Abstract

We present an approach to fabrication and packaging of integrated photonic devices that utilizes waveguide and detector layers deposited at near-ambient temperature. All lithography is performed with a 365 nm i-line stepper, facilitating low cost and high scalability. We have shown low-loss SiN waveguides, high-Q ring resonators, critically coupled ring resonators, 50/50 beam splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) and a process-agnostic fiber packaging scheme. We have further explored the utility of this process for applications in nonlinear optics and quantum photonics. We demonstrate spectral tailoring and octave-spanning supercontinuum generation as well as the integration of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with MZIs and channel-dropping filters. The packaging approach is suitable for operation up to 160 °C as well as below 1 K. The process is well suited for augmentation of existing foundry capabilities or as a stand-alone process.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

J. M. Shainline, S. M. Buckley, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting optoelectronic circuits for neuromorphic computing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 034013 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

2015 (15)

A. S. Mayer, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset detection using supercontinuum generation is silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 015440 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single-photon detectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5873 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Akhlaghi, E. Schelew, and J. F. Young, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors implemented as near-perfect absorbers of coherent radiation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8233 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Goltsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, J.-W. Weber, I. Agafonov, M. A. Verheijen, F. Mattioli, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, M. C. M. van de Sanden, R. Leoni, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on GaAs and the study of their optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Casaburi, R. Heath, M. Ejrnaes, C. Nappi, R. Cristiano, and R. Hadfield, “Experimental evidence for photoinduced vortex crossing in current carrying superconducting strips,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214512 (2015).
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D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, D. Calhoun, A. Li, R. Hendry, P. Samadi, and K. Bergman, “Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 23, 1159 (2015).
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S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, R. Hendry, Q. Li, D. Calhoun, and K. Bergman, “Silicon photonics for exascale systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 547 (2015).
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C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534 (2015).
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K. A. Williams, E. A. J. M Bente, D. Heiss, Y. Jiao, K. Lawniczuk, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. J. G. M van der Tol, and M. K. Smit, “InP photonic circuits using generic integration”, Photon. Res. 3, B60 (2015).
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K. Wörhoff, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “TriPleX: a versatile dielectric photonic platform”, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 189 (2015).

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Comm. 344, 129 (2015).
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C. Doerr, “Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications,” Front. Phys. 3, 37 (2015).
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2014 (8)

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, R. Kou, T. Hiraki, K. Takeda, H. Fukuda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and T. Yamamoto, “High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 024603 (2014).
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A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 8300112 (2014).
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W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 1277 (2014).
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R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kamei, “Sub-1 dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22, 4779 (2014).
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H. A. Atikian, A. Eftekharian, A. Jafari Salim, M. J. Burek, J. T. Choy, A. Hamed Majedi, and M. Lončar, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detector on diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 122602 (2014).
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R. K. W. Lau, M. R. E. Lamont, A. G. Griffith, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4518 (2014).
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T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–18 (2014).
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J. M. C. Boggio, D. Bodenmüller, T. Fremberg, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, R. Eisermann, M. Lisker, L. Zimmermann, and M. Böhm, “Dispersion engineered silicon nitride waveguides by geometrical and refractive-index optimization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2846 (2014).
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2013 (7)

J. D. Cohen, S. M. Meenehan, and O. Painter, “Optical coupling to nanoscale optomechanical cavities for near quantum-limited motion transduction,” Opt. Express 21, 11227 (2013).
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D. Liu, L. You, S. Chen, X. Yang, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Electrical characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23, 2200804 (2013).
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A. Casaburi, R. Heath, M. Tanner, R. Cristiano, M. Ejrnaes, C. Nappi, and R. Hadfield, “Current distribution in a parallel configuration superconducting strip-line detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 013503 (2013).
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F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
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Y. H. D. Lee and M. Lipson, “Back-End Deposited Silicon Photonics for Monolithic Integration on CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8200207 (2013).
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J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, M. J. R. Heck, J. K. Doylend, A. Chen, A. W. Fang, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon on ultra-low-loss waveguide photonic integration platform,” Opt. Express 21, 544 (2013).
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D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 597–607 (2013).
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2012 (6)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials 14, 1021 (2012).
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W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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C. Natarajan, M. Tanner, and R. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Tech. 25, 063001 (2012).
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S. Jahanmirinejad and A. Fiore, “Proposal for a superconducting photon number resolving detector with large dynamic range,” Opt. Express 20, 5017 (2012).
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M. G. Tanner, L. S. E. Alvarez, W. Jiang, R. J. Warburton, Z. H. Barber, and R. H. Hadfield, “A superconducting nanowire single photon detector on lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 23, 505201 (2012).
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J. Orcutt, S. Tang, S. Kramer, K. Mehta, H. Li, V. Stojanović, and R. Ram, “Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process,” Opt. Express 20, 7243 (2012).
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2011 (9)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A Grating-Coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
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Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398 (2011).
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P. Cavalier, J.-C. VilleÌĄgier, P. Feautrier, C. Constancias, and A. Morand, “Light interference detection on-chip by integrated SNSPD counters,” AIP Adv. 1, 042120 (2011).
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B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting a-Wx Si1−x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251105 (2011).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. HoÌĹfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181110 (2011).
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A. Biberman, K. Preston, G. Hendry, N. Sherwood-Droz, J. Chan, J. S. Levy, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Photonic network-on-chip architectures using multilayer deposited silicon materials for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” ACM J. Emerg. Technol. Comput. Syst. 7, 1–25 (2011).
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N. Sherwood-Droz and M. Lipson, “Scalable 3D dense integration of photonics on bulk silicon,” Opt. Express 19, 17758 (2011).
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J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. John, D. Dai, M.-C. Tien, J. S. Barton, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 3163 (2011).
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F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, J. Rahn, M. V. Leeuwen, J. Stewart, D. Lambert, R. Muthiah, H.-S. Tsai, J. Bostak, A. Dentai, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, D. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. Taylor, R. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strezelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. T. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, and S. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1470 (2011).
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2010 (4)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1461–1463 (2010).
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S. Zhu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18, 25283 (2010).
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A. Washburn, M. Luchansky, A. Bowman, and R. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69 (2010).
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S. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51 (2010).
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2009 (5)

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
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F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11, 045022 (2009).
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A. Kerman, J. Yang, R. Molnar, E. Dauler, and K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 100509 (2009).
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N. Jokerst, M. Royal, S. Palit, L. Luan, S. Dhar, and T. Tyler, “Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems,” J. Biophotonics 2, 212 (2009).
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A. Washburn, L. Gunn, and R. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499 (2009).
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2008 (3)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
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G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kazmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328 (2008).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photon. 2, 302 (2008).
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2007 (3)

J. Yang, A. Kerman, E. Dauler, V. Anant, K. Rosfjord, and K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 581 (2007).
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Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 16604 (2007).
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K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Optical fiber taper coupling and high-resolution wavelength tuning of microdisk resonators at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031114 (2007).
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2006 (3)

J. Hall, “Defining and measuring optical frequencies,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279 (2006).
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G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
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R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
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2003 (1)

M. Fitch, B. Jacobs, T. Pittman, and J. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003).
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2001 (2)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
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G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
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2000 (1)

S. Diddams, D. Jones, J. Ye, S. Cundiff, J. Hall, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
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Agafonov, I.

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, J.-W. Weber, I. Agafonov, M. A. Verheijen, F. Mattioli, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, M. C. M. van de Sanden, R. Leoni, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on GaAs and the study of their optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–10 (2015).
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Agashe, K. T. S.

F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, J. Rahn, M. V. Leeuwen, J. Stewart, D. Lambert, R. Muthiah, H.-S. Tsai, J. Bostak, A. Dentai, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, D. Pavinski, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. Taylor, R. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strezelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. T. S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, and S. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1470 (2011).
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Agrawal, G. P.

Akhlaghi, M. K.

M. K. Akhlaghi, E. Schelew, and J. F. Young, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors implemented as near-perfect absorbers of coherent radiation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8233 (2015).
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Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534 (2015).
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Alvarez, L. S. E.

M. G. Tanner, L. S. E. Alvarez, W. Jiang, R. J. Warburton, Z. H. Barber, and R. H. Hadfield, “A superconducting nanowire single photon detector on lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 23, 505201 (2012).
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Anant, V.

J. Yang, A. Kerman, E. Dauler, V. Anant, K. Rosfjord, and K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 581 (2007).
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Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
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Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534 (2015).
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Assefa, S.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single-photon detectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5873 (2015).
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Atabaki, A.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534 (2015).
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Atikian, H. A.

H. A. Atikian, A. Eftekharian, A. Jafari Salim, M. J. Burek, J. T. Choy, A. Hamed Majedi, and M. Lončar, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detector on diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 122602 (2014).
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Avizienis, R.

C. Sun, M. Wade, Y. Lee, J. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. Georgas, A. Waterman, J. Shainline, R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. Atabaki, H. Cook, A. Ou, J. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528, 534 (2015).
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Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
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B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting a-Wx Si1−x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251105 (2011).
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Baets, R.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
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G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14, 11622 (2006).
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Bailey, R.

A. Washburn, M. Luchansky, A. Bowman, and R. Bailey, “Quantitative, label-free detection of five protein biomarkers using multiplexed arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 82, 69 (2010).
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A. Washburn, L. Gunn, and R. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499 (2009).
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Barber, Z. H.

M. G. Tanner, L. S. E. Alvarez, W. Jiang, R. J. Warburton, Z. H. Barber, and R. H. Hadfield, “A superconducting nanowire single photon detector on lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 23, 505201 (2012).
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Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326, 681 (2009).
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Barton, J. S.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz and Y. Taira, “Low-cost interfacing of fibers to nanophotonic waveguides: design for fabrication and assembly tolerances,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–18 (2014).
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Baumann, E.

L. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschênes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
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Bauters, J. F.

Beetz, J.

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, J.-W. Weber, I. Agafonov, M. A. Verheijen, F. Mattioli, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Hofling, M. C. M. van de Sanden, R. Leoni, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on GaAs and the study of their optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–10 (2015).
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J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. HoÌĹfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181110 (2011).
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Bellei, F.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of single-photon detectors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5873 (2015).
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Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photon. 2, 302 (2008).
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Berggren, K.

A. Kerman, J. Yang, R. Molnar, E. Dauler, and K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 100509 (2009).
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J. Yang, A. Kerman, E. Dauler, V. Anant, K. Rosfjord, and K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 581 (2007).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the layers used in this fabrication process. The inset shows the index of refraction of the SiN waveguide layer as measured with spectroscopic ellipsometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscope image of a fabricated grating. The period is 1.4 μm, and the duty cycle is 60 %. (b) Spectral response of a single ring with outer radius of 60 μm, width of 1.5 μm coupled to a waveguide between two gratings. The coupling bus has a width of 1.5 μm, and the ring-bus gap is 610 nm. (c) Spectrum of four rings achieving close to critical coupling with outer radii of 120 μm. (d) A single ring with small ring-bus gap for critical coupling. (e) Microscope image of a ring-bus coupler. (f) Fitted resonance for weakly coupled ring resonator. (g) Spectrum of the unbalanced MZI. (h) Optical microscope image of the MZI. (c) and (g) are normalized to the peak of the grating response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A fabricated and diced wafer. (b) A focus-stacked image of a single die (1 cm2). (c) Optical microscope image of the fiber collar and pedestal above a SiN grating. (d) The fully packaged die prepared for mounting in a cryostat.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) GVD curves for 700 nm thick SiN waveguides with air over-cladding for different waveguide widths. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of paperclip waveguide structures for measuring propagation losses. (c) Tapered waveguide for edge-coupling.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Supercontinuum generation from a 960 nm wide waveguide. (b) Supercontinuum from a 2.1 μm wide waveguide. Light is coupled out of the waveguide into a single-mode fiber and into an optical spectrum analyzer where the power is measured. For both of these measurements, the peak laser power was 5.25 kW, the repetition rate was 200 MHz, and the average power was 63 mW. The resolution of the optical spectrum analyzer was 2 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical microscope image of an MZI. Between the two input ports, a waveguide tapping 10% of the light before entering the MZI is used to optimize fiber alignment at room temperature. (b) Optical microscope image of a waveguide-integrated detector. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of the tip of a waveguide-integrated SNSPD. (d) Response of a single detector versus bias current for various optical powers. (e) Measurements of waveguide-integrated SNSPDs at the output ports of an MZI.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Optical microscope image of four ring filters dropping to detectors. (b) Spectrum of the device.

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