gigan, “Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13505–13516 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tao, D. Bodington, M. Reinig, and J. Kubby, “High-speed scanning interferometric focusing by fast measurement of binary transmission matrix for channel demixing,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14168–14187 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. Galwaduge, S. H. Kim, L. E. Grosberg, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simple wavefront correction framework for two-photon microscopy of in-vivo brain,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2997–3013 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, D. R. Beaulieu, H. Paudel, R. Barankov, T. G. Bifano, and J. Mertz, “Conjugate adaptive optics in widefield microscopy with an extended-source wavefront sensor,” Optica 2(8), 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. P. Paudel, J. Taranto, J. Mertz, and T. Bifano, “Axial range of conjugate adaptive optics in two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20849–20857 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sinefeld, H. P. Paudel, D. G. Ouzounov, T. G. Bifano, and C. Xu, “Adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy: comparison of two, three and four photon fluorescence,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31472–31483 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2013 (1)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1733–1740 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional scanning microscopy through thin turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2500–2506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ghielmetti and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3744–3752 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express 20(5), 4840–4849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tao, J. Crest, S. Kotadia, O. Azucena, D. C. Chen, W. Sullivan, and J. Kubby, “Live imaging using adaptive optics with fluorescent protein guide-stars,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15969–15982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aegerter, C. M.

Azucena, O.

Barankov, R.

Beaulieu, D. R.

Bertolotti, J.

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bifano, T.

Bifano, T. G.

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bodington, D.

Booth, M. J.

Botcherby, E. J.

Bourdieu, L.

Brown, A. N.

Burns, D.

Cao, H.

S. M. Popoff, A. Goetschy, S. F. Liew, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Coherent control of total transmission of light through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133903 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrillo-Reid, L.

W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. C.

Cheng, S.

Cheng, Y.-S. L.

Chiovini, B.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, E.

J. Ryu, M. Jang, T. J. Eom, C. Yang, and E. Chung, “Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conkey, D. B.

Crest, J.

Cuenca, R.

Cui, M.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Wu and M. Cui, “Numerical study of multi-conjugate large area wavefront correction for deep tissue microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7463–7470 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, W. Sun, and M. Cui, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain through the intact skull,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(30), 9236–9241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Débarre, D.

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duemani Reddy, G.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eom, T. J.

J. Ryu, M. Jang, T. J. Eom, C. Yang, and E. Chung, “Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, B.

Fink, M.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fink, R.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, M.

Galwaduge, P. T.

Garcia, D.

Germain, R. N.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
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Girkin, J.

Goetschy, A.

S. M. Popoff, A. Goetschy, S. F. Liew, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Coherent control of total transmission of light through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133903 (2014).
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Grange, R.

Grewe, B. F.

Grosberg, L. E.

Guan, Y.

Helmchen, F.

Hillier, D.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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Hillman, E. M. C.

Horton, N. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
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Jabbour, J. M.

Jang, M.

J. Ryu, M. Jang, T. J. Eom, C. Yang, and E. Chung, “Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23494 (2016).
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N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
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Judkewitz, B.

Juskaitis, R.

Kane, C.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
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G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, “Noninvasive nonlinear focusing and imaging through strongly scattering turbid layers,” Optica 1(3), 170–174 (2014).
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O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
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G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
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Kim, S. H.

Kirkby, P. A.

Kner, P.

X. Zhang and P. Kner, “Binary wavefront optimization using a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. 16(12), 125704 (2014).
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Kobat, D.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
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L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
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Kotadia, S.

Kubby, J.

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
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Lämmermann, T.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
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Laporte, G.

Lee, P. A.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
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Léger, J. F.

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
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S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
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Li, J.

Liew, S. F.

S. M. Popoff, A. Goetschy, S. F. Liew, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Coherent control of total transmission of light through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133903 (2014).
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Lin, C. P.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
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Lin, H.

Little, J. P.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
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G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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Malik, B. H.

Marsh, P.

Mertz, J.

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
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W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
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Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
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Ouzounov, D. G.

Paninski, L.

W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
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Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, W. Sun, and M. Cui, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain through the intact skull,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(30), 9236–9241 (2015).
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Paudel, H.

Paudel, H. P.

Peterka, D. S.

W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
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Pnevmatikakis, E.

W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
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S. M. Popoff, A. Goetschy, S. F. Liew, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Coherent control of total transmission of light through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133903 (2014).
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S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
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Pu, Y.

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I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
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G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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Rózsa, B.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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Ryu, J.

J. Ryu, M. Jang, T. J. Eom, C. Yang, and E. Chung, “Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23494 (2016).
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G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, “Noninvasive nonlinear focusing and imaging through strongly scattering turbid layers,” Optica 1(3), 170–174 (2014).
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O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
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Silver, R. A.

Sinefeld, D.

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Guan, and Y. Silberberg, “Noninvasive nonlinear focusing and imaging through strongly scattering turbid layers,” Optica 1(3), 170–174 (2014).
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O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
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Srinivas, S.

Srinivas Nadella, K. M.

Stone, A. D.

S. M. Popoff, A. Goetschy, S. F. Liew, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Coherent control of total transmission of light through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(13), 133903 (2014).
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Sun, W.

J. H. Park, W. Sun, and M. Cui, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain through the intact skull,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(30), 9236–9241 (2015).
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G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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Tang, J.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
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J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
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Taranto, J.

van ’t Hoff, M.

Vellekoop, I. M.

Veress, M.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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Wang, J. W.

Wang, K.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Wu, T. W.

Xu, C.

D. Sinefeld, H. P. Paudel, D. G. Ouzounov, T. G. Bifano, and C. Xu, “Adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy: comparison of two, three and four photon fluorescence,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31472–31483 (2015).
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D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
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J. Ryu, M. Jang, T. J. Eom, C. Yang, and E. Chung, “Optical phase conjugation assisted scattering lens: variable focusing and 3D patterning,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23494 (2016).
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W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
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Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
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W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
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Zuo, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Kobat, N. G. Horton, and C. Xu, “In vivo two-photon microscopy to 1.6-mm depth in mouse cortex,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106014 (2011).
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J. Opt. (1)

X. Zhang and P. Kner, “Binary wavefront optimization using a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. 16(12), 125704 (2014).
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Nat. Methods (4)

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N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
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Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

W. Yang, J. E. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, R. Yuste, and D. S. Peterka, “Simultaneous Multi-plane Imaging of Neural Circuits,” Neuron 89(2), 269–284 (2016).
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Opt. Express (15)

P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, “Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1123–1130 (2003).
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D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1733–1740 (2012).
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X. Yang, C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional scanning microscopy through thin turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2500–2506 (2012).
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G. Ghielmetti and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3744–3752 (2012).
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D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express 20(5), 4840–4849 (2012).
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X. Tao, J. Crest, S. Kotadia, O. Azucena, D. C. Chen, W. Sullivan, and J. Kubby, “Live imaging using adaptive optics with fluorescent protein guide-stars,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15969–15982 (2012).
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M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
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P. A. Kirkby, K. M. Srinivas Nadella, and R. A. Silver, “A compact Acousto-Optic Lens for 2D and 3D femtosecond based 2-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13720–13745 (2010).
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C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, G. Laporte, and D. Psaltis, “Imaging through turbid layers by scanning the phase conjugated second harmonic radiation from a nanoparticle,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20723–20731 (2010).
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H. P. Paudel, J. Taranto, J. Mertz, and T. Bifano, “Axial range of conjugate adaptive optics in two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20849–20857 (2015).
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D. Sinefeld, H. P. Paudel, D. G. Ouzounov, T. G. Bifano, and C. Xu, “Adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy: comparison of two, three and four photon fluorescence,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31472–31483 (2015).
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T. W. Wu and M. Cui, “Numerical study of multi-conjugate large area wavefront correction for deep tissue microscopy,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7463–7470 (2015).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of AO laser scanning systems. (a) Pupil AO. The SLM is conjugated with the pupil plane. The projected wavefront at the scattering layer moves with the scanning beam. The effective number of segments decreases with the axial shift. (b) Conjugate AO (CAO). The SLM is located at the plane that is conjugate to the scattering layer. The projected phase changes with the axial shift. (c) CAO and remote focusing (CAORF). The projected phase on the scattering layer does not change during three-dimensional scanning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup. A lens (L1) collimates the laser beam from a 488nm solid-state laser. A lens (L2) installed on a three-axis translation stage works as a remote focusing (RF) and two-dimensional (2D) scanning module. The conjugate AO module consists of a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a folding mirror (M1), which are installed on a single-axis translation stage. The lens (L3) and an objective lens (O1) image the SLM plane onto the scattering lay. The light is collected by another objective lens (O2) and focused by a lens (L4) on a CCD camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavefront shaping by measuring the transmission matrix. (a) The whole aperture is randomly divided into two groups of segments. (b) The optimal phase of the first group after the transmission matrix measurement. (c) After the optimal phase for the second group of segments is achieved, the combined phase mask is displayed on the SLM. The image before correction, after the first correction and after the second correction are shown in (d), (e) and (f) respectively. The scale bar is 5 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field of view analysis for 3d scanning for CAORF (a) and CAO without RF (b). The normalized intensity of the focal spot scanning along the X-Z plane for these two configurations are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. (e) The normalized intensity of the focal spot along the center of the field versus the axial shift. The red and blue dashed curves show measurement results for CAORF and CAO, respectively. The simulation of CAORF (a) is indicated by the blue curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of the axial shift on the normalized intensity of the focal spot for different numbers of segments with CAORF and CAO. The measurements with CAORF and CAO are indicated by triangles and squares. The solid curves shows the simulation results in each case. The results for 1024, 4096 and 16,384 segments are indicated by blue, red and green, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Images of the focal spot at different focal planes for CAO and CAORF. (b) The full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the focal spot at different focal distances. The measurements for CAO and CAORF are indicated by blue and red lines. The theoretical resolution is indicated by the green line. The scale bar is 2µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Axial scanning of 3d patterns with RF. (a) Two patterns at two focal planes (Z = 0 µm and 120 µm) are generated simultaneously by combing two phase masks. The remote focusing module shifts the focal plane with a range of 120 µm. (b) The corresponding images at different focal planes are captured by the CCD camera. (c) The average intensity enhancement of the focal spots at different depth. The scale bar is 10 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of 3d fluorescent imaging with CAO and CAORF. (a) The sample is placed 2mm behind the scattering layer. The beam is translated in the X-Y plane by the 2d scanning module. The emission light is collected by the detector, which gives the intensity information for each scan position to generate a 2d image. (b) The image without wavefront shaping. (c) The images at depths of 0 µm, 50 µm, 100 µm and 150 µm without RF. The depth is adjusted by moving the scattering layer. (d) The images at depths of 100 µm, 200 µm, 300 µm and 500 µm with CAORF. The depth is adjusted by the remote focusing module. (e) and (f) Enlarged views of the areas highlighted in (c) and (d), respectively. (g) The transmission microscope image of the same area. The scale bar is 50µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two-photon imaging of fluorescent microspheres through a mouse skull. (a) A schematic diagram of the imaging configuration. A piece of mouse skull is mounted on a 170 µm thick coverslip. Agarose gel with a thickness of 3mm is sandwiched between two coverslips. The initial correction is applied on the microspheres just below the first coverslip. (b) The phase for compensation of the scattering. (c) The images of microspheres at the top of the agarose gel (depth = 0 µm) with and without correction. The green boxes indicate the enlarged view. (d) Images at depths of 14 µm, 36 µm and 42 µm with the CAORF system and the conventional CAO system. (e) The intensity profile along the line indicated in (d). The scale bar is 5 µm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effective segments change due to the conjugation error from an axial shift. (a) & (b) show the effective segments in one and two dimensional space, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculation of the correlation function based on the memory effect. (a) The original configuration using an angular FOV. (b) The general configuration for three-dimensional scanning.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Normalized intensity versus lateral shift and (b) Normalized intensity along the X and Z plane.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

System setup diagram. (a) The setup used for system evaluation. A lens (L1) collimates the laser beam from a 488nm solid-state laser. A lens (L2) installed on a three-axis translation stage works as a remote focusing (RF) and two-dimensional (2D) scanning module. The conjugate AO module consists of a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a folding mirror (M1), which are installed on a single-axis translation stage. The lens (L3) and an objective lens (O1) image the SLM plane onto the scattering layer. The light is collected by another objective lens (O2) and focused by a lens (L4) onto a CCD camera. (b) The additional modification for two-photon imaging through a mouse skull sample. Two galvanometers are used for fast scanning. L5 and L6 are relay lenses between the two scanners. Lens L7 and L8 direct the beam to the remote focusing lens (L2). A photomultiplier (PMT) and a dichroic mirror (D1) are added to the system to collect the emission light from the sample.

Equations (12)

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X FOV ~2 σ SLM ,
η Δz ~ ( n α n,Δz N ) 2 ,
Z FOV ~2Z X FOV /D,
t obs i = ( I i 0 I i π ) /4 + ( I i 3π/2 I i π/2 ) /4 .
E in = T obs ' / | T obs ' | ,
E out =T E in = n t n E in n ,
E ideal =A n | t n | .
E Δz =A n α n,Δz | t n | ,
η Δz = E Δz 2 E ideal 2 ~ ( n α n,Δz N ) 2 .
C θ (θ,L)= kθL sinh(kθL) ,
ϕ= k ρ 2 Δ z 2Z(Z Δ z ) + k(x Δ x +y Δ y ) Z
C x,y,z ( Δ x , Δ y , Δ z )= C θ ( dϕ dρ ,L)dxdy C θ (0,L)dxdy

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